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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Available evidence on the comparative efficacy and acceptability of psychotherapies for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare and rank the different types and formats of psychotherapies for PTSD in children and adolescents. METHODS: We searched eight databases and other international registers up to 31 December 2020. The pairwise meta-analyses and frequentist network meta-analyses estimated pooled standardised mean differences (SMDs) and ORs with random-effects model. Efficacy at post-treatment and follow-up, acceptability, depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured. FINDINGS: We included 56 randomised controlled trials with 5327 patients comparing 14 different types of psychotherapies and 3 control conditions. For efficacy, cognitive processing therapy (CPT), behavioural therapy (BT), individual trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy (TF-CBT), eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing, and group TF-CBT were significantly superior to all control conditions at post-treatment and follow-up (SMDs between -2.42 and -0.25). Moreover, CPT, BT and individual TF-CBT were more effective than supportive therapy (SMDs between -1.92 and -0.49). Results for depressive and anxiety symptoms were similar to the findings for the primary outcome. Most of the results were rated as 'moderate' to 'very low' in terms of confidence of evidence. CONCLUSIONS: CPT, BT and individual TF-CBT appear to be the best choices of psychotherapy for PTSD in young patients. Other types and different ways of delivering psychological treatment can be alternative options. Clinicians should consider the importance of each outcome and the patients' preferences in real clinical practice.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611729

RESUMO

Meta-analyses show that psychotherapies are effective in the treatment of depression in children and adolescents. However, these effects are usually reported in terms of effect sizes. For patients and clinicians, it is important to know whether patients achieve a clinically significant improvement or deterioration. We conducted such a meta-analysis to examine response, clinically significant change, clinically significant deterioration and recovery as outcomes. We searched four bibliographic databases and included 40 randomised trials comparing psychotherapy for youth depression against control conditions. We used a validated method to estimate outcome rates, based on means, standard deviation and N at baseline and post-test. We also calculated numbers-need-to- treat (NNT). The overall response rate in psychotherapies at 2 (±1) months after baseline was 39% (95% CI: 34-45) and 24% (95% CI: 0.19-28) in control conditions (NNT: 6.2). The difference between therapy and control was still significant at 6-12 months after baseline (NNT=7.8). Clinically significant improvement was found in 54% of youth in therapy, compared with 32% in control groups (NNT=5.3); clinically significant deterioration was 6% in therapy, 13% in controls (NNT=5.1); recovery was 58% in therapy, 36% in controls (NNT=3.3). Smaller effects were found in studies with low risk of bias. Psychotherapies for depression in youth are effective compared to control conditions, but more than 60% of youth receiving therapy do not respond. More effective treatments and treatment strategies are clearly needed. Trial registration https://osf.io/84xka.

3.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e63, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632978

