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1.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 91(1): 1-2, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36729491

RESUMO

The Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (JCCP) has been one of the core scientific journals in clinical psychology for decades, with high-quality, innovative, and cutting-edge research that has shaped the science and practice of the field as it currently stands. It is a great honor to have been selected as the new Editor of JCCP for the next 5 years, starting with this issue. As the new editor, I will first build on the excellent work previous editors have done in making JCCP what it is now, a vehicle for innovation and improvement in the science and practice of clinical psychology. I am proud to lead an excellent team of highly qualified associate and consulting editors (CEs) to preserve and to further strengthen the journal's position. However, innovation also means change and establishing new opportunities that have the potential to further science and practice. In the following, I will describe some ideas and views that will guide the content, structure, and format of JCCP in the coming years. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
Cogn Behav Ther ; : 1-23, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36718645

RESUMO

Most people with a mental disorder meet criteria for multiple disorders. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing psychotherapies for people with depression and comorbid other mental disorders with non-active control conditions. We identified studies through an existing database of randomized trials on psychotherapies for depression. Thirty-five trials (3,157 patients) met inclusion criteria. Twenty-seven of the 41 interventions in the 35 trials (66%) were based on CBT. The overall effect on depression was large (g = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.40 ~ 0.90), with high heterogeneity (I2 = 78%; 95% CI: 70 ~ 83). The ten studies in comorbid anxiety showed large effects on depression (g = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.30 ~ 1.51) and anxiety (g = 1.01; 95% CI: 0.28 ~ 1.74). For comorbid insomnia (11 comparisons) a large and significant effect on depression (g = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.16 ~ 1.82) and insomnia (g = 1.38; 95% CI: 0.38 ~ 2.38) were found. For comorbid substance use problems (12 comparisons) effects on depression (g = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.06 ~ 0.43) and on substance use problems (g = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.01 ~ 0.50) were significant. Most effects were no longer significant after adjustment for publication bias and when limited to studies with low risk of bias. Therapies are probably effective in the treatment of depression with comorbid anxiety, insomnia, and substance use problems.

3.
Psychol Med ; : 1-12, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36606456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past 10 years an increasing number of randomised trials have examined the effects of transdiagnostic treatments of patients with depression or anxiety. We conducted the first comprehensive meta-analysis of the outcomes of this emerging field. METHODS: We used the searches in PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase and the Cochrane library of an existing database of randomised trials of psychological interventions for depression to identify studies comparing a transdiagnostic treatment of patients with depression or anxiety with a control group (deadline 1 January 2022). We conducted random-effects meta-analyses and examined the effects on depression and anxiety at the short and longer term. RESULTS: We included 45 randomised controlled trials with 51 comparisons between a psychotherapy and a control group and 5530 participants. Thirty-five (78%) studies were conducted in the last 10 years. The overall effect size was g = 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.69; NNT = 5.87), with high heterogeneity (I2 = 78; 95% CI 71-83), and a broad PI (-0.31-1.39). The effects remained significant in a series of sensitivity analyses, including exclusion of outliers, adjustment for publication bias, for studies with low risk of bias, and in multilevel analyses. The results were comparable for depression and anxiety separately. At 6 months after randomisation the main effects were still significant, but not at 12 months, although the number of studies was small. CONCLUSIONS: Transdiagnostic treatments of patients with depression or anxiety are increasingly examined and are probably effective at the short term.

