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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7109, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068619

RESUMO

Oxidative stress has been linked to cancer development in previous studies. However, the association between pre-diagnostic oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage levels and incident cancer has rarely been investigated. Urinary oxidized guanine/guanosine (OxGua) concentrations, including 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, were assessed in 8,793 older adults in a population-based German cohort. 1,540 incident cancer cases, including 207 lung, 196 colorectal, 218 breast and 245 prostate cancer cases were diagnosed during over 14 years of follow-up. Associations of OxGua levels with cancer outcomes were not observed in the total population in multi-variable adjusted Cox regression models. However, in subgroup analyses, colorectal cancer incidence increased by 8%, 9% and 8% with one standard deviation increase in OxGua levels among current non-smokers, female and non-obese participants, respectively. Additionally, among non-smokers, overall and prostate cancer incidences statistically significantly increased by 5% and 13% per 1 standard deviation increase in OxGua levels, respectively. In contrast, OxGua levels were inversely associated with the risk of prostate cancer among current smokers. However, none of the subgroup analyses had p-values below a threshold for statistical significance after correction for multiple testing. Thus, results need to be validated in further studies. There might be a pattern that oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage is a weak cancer risk factor in the absence of other strong risk factors, such as smoking, obesity and male sex.

2.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510241

RESUMO

To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 × 10-8, bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to ~100. New signals implicate lower-frequency variants, Krüppel-like factors, Hedgehog signaling, Hippo-YAP signaling, long noncoding RNAs and somatic drivers, and support a role for immune function. Heritability analyses suggest that CRC risk is highly polygenic, and larger, more comprehensive studies enabling rare variant analysis will improve understanding of biology underlying this risk and influence personalized screening strategies and drug development.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487132

RESUMO

Whole-blood DNA methylation markers have been suggested as potential biomarkers for early detection of breast cancer (BC). We conducted a systematic review of literature on whole-blood DNA methylation markers for BC detection. PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched up to 29th May 2018. Overall, 33 studies evaluating 355 markers were included. The diagnostic value of most individual markers was relatively modest, with only 6 markers showing sensitivity >40% at specificity >75% (only 2 (HYAL2 and S100P) were independently validated). Although relatively strong associations (OR<=0.5 or OR>=2) with BC were reported for 14 markers, most of them were not independently validated. Two prospective studies performed epigenome-wide association analysis and identified 276 CpG sites related to BC risk, but no overlap was observed between CpGs reported from these 2 studies. Five studies incorporated individual markers as panels but only 2 of them used a test-validation approach. In conclusion, so far detected methylation markers are insufficient for BC early detection, but markers or marker-combinations may be useful for BC risk stratification. Utilizing high-throughput methods of methylation quantification, future studies should focus on further mining informative methylation markers and derivation of enhanced multi-maker panels with thorough external validation ideally in prospective settings.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411799

RESUMO

In recent years fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) have been offered as a primary screening test for colorectal cancer (CRC) in a growing number of countries. This study aims to identify factors associated with apparently false positive results of FITs. In this cross-sectional study within the German population-based screening colonoscopy program, participants were invited to provide a stool sample for FIT prior to colonoscopy. 4656 participants aged 50-79 years with no known history of CRC or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and no findings of neoplasms at screening colonoscopy were included in the current analyses. Main outcome measures were rates and factors associated with apparently false positive FIT results. Apparently false positive FIT results were found for 378 participants (8.1%). Male sex (OR=1.30, 95%CI 1.03, 1.62), age ≥ 65 years (OR=1.27, 95%CI 1.01, 1.59), a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (OR=1.81, 95%CI 1.36, 2.40), current smoking (OR=1.63, 95%CI 1.18, 2.25), use of aspirin (OR=1.36, 95%CI 1.02, 1.82) and a new diagnosis of IBD (OR=9.13, 95%CI 2.18, 38.19) or other non-neoplastic findings (OR=1.86, 95%CI 1.37, 2.51) at screening colonoscopy were independently associated with significantly increased odds of a positive FIT. Although considered false-positive in the context of CRC screening, the identified factors associated with apparently false positive FIT results are known risk factors for and may point to conditions other than colorectal neoplasms that may be potential sources of gastrointestinal bleeding, potentially requiring further medical follow up. The study was registered in the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS-ID: DRKS00008737). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 6(8): 1223-1231, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288285