RESUMO

Research on the effectiveness of mental health and psychosocial support interventions for common mental disorders in global mental health provides controversial results. These results are based on mean values for different groups, often without due consideration of individual-level characteristics and contextual factors. Against this background, and based on the recent development of a precision theoretical framework in clinical psychology, which is calling for a renewed perspective on the development and implementation of trial designs, we propose to develop a precision psychology paradigm in global mental health, with emphasis not only on individual clinical and socio-demographic data, but also on the social determinants of mental health. A precision psychology paradigm would require a coordinated action of academics, stakeholders and humanitarian workers in planning a global mental health research agenda, including the design of trials aimed at reliably approximate prediction of intervention response at individual level.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Saúde Global , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 440, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evaluation of treatment outcomes is important for service providers to assess if there is improvement or not. The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) was developed for this use in child and adolescent mental health services. Outcome measurement in routine mental health services is limited. This paper evaluates the psychometric properties of the self and clinician rated versions of the HoNOSCA for routine use in child and adolescent mental health services in Kenya. METHODS: Using a prospective design, the clinician- and self-rated versions of the HoNOSCA and the Paediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) were administered at the Youth Centre at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi. Initial ratings were obtained from adolescents 12-17 years (n = 201). A sample of 98 paired ratings with 2 follow-ups were examined for measurement of change over time. RESULTS: Our findings showed good reliability with the self-rated version of the HoNOSCA score, correlating well with the self-reported version of the PSC (r = .74, p < .001). Both versions correlated well at follow-up and were sensitive to change. Using factor analysis, the maximum likelihood factoring and Promax rotation resulted in a four-factor structure, which with a Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy of 0.8 explained 54.74% of total variance. CONCLUSION: The HoNOSCA appears to be of value, and easy to use in routine settings. Our findings suggest further investigation with a larger sample.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Quênia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003778, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychosocial interventions for adolescent mental health problems are effective, but evidence on their longer-term outcomes is scarce, especially in low-resource settings. We report on the 12-month sustained effectiveness and costs of scaling up a lay counselor-delivered, transdiagnostic problem-solving intervention for common adolescent mental health problems in low-income schools in New Delhi, India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants in the original trial were 250 school-going adolescents (mean [M] age = 15.61 years, standard deviation [SD] = 1.68), including 174 (69.6%) who identified as male. Participants were recruited from 6 government schools over a period of 4 months (August 20 to December 14, 2018) and were selected on the basis of elevated mental health symptoms and distress/functional impairment. A 2-arm, randomized controlled trial design was used to examine the effectiveness of a lay counselor-delivered, problem-solving intervention (4 to 5 sessions over 3 weeks) with supporting printed booklets (intervention arm) in comparison with problem solving delivered via printed booklets alone (control arm), at the original endpoints of 6 and 12 weeks. The protocol was modified, as per the recommendation of the Trial Steering Committee, to include a post hoc extension of the follow-up period to 12 months. Primary outcomes were adolescent-reported psychosocial problems (Youth Top Problems [YTP]) and mental health symptoms (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [SDQ] Total Difficulties scale). Other self-reported outcomes included SDQ subscales, perceived stress, well-being, and remission. The sustained effects of the intervention were estimated at the 12-month endpoint and over 12 months (the latter assumed a constant effect across 3 follow-up points) using a linear mixed model for repeated measures and involving complete case analysis. Sensitivity analyses examined the effect of missing data using multiple imputations. Costs were estimated for delivering the intervention during the trial and from modeling a scale-up scenario, using a retrospective ingredients approach. Out of the 250 original trial participants, 176 (70.4%) adolescents participated in the 12-month follow-up assessment. One adverse event was identified during follow-up and deemed unrelated to the intervention. Evidence was found for intervention effects on both SDQ Total Difficulties and YTP at 12 months (YTP: adjusted mean difference [AMD] = -0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.47, -0.03, p = 0.04; SDQ Total Difficulties: AMD = -1.73, 95% CI = -3.47, 0.02, p = 0.05), with stronger effects over 12 months (YTP: AMD = -0.98, 95% CI = -1.51, -0.45, p < 0.001; SDQ Total Difficulties: AMD = -1.23, 95% CI = -2.37, -0.09; p = 0.03). There was also evidence for intervention effects on internalizing symptoms, impairment, perceived stress, and well-being over 12 months. The intervention effect was stable for most outcomes on sensitivity analyses adjusting for missing data; however, for SDQ Total Difficulties and impairment, the effect was slightly attenuated. The per-student cost of delivering the intervention during the trial was $3 United States dollars (USD; or $158 USD per case) and for scaling up the intervention in the modeled scenario was $4 USD (or $23 USD per case). The scaling up cost accounted for 0.4% of the per-student school budget in New Delhi. The main limitations of the study's methodology were the lack of sample size calculations powered for 12-month follow-up and the absence of cost-effectiveness analyses using the primary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that a lay counselor-delivered, brief transdiagnostic problem-solving intervention had sustained effects on psychosocial problems and mental health symptoms over the 12-month follow-up period. Scaling up this resource-efficient intervention is an affordable policy goal for improving adolescents' access to mental health care in low-resource settings. The findings need to be interpreted with caution, as this study was a post hoc extension, and thus, the sample size calculations did not take into account the relatively high attrition rate observed during the long-term follow-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03630471.