4.
Psychol Med ; : 1-16, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36606450

RESUMO

Climate change may affect mental health. We conducted an umbrella review of meta-analyses examining the association between mental health and climate events related to climate change, pollution and green spaces. We searched major bibliographic databases and included meta-analyses with at least five primary studies. Results were summarized narratively. We included 24 meta-analyses on mental health and climate events (n = 13), pollution (n = 11), and green spaces (n = 2) (two meta-analyses provided data on two categories). The quality was suboptimal. According to AMSTAR-2, the overall confidence in the results was high for none of the studies, for three it was moderate, and for the other studies the confidence was low to critically low. The meta-analyses on climate events suggested an increased prevalence of symptoms of post-traumatic stress, depression, and anxiety associated with the exposure to various types of climate events, although the effect sizes differed considerably across study and not all were significant. The meta-analyses on pollution suggested that there may be a small but significant association between PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, CO and mental health, especially depression and suicide, as well as autism spectrum disorders after exposure during pregnancy, but the resulting effect sizes varied considerably. Serious methodological flaws make it difficult to draw credible conclusions. We found reasonable evidence for an association between climate events and mental health and some evidence for an association between pollution and mental disorders. More high-quality research is needed to verify these associations.

5.
Health Policy Plan ; 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631951

RESUMO

Training non-specialists in providing evidence-based psychological interventions (i.e. task-sharing) can effectively increase community access to psychological support. However, task-sharing interventions for this purpose are rarely used at scale. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the potential for scaling up (i.e. scalability) of a task-sharing psychological intervention called Problem Management Plus (PM+) for Syrian refugees in Jordan. Semi-structured individual (n=17) and group interviews (n=20) were conducted with stakeholders knowledgeable about PM+ and the mental health system for Syrian refugees in Jordan. Using 'system innovation perspective', this study conceptualized context as landscape developments and systemic considerations were divided into culture (shared ways of thinking) and structure (ways of organising). Political momentum was identified as a landscape trend likely facilitating scaling up, while predicted reductions in financial aid was regarded as a constraint. In terms of culture, the medicalised approach to mental health, stigma, and gender were reported barriers for scaling up PM+. Using non-stigmatising language, and offering different modalities, childcare options, and sessions outside of working hours were suggestions to reduce stigma, accommodate individual preferences, and increase the demand for PM+. In relation to structure, the feasibility of scaling up PM+ largely depends on the ability to overcome legal barriers, limitations in human and financial resources, and organisational challenges. We recommend sustainable funding to be made available for staff, training, supervision, infrastructure, coordination, expansion, and evaluation of actual scaling up of PM+. Future research may examine local feasibility of various funding, training, and supervision models. Lessons learned from actual scaling up of PM+ and similar task-sharing approaches need to be widely shared.

6.
J Psychiatr Res ; 159: 33-41, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657312

RESUMO

To examine the prevalence of 12-month mood disorders and receipt of mental health treatment among a volunteer sample of higher education students during the 2nd and 3rd COVID-19 wave in the Flanders region. Web-based self-report surveys were obtained from 9101 students in higher education in the Flemish College Surveys (FLeCS) in Flanders, Belgium. As part of the World Health Organization's World Mental Health-International College Student Initiative, we screened for 12-month mood disorders (major depressive episode (MDE), mania/hypomania), and service use. We used poststratification weights to generate population-representative data on key socio-demographic characteristics. 50.6% of the respondents screened positive for 12-month mood disorders (46.8% MDE, of which 22.9% with very severe impact). Use of services was very low, with estimates of 35.4% for MDE, 31.7% for mania, and 25.5% for hypomania. Even among students with very severe disorders, treatment rates were never higher than 48.3%. Most common barriers for not using services were: the preference to handle the problem alone (83.4%) and not knowing where to seek professional help (79.8%). We found a high unmet need for mood problems among college students; though caution is needed in interpreting these findings given the volunteer nature of the sample. A reallocation of treatment resources for higher education students should be considered, particulary services that focus on innovative, low-threshold, and scalable interventions.