RESUMO

Objective: Fecal transferrin has been suggested as a complementary or even superior marker for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) besides fecal hemoglobin. We aimed to evaluate both markers individually and in combination in a large cohort of participants of screening colonoscopy. Methods: Precolonoscopy stool samples were obtained from participants of screening colonoscopy and frozen at -80℃ until blinded analysis, using a dual-quantitative fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for hemoglobin and transferrin. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated for CRC and advanced adenoma (AA). Results: A total of 1667 participants fulfilled our inclusion criteria. All individuals with advanced neoplasm (AN) (16 CRC, 200 AA) and 300 randomly selected participants without AN were included. Mean age was 63 years and 56% were male. The AUC for CRC and AA was 92% and 68%, respectively, for hemoglobin vs. 79% and 58%, respectively for transferrin. Combination of both markers yielded an AUC for CRC and AA of 92% and 68%, respectively. Conclusion: FIT for hemoglobin shows better diagnostic performance than FIT for transferrin for the detection of ANs (both proximal and distal neoplasms), and a combination of both markers does not improve the diagnostic performance.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325019

RESUMO

Telomere deregulation is a hallmark of cancer. Telomere length measured in lymphocytes (LTL) has been shown to be a risk marker for several cancers. For pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) consensus is lacking whether risk is associated with long or short telomeres. Mendelian randomization approaches have shown that a score built from SNPs associated with LTL could be used as a robust risk marker. We explored this approach in a large scale study within the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium. We analyzed 10 SNPs (ZNF676-rs409627, TERT-rs2736100, CTC1-rs3027234, DHX35-rs6028466, PXK-rs6772228, NAF1-rs7675998, ZNF208-rs8105767, OBFC1-rs9420907, ACYP2-rs11125529 and TERC-rs10936599) alone and combined in a LTL genetic score ("teloscore", which explains 2.2% of the telomere variability) in relation to PDAC risk in 2,374 cases and 4,326 controls. We identified several associations with PDAC risk, among which the strongest were with the TERT-rs2736100 SNP (OR = 1.54; 95%CI 1.35-1.76; p = 1.54 × 10-10 ) and a novel one with the NAF1-rs7675998 SNP (OR = 0.80; 95%CI 0.73-0.88; p = 1.87 × 10-6 , ptrend = 3.27 × 10-7 ). The association of short LTL, measured by the teloscore, with PDAC risk reached genome-wide significance (p = 2.98 × 10-9 for highest vs. lowest quintile; p = 1.82 × 10-10 as a continuous variable). In conclusion, we present a novel genome-wide candidate SNP for PDAC risk (TERT-rs2736100), a completely new signal (NAF1-rs7675998) approaching genome-wide significance and we report a strong association between the teloscore and risk of pancreatic cancer, suggesting that telomeres are a potential risk factor for pancreatic cancer.

7.
Cancer Med ; 7(10): 4849-4862, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259714

RESUMO

Lung cancer (LC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. Patients with LC usually have poor prognosis due to the difficulties in detecting tumors at early stages. Multiple studies have shown that circulating miRNAs might be promising biomarkers for early detection of LC. We aimed to provide an overview of published studies on circulating miRNA markers for early detection of LC and to summarize their diagnostic performance in Western populations. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge to find relevant studies published up to 11 August 2017. Information on study design, population characteristics, miRNA markers, and diagnostic accuracy (including sensitivity, specificity, and AUC) were independently extracted by two reviewers. Overall, 17 studies evaluating 35 circulating miRNA markers and 19 miRNA panels in serum or plasma were included. The median sensitivity (range) and specificity (range) were, respectively, 78.4% (51.7%-100%) and 78.7% (42.9%-93.5%) for individual miRNAs, and 83.0% (64.0%-100%) and 84.9% (71.0%-100%) for miRNA panels. Most studies incorporated individual miRNA markers as panels (with 2-34 markers), with multiple miRNA-based panels generally outperforming individual markers. Two promising miRNA panels were discovered and verified in prospective cohorts. Of note, both studies exclusively applied miRNA ratios when building up panels. In conclusion, circulating miRNAs may bear potential for noninvasive LC screening, but large studies conducted in screening or longitudinal settings are needed to validate the promising results and optimize the marker panels.