6.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(10): e30339, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: "POD Adventures" is a gamified mental health intervention delivered via a smartphone app and supported by counsellors for a target population of secondary school students in India. This paper describes the protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial of a remotely delivered version of the intervention in the context of COVID-19 restrictions. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives are to assess the feasibility of research procedures and intervention delivery and to generate preliminary estimates of the effectiveness of the intervention to inform the sample size calculation of a full-scale trial. METHODS: We will conduct a parallel, 2-arm, individually randomized pilot controlled trial in 11 secondary schools in Goa, India. This pilot trial aims to recruit 70 participants with a felt need for psychological support. Participants will receive either the POD Adventures intervention delivered over 4 weeks or usual care comprising information about local mental health services and national helplines. Outcomes will be assessed at two timepoints: baseline and 6 weeks post randomization. RESULTS: The first participant was enrolled on January 28, 2021, and 6-week assessment completed on April 4, 2021. Owing to a second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India, schools in Goa were closed on April 22, 2021. Trial participants are currently receiving the intervention or completing follow-up assessments. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot trial will help understand the feasibility of implementing and evaluating a remotely delivered digital mental health intervention in a low-resource setting. Our findings will be used to design future trials that can address difficulties of accessing psychosocial support in-person and support wider efforts to scale up evidence-based mental health interventions for young people. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04672486; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04672486. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/30339.

7.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 26(4): 381-382, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555868

RESUMO

The article by Aboujaoude and Gega has made it clear that the internet is associated with new mental health problems, such as internet addiction, and an increase in existing mental health problems, like gambling and compulsive buying, as well as wider issues such as safeguarding and privacy. One question is, however, whether the internet is a causal factor in the incidence of new mental disorders. It is also possible that the people who develop an internet-related disorder would have developed another disorder if the internet would not have existed. The vulnerability-stress model says that a mental disorder is the result of an interaction between the vulnerability of an individual and the stress caused by life experiences of this person. Nobody will develop a mental disorder without being vulnerable for it. According to this model, it can be expected that most people would indeed have developed another disorder if the internet would not have existed. Unfortunately, it is impossible to examine whether the internet-related mental health problems increase the overall prevalence of mental disorders or not.

8.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; : e13497, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The web-based application Oncokompas was developed to support cancer patients to self-manage their symptoms. This qualitative study was conducted to obtain insight in patients' self-management strategies to cope with cancer and their experiences with Oncokompas as a fully automated behavioural intervention technology. METHODS: Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with 22 participants (10 head and neck cancer survivors and 12 incurably ill patients). Interview questions were about self-management strategies and experiences with Oncokompas. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participants applied several self-management strategies, among which trying to stay in control and make the best of their situation. They described Oncokompas' added value: being able to monitor symptoms and having access to a personal online library. Main reasons for not using Oncokompas were concentration problems, lack of time or having technical issues. Recommendations were made for further development of Oncokompas, relating to its content, technical and functional aspects. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors and incurably ill patients use various self-management strategies to cope with cancer. The objectives of self-management interventions as Oncokompas correspond well with these strategies: taking a certain responsibility for your well-being and being in charge of your life as long as possible by obtaining automated information (24/7) on symptoms and tailored supportive care options.

9.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 166, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399698