7.
Psychol Assess ; 35(2): 95-114, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689386

RESUMO

The seven-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Depression subscale (HADS-D) and the total score of the 14-item HADS (HADS-T) are both used for major depression screening. Compared to the HADS-D, the HADS-T includes anxiety items and requires more time to complete. We compared the screening accuracy of the HADS-D and HADS-T for major depression detection. We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis and fit bivariate random effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy among participants with both HADS-D and HADS-T scores. We identified optimal cutoffs, estimated sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals, and compared screening accuracy across paired cutoffs via two-stage and individual-level models. We used a 0.05 equivalence margin to assess equivalency in sensitivity and specificity. 20,700 participants (2,285 major depression cases) from 98 studies were included. Cutoffs of ≥7 for the HADS-D (sensitivity 0.79 [0.75, 0.83], specificity 0.78 [0.75, 0.80]) and ≥15 for the HADS-T (sensitivity 0.79 [0.76, 0.82], specificity 0.81 [0.78, 0.83]) minimized the distance to the top-left corner of the receiver operating characteristic curve. Across all sets of paired cutoffs evaluated, differences of sensitivity between HADS-T and HADS-D ranged from -0.05 to 0.01 (0.00 at paired optimal cutoffs), and differences of specificity were within 0.03 for all cutoffs (0.02-0.03). The pattern was similar among outpatients, although the HADS-T was slightly (not nonequivalently) more specific among inpatients. The accuracy of HADS-T was equivalent to the HADS-D for detecting major depression. In most settings, the shorter HADS-D would be preferred. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento
8.
World Psychiatry ; 22(1): 105-115, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640411

RESUMO

Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is by far the most examined type of psychological treatment for depression and is recommended in most treatment guide-lines. However, no recent meta-analysis has integrated the results of randomized trials examining its effects, and its efficacy in comparison with other psychotherapies, pharmacotherapies and combined treatment for depression remains uncertain. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and the Cochrane Library to identify studies on CBT, and separated included trials into several subsets to conduct random-effects meta-analyses. We included 409 trials (518 comparisons) with 52,702 patients, thus conducting the largest meta-analysis ever of a specific type of psychotherapy for a mental disorder. The quality of the trials was found to have increased significantly over time (with increasing numbers of trials with low risk of bias, less waitlist control groups, and larger sample sizes). CBT had moderate to large effects compared to control conditions such as care as usual and waitlist (g=0.79; 95% CI: 0.70-0.89), which remained similar in sensitivity analyses and were still significant at 6-12 month follow-up. There was no reduction of the effect size of CBT according to the publication year (<2001 vs. 2001-2010 vs. >2011). CBT was significantly more effective than other psychotherapies, but the difference was small (g=0.06; 95% CI: 0-0.12) and became non-significant in most sensitivity analyses. The effects of CBT did not differ significantly from those of pharmacotherapies at the short term, but were significantly larger at 6-12 month follow-up (g=0.34; 95% CI: 0.09-0.58), although the number of trials was small, and the difference was not significant in all sensitivity analyses. Combined treatment was more effective than pharmacotherapies alone at the short (g=0.51; 95% CI: 0.19-0.84) and long term (g=0.32; 95% CI: 0.09-0.55), but it was not more effective than CBT alone at either time point. CBT was also effective as unguided self-help intervention (g=0.45; 95% CI: 0.31-0.60), in institutional settings (g=0.65; 95% CI: 0.21-1.08), and in children and adolescents (g=0.41; 95% CI: 0.25-0.57). We can conclude that the efficacy of CBT in depression is documented across different formats, ages, target groups, and settings. However, the superiority of CBT over other psychotherapies for depression does not emerge clearly from this meta-analysis. CBT appears to be as effective as pharmacotherapies at the short term, but more effective at the longer term.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 13(1): 19, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681669