8.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 9(7): 168, 2018 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To systematically investigate and directly compare, for the first time, the sample stability of a large number of quantitative fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) at different storage conditions. METHODS: Stool samples were obtained from participants of the German screening colonoscopy program between 2005 and 2010. After an initial FIT-based hemoglobin (Hb) measurement, stool samples were kept frozen at -80 °C until analysis. Twenty randomly selected participants with initial measurements ranging from 10 to 100 µg Hb/g feces were included. Ten quantitative FITs were investigated in parallel. A defined stool amount was extracted using each manufacturer's brand-specific fecal sampling device and stored at 5 °C, 20 °C, and 35 °C, respectively. After 1, 4, 5, and 7 days, the samples were analyzed blinded. Median fecal Hb concentrations and positivity rates were calculated. RESULTS: Mean age of the participants was 67 years (range: 56-80 years) and 60% were male. The most advanced finding at screening colposcopy was advanced adenoma in five and non-advanced adenoma in eight cases. Hyperplastic polyps were found in two participants and five participants were without any findings. At 5 °C storage temperature, almost all FITs showed fairly stable results throughout the 7-day observation period. At 20 °C, most FITs still showed fairly stable results over 4 days, whereas positivity rates significantly declined from day 4 on for most FITs at 35 °C. Major differences regarding the sample stability between FITs were observed. CONCLUSION: FIT-specific Hb decay according to ambient temperature and time period between sampling and test evaluation requires careful consideration in the design of FIT-based screening programs.

9.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 123: 20-26, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29778463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary 8-isoprostane is an established biomarker for lipid peroxidation. However, the association between its pre-diagnostic levels and cancer incidence has rarely been evaluated. METHODS: 8793 older adults from the German ESTHER cohort were followed up for cancer incidence by cancer registry data. A directed acyclic graph was utilized to identify potential confounders. Multivariate Cox regression models were applied to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: During 14-year follow-up, 1540 incident cancer cases, including 207 lung, 196 colorectal, 218 breast and 245 prostate cancer cases were detected. 8-isoprostane concentrations were positively associated with lung cancer, but not with cancer at the other sites. The HR (95% CI) for the association with lung cancer was 1.61 (1.10, 2.34) for comparison of the top with bottom tertile in total population. The association of 8-isoprostane levels with lung cancer persisted after the adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders and was multiplicative to the effect of smoking. However, 8-isoprostane levels did not improve lung cancer prediction when added to a model containing age, sex and smoking. A protective association of increasing 8-isoprostane levels was observed for prostate cancer incidence but this association was only statistically significant among current smokers. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that lipid peroxidation is involved in the development of lung cancer. However, high oxidative stress may be a protective factor for prostate cancer, especially among current smokers.

10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6574, 2018 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700408

RESUMO

E-cadherin (CDH1) is a putative tumor suppressor gene implicated in breast carcinogenesis. Yet, whether risk factors or survival differ by E-cadherin tumor expression is unclear. We evaluated E-cadherin tumor immunohistochemistry expression using tissue microarrays of 5,933 female invasive breast cancers from 12 studies from the Breast Cancer Consortium. H-scores were calculated and case-case odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Survival analyses were performed using Cox regression models. All analyses were stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status and histologic subtype. E-cadherin low cases (N = 1191, 20%) were more frequently of lobular histology, low grade, >2 cm, and HER2-negative. Loss of E-cadherin expression (score < 100) was associated with menopausal hormone use among ER-positive tumors (ever compared to never users, OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.97-1.59), which was stronger when we evaluated complete loss of E-cadherin (i.e. H-score = 0), OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.06-2.33. Breast cancer specific mortality was unrelated to E-cadherin expression in multivariable models. E-cadherin low expression is associated with lobular histology, tumor characteristics and menopausal hormone use, with no evidence of an association with breast cancer specific survival. These data support loss of E-cadherin expression as an important marker of tumor subtypes.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(3)2018 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29562656