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Knowledge regarding symptom clusters may inform targeted interventions. The current study investigated symptom clusters among cancer survivors, using machine learning techniques on a large data set. METHODS: Data consisted of self-reports of cancer survivors who used a fully automated online application 'Oncokompas' that supports them in their self-management. This is done by 1) monitoring their symptoms through patient reported outcome measures (PROMs); and 2) providing a personalized overview of supportive care options tailored to their scores, aiming to reduce symptom burden and improve health-related quality of life. In the present study, data on 26 generic symptoms (physical and psychosocial) were used. Results of the PROM of each symptom are presented to the user as a no well-being risk, moderate well-being risk, or high well-being risk score. Data of 1032 cancer survivors were analysed using Hierarchical Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (HDBSCAN) on high risk scores and moderate-to-high risk scores separately. RESULTS: When analyzing the high risk scores, seven clusters were extracted: one main cluster which contained most frequently occurring physical and psychosocial symptoms, and six subclusters with different combinations of these symptoms. When analyzing moderate-to-high risk scores, three clusters were extracted: two main clusters were identified, which separated physical symptoms (and their consequences) and psycho-social symptoms, and one subcluster with only body weight issues. CONCLUSION: There appears to be an inherent difference on the co-occurrence of symptoms dependent on symptom severity. Among survivors with high risk scores, the data showed a clustering of more connections between physical and psycho-social symptoms in separate subclusters. Among survivors with moderate-to-high risk scores, we observed less connections in the clustering between physical and psycho-social symptoms.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias , Autogestão , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Neoplasias/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Síndrome
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424350

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the associations of childhood adversities (CAs) with lifetime onset and transitions across suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB) among incoming college students. METHODS: Web-based self-report surveys administered to 20,842 incoming college students from nine countries (response rate 45.6%) assessed lifetime suicidal ideation, plans and attempts along with seven CAs: parental psychopathology, three types of abuse (emotional, physical, sexual), neglect, bully victimization, and dating violence. Logistic regression estimated individual- and population-level associations using CA operationalizations for type, number, severity, and frequency. RESULTS: Associations of CAs with lifetime ideation and the transition from ideation to plan were best explained by the exact number of CA types (OR range 1.32-52.30 for exactly two to seven CAs). Associations of CAs with a transition to attempts were best explained by the frequency of specific CA types (scaled 0-4). Attempts among ideators with a plan were significantly associated with all seven CAs (OR range 1.16-1.59) and associations remained significant in adjusted analyses with the frequency of sexual abuse (OR = 1.42), dating violence (OR = 1.29), physical abuse (OR = 1.17) and bully victimization (OR = 1.17). Attempts among ideators without plan were significantly associated with frequency of emotional abuse (OR = 1.29) and bully victimization (OR = 1.36), in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Population attributable risk simulations found 63% of ideation and 30-47% of STB transitions associated with CAs. CONCLUSION: Early-life adversities represent a potentially important driver in explaining lifetime STB among incoming college students. Comprehensive intervention strategies that prevent or reduce the negative effects of CAs may reduce subsequent onset of STB.

11.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1947003, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377358

RESUMO

Background: Refugee youth experience hardships associated with exposure to trauma in their homelands and during and after displacement, which results in higher rates of common mental disorders. The World Health Organization (WHO) developed Problem Management Plus (PM+), a non-specialist-delivered brief psychological intervention, for individuals who have faced adversity. PM+ comprises problem-solving, stress management, behavioural activation and strengthening social support. However, it does not include an emotional processing component, which is indicated in trauma-exposed populations. Objective: This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of PM+, adapted to Syrian, Eritrean and Iraqi refugee youth residing in the Netherlands, with and without a newly developed Emotional Processing (EP) Module. Methods: Refugee youth (N = 90) between 16 and 25 years of age will be randomized into PM+ with care-as-usual (CAU), (n = 30), PM+ with Emotional Processing (PM+EP) with CAU (n = 30) or CAU only (n = 30). Inclusion criteria are self-reported psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale; K10 > 15) and impaired daily functioning (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule; WHODAS 2.0 > 16). Participants will be assessed at baseline, one-week post-intervention and three-month follow-up. The main outcome is the feasibility and acceptability of the adapted PM+ and PM+EP. The secondary outcomes are self-reported psychological distress, functional impairment, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and diagnosis, social support, and self-identified problems. The pilot RCT will be succeeded by a process evaluation including trial participants, participants' significant others, helpers, and mental health professionals (n = 20) to evaluate their experiences with the PM+ and PM+EP programmes. Results and Conclusion: This is the first study that evaluates the feasibility of PM+ for this age range with an emotional processing module integrated. The results may inform larger RCTs and implementation of PM+ interventions among refugee youth. Trial Registration: Registered to Dutch Trial Registry, NL8750, on 3 July 2020. Medical Ethical Committee of the Amsterdam University Medical Centre, location Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre, Protocol ID: 2020.224, 1 July 2020.