RESUMO

The clinical response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in depression takes weeks to be fully developed and is still not entirely understood. This study aimed to determine the direct and indirect effects of SSRIs relative to a placebo control condition on clinical symptoms of depression. We included data of 8262 adult patients with major depression participating in 28 industry-sponsored US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) registered trials on the efficacy of SSRIs. Clinical symptoms of depression were assessed by the 17 separate items of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) after 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks of treatment. Network estimation techniques showed that SSRIs had quick and strong direct effects on the two affective symptoms, i.e., depressed mood and psychic anxiety; direct effects on other symptoms were weak or absent. Substantial indirect effects were found for all four cognitive symptoms, which showed larger reductions in the SSRI condition but mainly in patients reporting larger reductions in depressed mood. Smaller indirect effects were found for two arousal/somatic symptoms via the direct effect on psychic anxiety. Both direct and indirect effects on sleep problems and most arousal/somatic symptoms were weak or absent. In conclusion, our study revealed that SSRIs primarily caused reductions in affective symptoms, which were related to reductions in mainly cognitive symptoms and some specific arousal/somatic symptoms. The results can contribute to disclosing the mechanisms of action of SSRIs, and has the potential to facilitate early detection of responders and non-responders in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Adulto , Humanos , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , /uso terapêutico
10.
J Affect Disord ; 325: 572-581, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence to suggest that Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for depression may have a secondary effect on self-esteem, but less is known about non-CBT based interventions. To examine this, we had two main aims; (1) to meta-analyze psychotherapy effects on (i) depression and (ii) self-esteem, and (2) to investigate the relationship between reductions in depression symptoms and improvements in self-esteem. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Following the PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized control trials of psychotherapy for adult depression, which included a self-esteem outcome at post-treatment. Nineteen studies with a total of 3423 participants met the inclusion criteria. For each comparison between psychotherapy and a control condition, we calculated Hedges' g both for depression and self-esteem and pooled them in two separate meta-analyses. Furthermore, meta-regression was used to explore the association between the effect of psychotherapy for depression and its effect on self-esteem. RESULTS: The effects on depression were large and significant (Hedges' g = -0.95; [95 % CI: -1.27, -0.63]). We found evidence of smaller, albeit still moderate, effects on self-esteem (Hedges'g = 0.63; [95 % CI:0.32, 0.93]), with sustained effects at 6-12 months (Hedges'g = 0.70; [95 % CI: -0.03, 1.43]). We also found a strong inverse association between the effects of psychotherapy for depression and self-esteem (ß = -0.60, p < 0.001). LIMITATIONS: Heterogeneity was very high (I2 = 97 %), and out of 19 trials, only 6 trials were rated as having a low risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that psychotherapy for depression may improve self-esteem to a moderate degree.

11.
J Psychiatr Res ; 159: 116-129, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708636

RESUMO

There is an unmet need for effective early interventions that can relieve initial trauma symptoms and reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We evaluated the efficacy of cognitive interventions compared to control in reducing intrusion frequency and PTSD symptoms in healthy individuals using the trauma film paradigm, in which participants view a film with aversive content as an experimental analogue of trauma exposure. A systematic literature search identified 41 experiments of different cognitive interventions targeting intrusions. In the meta-analysis, the pooled effect size of 52 comparisons comparing cognitive interventions to no-intervention controls on intrusions was moderate (g = -0.46, 95% CI [-0.61 to -0.32], p < .001). The pooled effect size of 16 comparisons on PTSD symptoms was also moderate (g = -0.31, 95% CI [-0.46 to -0.17], p < .001). Both visuospatial interference and imagery rescripting tasks were associated with significantly fewer intrusions than controls, whereas verbal interference and meta-cognitive processing tasks showed nonsignificant effect sizes. Interventions administered after viewing the trauma film showed significantly fewer intrusions than controls, whereas interventions administered during film viewing did not. No experiments had low risk of bias (ROB), 37 experiments had some concerns of ROB, while the remaining four experiments had high ROB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis investigating the efficacy of cognitive interventions targeting intrusions in non-clinical samples. Results seem to be in favour of visuospatial interference tasks rather than verbal tasks. More research is needed to develop an evidence base on the efficacy of various cognitive interventions and test their clinical translation to reduce intrusive memories of real trauma.

13.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; : e1956, 2022 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Optimal cutoff thresholds are selected to separate 'positive' from 'negative' screening results. We evaluated how depression screening tool studies select optimal cutoffs. METHODS: We included studies from previously conducted meta-analyses of Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, or Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression accuracy. Outcomes included whether an optimal cutoff was selected, method used, recommendations made, and reporting guideline and protocol citation. RESULTS: Of 212 included studies, 172 (81%) attempted to identify an optimal cutoff, and 147 of these 172 (85%) reported one or more methods. Methods were heterogeneous with Youden's J (N = 35, 23%) most common. Only 23 of 147 (16%) studies described a rationale for their method. Rationales focused on balancing sensitivity and specificity without describing why desirable. 131 of 172 studies (76%) identified an optimal cutoff other than the standard; most did not make use recommendations (N = 56; 43%) or recommended using a non-standard cutoff (N = 53; 40%). Only 4 studies cited a reporting guideline, and 4 described a protocol with optimal cutoff selection methods, but none used the protocol method in the published study. CONCLUSIONS: Research is needed to guide how selection of cutoffs for depression screening tools can be standardized and reflect clinical considerations.

14.
Am J Psychother ; : appipsychotherapy20210061, 2022 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36541072

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Blended-format interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is an integrated approach consisting of alternating face-to-face (in person or videoconferencing) and online sessions, and this format may increase access to care, empower patients, and improve quality and cost-effectiveness of care. This study, conducted in the Netherlands, was one of the first to investigate the feasibility of blended-format IPT in specialized mental health care. METHODS: Participants (ages 18-64, N=21) with a unipolar depressive episode were recruited at an outpatient mood disorder clinic. In this pre-post nonrandomized pilot study, the blended IPT consisted of six online sessions alternated with six to 10 in-person or videoconferencing sessions. Feasibility (defined as >60% of the participants having completed >50% of the online sessions), usability (via the System Usability Scale [SUS]), satisfaction (via the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire-8 [CSQ-8] and qualitative interviewing), and symptom reduction (via the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]) were assessed. RESULTS: Of the participants, 90% (95% CI=70%-99%) completed all online sessions. Mean±SD scores were 25.12±3.55 (of 32) on the CSQ-8 and 66.0±12.4 (of 100) on the SUS. PHQ-9 scores (N=21) decreased significantly, from 17.48±5.41 at baseline to 11.90±6.45 postintervention, indicating improvement (t=4.86, df=20, p=0.001). Hedges' g was 0.90 (95% CI=0.44-1.41), indicating a large effect size. The treatment response rate was 33% (95% CI=15%-57%); the remission rate was 19% (95% CI=6%-42%). CONCLUSIONS: Blended-format IPT was feasible, and patients were satisfied with the intervention. The therapy described here may serve as a starting point for cost-effectiveness research on this promising format.

15.
BJPsych Open ; 9(1): e7, 2022 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36573376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 'POD Adventures' is a gamified problem-solving intervention delivered via smartphone app, and supported by non-specialist counsellors for a target population of secondary school students in India during the COVID-19 pandemic. AIMS: To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of undertaking a randomised controlled trial of POD Adventures when delivered online with telephone support from counsellors. METHOD: We conducted a parallel, two-arm, individually randomised pilot-controlled trial with 11 secondary schools in Goa, India. Participants received either the POD Adventures intervention delivered over 4 weeks or usual care comprising information about local mental health services and national helplines. Outcomes were assessed at two timepoints: baseline and 6 weeks post-randomisation. RESULTS: Seventy-nine classroom sensitisation sessions reaching a total of 1575 students were conducted. Ninety-two self-initiated study referrals (5.8%) were received, but only 11 participants enrolled in the study. No intervention arm participants completed the intervention. Outcomes at 6 weeks were not available for intervention arm participants (n = 5), and only four control arm participants completed outcomes. No qualitative interviews or participant satisfaction measures were completed because participants could not be reached by the study team. CONCLUSIONS: Despite modifications to address barriers arising from COVID-19 restrictions, online delivery was not feasible in the study context. Low recruitment and missing feasibility and acceptability data make it difficult to draw conclusions about intervention engagement and indicative clinical outcomes. Prior findings showing high uptake, adherence and engagement with POD Adventures when delivered in a school-based context suggest that an online study and delivery posed the biggest barriers to study participation and engagement.