12.
Psychother Psychosom ; 90(6): 403-414, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350902

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Self-Help Plus (SH+) is a group-based psychological intervention developed by the World Health Organization for managing stress. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of SH+ in preventing mental disorders in refugees and asylum seekers in Western Europe. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 5 European countries. Refugees and asylum seekers with psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire score ≥3), but without a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) or ICD/10 diagnosis of mental disorder, as assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), were randomized to SH+ or enhanced treatment as usual (ETAU). The primary outcome was the frequency of mental disorders with the MINI at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included the frequency of mental disorders at postintervention, self-identified problems, psychological symptoms, and other outcomes. RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-nine individuals were randomly assigned to SH+ or ETAU. For the primary outcome, we found no difference in the frequency of mental disorders at 6 months (Cramer V = 0.007, p = 0.90, RR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.52-1.78), while the difference significantly favored SH+ at after the intervention (secondary outcome, measured within 2 weeks from the last session; Cramer V = 0.13, p = 0.01, RR = 0.50; 95% CI 0.29-0.87). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first randomized indicated prevention study with the aim of preventing the onset of mental disorders in asylum seekers and refugees in Western Europe. As a prevention effect of SH+ was not observed at 6 months, but rather after the intervention only, modalities to maintain its beneficial effect in the long term need to be identified.

13.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1929753, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211638

RESUMO

Background: Although personality disorders are common in PTSD patients, it remains unclear to what extent this comorbidity affects PTSD treatment outcome. Objective: This constitutes the first meta-analysis investigating whether patients with and without comorbid personality disorders can equally benefit from psychotherapy for PTSD. Method: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO and Cochrane databases from inception through 31 January 2020, to identify clinical trials examining psychotherapies for PTSD in PTSD patients with and without comorbid personality disorders (PROSPERO reference CRD42020156472). Results: Of the 1830 studies identified, 12 studies reporting on 918 patients were included. Effect sizes were synthesized using a random-effects model. Patients with comorbid personality disorders did not have significantly higher baseline PTSD severity (Hedges' g = 0.23, 95%CI -0.09-0.55, p = .140), nor were at higher risk for dropout from PTSD treatment (RR = 1.19, 95%CI 0.83-1.72, p = .297). Whilst pre- to post-treatment PTSD symptom improvements were large in patients with comorbid PDs (Hedges' g = 1.31, 95%CI 0.89-1.74, p < .001) as well as in patients without comorbid PDs (Hedges' g = 1.57, 95%CI 1.08-2.07, p < .001), personality disorders were associated with a significantly smaller symptom improvement at post-treatment (Hedges' g = 0.22, 95%CI 0.05-0.38, p = .010). Conclusion: Although the presence of personality disorders does not preclude a good treatment response, patients with comorbid personality disorders might benefit less from PTSD treatment than patients without comorbid personality disorders.

14.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1930690, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262667