16.
Evid Based Ment Health ; 25(e1): e8-e17, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535686

RESUMO

QUESTION: Digital interventions based on cognitive-behavioural therapy (iCBT) is associated with reductions in suicidal ideation. However, fine-grained analyses of effects and potential effect-moderating variables are missing. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of iCBT on suicidal ideation, effect moderators, effects on suicide attempts and predictors of adherence. STUDY SELECTION AND ANALYSIS: We systematically searched CENTRAL, PsycINFO, Embase and PubMed for randomised controlled trials that investigated iCBT for suicidal ideation or behaviours. Participants reporting baseline suicidal ideation were eligible. We conducted a one-stage individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis. Suicidal ideation was the primary outcome, analysed as three indices: severity of suicidal ideation, reliable changes and treatment response. FINDINGS: We included IPD from nine out of ten eligible trials (2037 participants). iCBT showed significant reductions of suicidal ideation compared with control conditions across all indices (severity: b=-0.247, 95% CI -0.322 to -0.173; reliable changes: b=0.633, 95% CI 0.408 to 0.859; treatment response: b=0.606, 95% CI 0.410 to 0.801). In iCBT, the rate of reliable improvement was 40.5% (controls: 27.3%); the deterioration rate was 2.8% (controls: 5.1%). No participant-level moderator effects were identified. The effects on treatment response were higher for trials with waitlist-controls compared with active controls. There were insufficient data on suicide attempts. Human support and female gender predicted treatment adherence. The main source of potential bias was missing outcome data. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence indicates that iCBT is effective in reducing suicidal ideation irrespective of age, gender and previous suicide attempts. Future studies should rigorously assess suicidal behaviour and drop-out reasons.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Ideação Suicida , Humanos , Feminino , Tentativa de Suicídio
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(12): e40892, 2022 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36515986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are common mental health conditions in college and university student populations. Offering transdiagnostic, web-based prevention programs such as ICare Prevent to those with subclinical complaints has the potential to reduce some barriers to receiving help (eg, availability of services, privacy considerations, and students' desire for autonomy). However, uptake of these interventions is often low, and accounts of recruitment challenges are needed to complement available effectiveness research in student populations. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to describe recruitment challenges together with effective recruitment strategies for ICare Prevent and provide basic information on the intervention's effectiveness. METHODS: A 3-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted in a student sample with subclinical symptoms of depression and anxiety on the effectiveness of an individually guided (human support and feedback on exercises provided after each session, tailored to each participant) and automatically guided (computer-generated messages provided after each session, geared toward motivation) version of ICare Prevent, a web-based intervention with transdiagnostic components for the indicated prevention of depression and anxiety. The intervention was compared with care as usual. Descriptive statistics were used to outline recruitment challenges and effective web-based and offline strategies as well as students' use of the intervention. A basic analysis of intervention effects was conducted using a Bayesian linear mixed model, with Bayes factors reported as the effect size. RESULTS: Direct recruitment through students' email addresses via the central student administration was the most effective strategy. Data from 35 participants were analyzed (individually guided: n=14, 40%; automatically guided: n=8, 23%; care as usual: n=13, 37%). Use of the intervention was low, with an average of 3 out of 7 sessions (SD 2.9) completed. The analyses did not suggest any intervention effects other than anecdotal evidence (all Bayes factors10≤2.7). CONCLUSIONS: This report adds to the existing literature on recruitment challenges specific to the student population. Testing the feasibility of recruitment measures and the greater involvement of the target population in their design, as well as shifting from direct to indirect prevention, can potentially help future studies in the field. In addition, this report demonstrates an alternative basic analytical strategy for underpowered randomized controlled trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Clinical Trials Registry Platform NTR6562; https://tinyurl.com/4rbexzrk. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/s13063-018-2477-y.


Assuntos
Depressão , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Humanos , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/psicologia , Teorema de Bayes , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Measuring implementation outcomes for digital mental health interventions is essential for examining the effective delivery of these interventions. The "Implementation Outcome Scale of Digital Mental Health" (iOSDMH) has been validated and used in several trials. This study aimed to compare the iOSDMH for participants in six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving web-based interventions and to discuss the implications of the iOSDMH for improving the interventions. Additionally, this study examined the associations between iOSDMH scores and program completion rate (adherence). METHODS: Variations in total scores and subscales of the iOSDMH were compared in six RCTs of digital mental health interventions conducted in Japan. The web-based intervention programs were based on cognitive behavioral therapy (2 programs), behavioral activation (1 program), acceptance and commitment (1 program), a combination of mindfulness, behavioral activation, and physical activity (1 program), and government guidelines for suicide prevention (1 program). Participants were full-time employees (2 programs), perinatal women (2 programs), working mothers with children (1 program), and students (1 program). The total score and subscale scores were tested using analysis of variance for between-group differences. RESULTS: Total score and subscale scores of the iOSDMH among six trials showed a significant group difference, reflecting users' perceptions of how each program was implemented, including aspects such as acceptability, appropriateness, feasibility, overall satisfaction, and harm. Subscale scores showed positive associations with completion rate, especially in terms of acceptability and satisfaction (R-squared = 0.93 and 0.89, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The iOSDMH may be a useful tool for evaluating participants' perceptions of features implemented in web-based interventions, which could contribute to improvements and further development of the intervention.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Saúde Mental , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Exercício Físico , Japão
19.
Psychol Med ; : 1-12, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404636

RESUMO

Although psychological treatments have been found to be effective for depression in adults, many individuals with depression do not actively seek help. It is currently unclear whether psychological treatments are effective among those not actively seeking help. Besides, little is known about the proportion of patients who completed a screening questionnaire who end up in a clinical trial. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of 52 randomized trials comparing psychotherapies for adults with a diagnosis or elevated symptoms of depression against control conditions (care-as-usual, waiting list, and other inactive treatment). Only studies recruiting participants who do not actively seek help (participants who have been recruited through screening instead of advertisements and clinical referrals) were included. To obtain an overall effect estimate of psychotherapy, we pooled all post-test differences with a random-effects model. We found that psychological treatments had a moderate to high effect on reducing depressive symptoms compared to control groups [g = 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.69]. Heterogeneity was high (I2 = 75%; 95% CI 68-80). At 12 months' follow-up, the effects were small but significant (6-8 months: g = 0.33; 95% CI 0.14-0.52; 9-12 months: g = 0.24; 95% CI 0.11-0.37). As a secondary outcome, we found that 13% of patients who completed a screening questionnaire met the inclusion criteria for depression and agreed to be randomized in the trial. Based on the current evidence, psychological treatments for depression might be effective for depressed patients who are not actively seeking help.

20.
Psychol Med ; : 1-12, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adding short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) to antidepressants increases treatment efficacy, but it is unclear which patients benefit specifically. This study examined efficacy moderators of combined treatment (STPP + antidepressants) v. antidepressants for adults with depression. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017056029), we searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase.com, and the Cochrane Library from inception to 1 January 2022. We included randomized clinical trials comparing combined treatment (antidepressants + individual outpatient STPP) v. antidepressants in the acute-phase treatment of depression in adults. Individual participant data were requested and analyzed combinedly using mixed-effects models (adding Cochrane risk of bias items as covariates) and an exploratory machine learning technique. The primary outcome was post-treatment depression symptom level. RESULTS: Data were obtained for all seven trials identified (100%, n = 482, combined: n = 238, antidepressants: n = 244). Adding STPP to antidepressants was more efficacious for patients with high rather than low baseline depression levels [B = -0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.61 to -0.37, p < 0.0001] and for patients with a depressive episode duration of >2 years rather than <1 year (B = -0.68, 95% CI -1.31 to -0.05, p = 0.03) and than 1-2 years (B = -0.86, 95% CI -1.66 to -0.06, p = 0.04). Heterogeneity was low. Effects were replicated in analyses controlling for risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study that examines moderators across trials assessing the addition of STPP to antidepressants. These findings need validation but suggest that depression severity and episode duration are factors to consider when adding STPP to antidepressants and might contribute to personalizing treatment selection for depression.

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