RESUMO

Background: Refugees and asylum seekers face various stressors due to displacement and are especially vulnerable to common mental disorders. To effectively manage psychological distress in this population, innovative interventions are required. The World Health Organization (WHO) Self-Help Plus (SH+) intervention has shown promising outcomes in reducing symptoms of common mental disorders among refugees and asylum seekers. However, individual participant differences in response to SH+ remain largely unknown. The Individual Participant Data (IPD) meta-analysis synthesizes raw datasets of trials to provide cutting-edge evidence of outcomes that cannot be examined by conventional meta-analytic approaches. Objectives: This protocol outlines the methods of a series of IPD meta-analyses aimed at examining the effects and potential moderators of SH+ in (a) reducing depressive symptoms at post-intervention and (b) preventing the six-month cumulative incidence of mental disorders in refugees and asylum seekers. Method: RCTs on SH+ have been identified through WHO and all authors have agreed to share the datasets of the trials. The primary outcomes of the IPD meta-analyses are (a) reduction in depressive symptoms at post-intervention, and (b) prevention of six-month cumulative incidence of mental disorders. Secondary outcomes include post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, well-being, functioning, quality of life, and twelve-month cumulative incidence of mental disorders. One-stage IPD meta-analyses will be performed using mixed-effects linear/logistic regression. Missing data will be handled by multiple imputation. Conclusions: These results will enrich current knowledge about the response to SH+ and will facilitate its targeted dissemination. The results of these IPD meta-analyses will be published in peer-reviewed journals.

15.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1932295, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262668

RESUMO

Background: Approximately 10% of Syrian refugees currently reside in camp settings, which can impose additional post-migration stressors. With elevated rates of psychological distress and few available resources, task-shifting psychosocial programmes are necessary to provide adequate care. One such programme developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) is Group Problem Management Plus (GroupPM+). Objective: This study aimed to test the safety and acceptability of GroupPM+ in a refugee camp and to identify areas for adaptation in preparation for a definitive RCT. Method: A feasibility randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in Azraq refugee camp in Jordan. Inclusion criteria were: (1) Syrian adults aged ≥18 years, (2) parent of a child aged 10-16 years, (3) experiencing psychological distress as defined by a score of ≥16 on the Kessler Distress Scale, and (4) ≥17 on the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Following baseline assessments, participants were randomized to receive GroupPM+ or enhanced treatment-as-usual. Post-assessments were conducted one week following the last GroupPM+ session. Primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptance of GroupPM+; symptoms of anxiety, depression, PTSD, prodromal psychosis, grief, and child's self-reported psychological distress were also assessed. Results: Of the 207 persons screened, 64 (31%) screened positive for psychological distress. Of the 35 randomized into the GroupPM+ intervention, 24 (69%) completed the intervention. No adverse events were reported throughout the trial. Children whose parents received GroupPM+ had greater reductions in internalizing and externalizing symptoms at posttreatment. 55 (86%) participants completed the post-assessment follow-up. These results demonstrate both the feasibility of conducting the trial in a camp and acceptance of the GroupPM+ intervention by Syrian refugees. Conclusions: Following the feasibility trial, both the implementation procedures and intervention were safe and culturally acceptable. The results support the readiness for a definitive RCT to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention in camp settings.

16.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 261-278, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This meta-analytic review aimed to systematically evaluate associations of depression with multiple gender role dimensions (masculinity, femininity, androgyny, and undifferentiated traits) and to determine potential moderators (participant characteristics, study instruments and sociocultural factors) of the relationship. METHODS: Of 4481 initially identified records in three electronic databases, 58 studies published 1978 to 2021 were included for meta-analysis. RESULTS: (1) Association of depression and gender role is moderated by study year and human development indices. (2) Masculinity is a protective factor for depression, while this dominance has declined as life expectancy increases. (3) A negative, weak but significant association between depression and femininity is observed in women, and college students, which starts to emerge with the gradual increase in the national education and income index from 1990 to 2019. (4) Androgynous individuals reported the lowest level of depression as compared with other gender role orientations (masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated trait group). This disparity is becoming more extreme with life expectancy and per capita income index increases. LIMITATIONS: English-language studies were only included in this review. CONCLUSIONS: Androgyny might be the most ideal gender role protecting both women and men from depression.

18.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e050129, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A comprehensive overview of the evidence for factors derived from leading psychological theories of the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) that underpin psychological interventions is scarce . We aimed to systematically investigate the prospective evidence for factors derived from the behavioural, cognitive, diathesis-stress, psychodynamic and personality-based theories for the first onset of MDD. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane and Embase and published articles were systematically searched from inception up to August 2019. Prospective, longitudinal studies that investigated theory-derived factors before the first onset of MDD, established by a clinical interview, were included. Screening, selection and data extraction of articles were conducted by two screeners. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria were used to estimate level of confidence and risk of bias. Meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects models and mixed-method subgroup analyses. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Effect size of a factor predicting the onset of MDD (OR, risk ratio or HR). RESULTS: From 42 133 original records published to August 2019, 26 studies met the inclusion criteria. Data were only available for the cognitive (n=6585) and personality-based (n=14 394) theories. Factors derived from cognitive theories and personality-based theories were related to increased odds of MDD onset (pooled OR=2.12, 95% CI: 1.12 to 4.00; pooled OR=2.43, 95% CI: 1.41 to 4.19). Publication bias and considerable heterogeneity were observed. CONCLUSION: There is some evidence that factors derived from cognitive and personality-based theories indeed predict the onset of MDD (ie, dysfunctional attitudes and negative emotionality). There were no studies that prospectively studied factors derived from psychodynamic theories and not enough studies to examine the robust evidence for behavioural and diathesis-stress theories. Overall, the prospective evidence for psychological factors of MDD is limited, and more research on the leading psychological theories is needed. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017073975.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Teoria Psicológica
19.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(6): 563-574, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264703

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine if cognitive restructuring (CR), behavioral activation (BA), and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) result in differential effects in the treatment of adult depression. METHOD: We extracted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from a database updated yearly from PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Network and pairwise meta-analyses were conducted to investigate the effects of CR, BA, and CBT delivered in a face-to-face individual format, compared with waiting list (WL) and care-as-usual (CAU), on adult depression. The primary outcome was a standardized mean difference (SMD) in posttreatment depression severity. Tolerability of treatments and depression severity at follow-up were also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 45 studies with 3,382 participants were included. There was no evidence of a difference in effectiveness between CR, BA, and CBT. All three interventions were superior to CAU; SMD 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI 0.08-1.07]; 0.52 [0.34-0.71]; 0.44 [0.28-0.60], respectively and WL 1.20 [0.69-1.70]; 1.15 [0.90-1.40]; 1.07 [0.87-1.26]. No difference in tolerability was found (risk ratio [RR] vs. CAU: 1.01 [0.04-22.81], 0.84 [0.63-1.11], and 0.96 [0.76-1.21], respectively). Metaregression and sensitivity analyses did not produce material differences. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that CR or BA alone and their combination (CBT) may be effective interventions in comparison to WL and CAU in the treatment of adult depression. There was no evidence suggesting differences in effectiveness among the three treatments. More research is needed to derive conclusions about the performance of CR. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Depressão/terapia , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Cognição , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Listas de Espera
20.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 24(5): 801-806, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228202

RESUMO

Perinatal depression is an important public health problem. Psychological interventions play an essential role in the treatment of depression. In the current paper, we will present the results of a series of meta-analyses on psychological treatments of perinatal depression. We report the results of a series of meta-analyses on psychological treatments of depression, including perinatal depression. The meta-analyses are based on a database of randomized trials on psychotherapies for depression that has been systematically developed and updated every year. Psychological interventions are effective in the treatment of perinatal depression with a moderate effect size of g = 0.67, corresponding with a NNT of about 4. These effects were still significant at 12 months after the start of the treatment. These interventions also have significant effects on social support, anxiety, functional impairment, parental stress, and marital stress. Possibly the effects are overestimated because of the use of waiting list control groups, the low quality of the majority of trials and publication bias. Research on psychotherapies for depression in general has shown that there are no significant differences between the major types of therapy, except for non-directive counseling that may have somewhat smaller effects. CBT can also be delivered in individual, group, telephone, and guided self-help format. Interventions in subthreshold depression are also effective and may prevent the onset of a full-blown depressive disorder, while therapies may be less effective in chronic depression. Psychological interventions are effective and deserve their place as first-line treatment of perinatal depression.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno Depressivo , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Psicoterapia
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