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women and has high mortality rates. Early detection is supposed to be critical for the patient's prognosis. In recent years, several studies have investigated global DNA methylation profiles and gene-specific DNA methylation in blood-based DNA to develop putative screening markers for cancer. However, most of the studies have not yet been validated. In our study, we analyzed the promoter methylation of RASSF1A and ATM in peripheral blood DNA of 229 sporadic patients and 151 healthy controls by the MassARRAY EpiTYPER assay. There were no significant differences in DNA methylation levels of RASSF1A and ATM between the sporadic BC cases and the healthy controls. Furthermore, we performed the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (450K) array analysis using 48 sporadic BC cases and 48 healthy controls (cases and controls are the same from those of the MassARRAY EpiTYPER assay) and made a comparison with the published data. No significant differences were presented in DNA methylation levels of RASSF1A and ATM between the sporadic BC cases and the healthy controls. So far, the evidence for powerful blood-based methylation markers is still limited and the identified markers need to be further validated.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/sangue , Adulto , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
12.
BMJ ; 360: j5757, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a genetic tool to predict age of onset of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) and to guide decisions of who to screen and at what age. DESIGN: Analysis of genotype, PCa status, and age to select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with diagnosis. These polymorphisms were incorporated into a survival analysis to estimate their effects on age at diagnosis of aggressive PCa (that is, not eligible for surveillance according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines; any of Gleason score ≥7, stage T3-T4, PSA (prostate specific antigen) concentration ≥10 ng/L, nodal metastasis, distant metastasis). The resulting polygenic hazard score is an assessment of individual genetic risk. The final model was applied to an independent dataset containing genotype and PSA screening data. The hazard score was calculated for these men to test prediction of survival free from PCa. SETTING: Multiple institutions that were members of international PRACTICAL consortium. PARTICIPANTS: All consortium participants of European ancestry with known age, PCa status, and quality assured custom (iCOGS) array genotype data. The development dataset comprised 31 747 men; the validation dataset comprised 6411 men. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prediction with hazard score of age of onset of aggressive cancer in validation set. RESULTS: In the independent validation set, the hazard score calculated from 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms was a highly significant predictor of age at diagnosis of aggressive cancer (z=11.2, P<10-16). When men in the validation set with high scores (>98th centile) were compared with those with average scores (30th-70th centile), the hazard ratio for aggressive cancer was 2.9 (95% confidence interval 2.4 to 3.4). Inclusion of family history in a combined model did not improve prediction of onset of aggressive PCa (P=0.59), and polygenic hazard score performance remained high when family history was accounted for. Additionally, the positive predictive value of PSA screening for aggressive PCa was increased with increasing polygenic hazard score. CONCLUSIONS: Polygenic hazard scores can be used for personalised genetic risk estimates that can predict for age at onset of aggressive PCa.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Calicreínas/análise , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Antígeno Prostático Específico/análise , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Idade de Início , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 169(1): 69-82, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29340881

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Non-invasive blood-based molecular markers have been investigated for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Circulating free or cell-free DNA (cfDNA) variables have been shown to be putative markers in breast cancer prognosis. METHODS: Here, we investigated the potential prognostic ability of cfDNA concentration and cfDNA integrity (cfDI) in a study cohort of 268 patients by quantitative PCR. We compared cfDNA concentration and cfDI at baseline and after one cycle of therapy in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. RESULTS: A significantly increased cfDI (P = 1.21E-7 for ALU and P = 1.87E-3 for LINE1) and decreased cfDNA concentration (P = 1.17E-3 for ALU and P = 1.60E-2 for LINE1) in both repetitive DNA elements after one cycle of therapy was observed. A multiple Cox regression model indicated that cfDI and cfDNA concentration can serve as independent prognostic markers in patients at baseline with HR (95% CI) of 0.70 (0.48-1.01) for ALU cfDI, 0.63 (0.44-0.92) for LINE1 cfDI, 2.44 (1.68-3.53) for ALU cfDNA concentration, and 2.12 (1.47-3.06) for LINE1 cfDNA concentration and after one cycle of therapy with HR (95% CI) of 0.59 (0.42-0.84) for ALU cfDI, 0.51 (0.36-0.74) for LINE1 cfDI, 1.59 (1.31-1.92) for ALU cfDNA concentration, and 1.30 (1.17-1.45) for LINE1 cfDNA concentration, respectively. By comparing integrated prediction error of different models, cfDNA variables were shown to improve the prognostic power of the CTC status. CONCLUSIONS: We hereby show that cfDNA variables, especially in combination with other markers, can serve as attractive prognostic markers for MBC patients at baseline and during the systematic therapy.

14.
Gastroenterology ; 154(1): 93-104, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28958859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A variety of fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) for hemoglobin (Hb) are used in colorectal cancer screening. It is unclear to what extent differences in reported sensitivities and specificities reflect true heterogeneity in test performance or differences in study populations or varying pre-analytical conditions. We directly compared the sensitivity and specificity values with which 9 quantitative (laboratory-based and point-of-care) FITs detected advanced neoplasms (AN) in a single colorectal cancer screening study. METHODS: Pre-colonoscopy stool samples were obtained from participants of screening colonoscopy in Germany from 2005 through 2010 and frozen at -80°C until analysis. The stool samples were thawed, homogenized, and used for 9 different quantitative FITs in parallel. Colonoscopy and histology reports were collected from all participants and evaluated by 2 independent, trained research assistants who were blinded to the test results. Comparative evaluations of diagnostic performance for AN were made at preset manufacturers' thresholds (range, 2.0-17.0 µg Hb/g feces), at a uniform threshold (15 µg Hb/g feces), and at adjusted thresholds yielding defined levels of specificity (99%, 97%, and 93%). RESULTS: Of the 1667 participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, all cases with AN (n = 216) and 300 randomly selected individuals without AN were included in the analysis. Sensitivities and specificities for AN varied widely when we used the preset thresholds (21.8%-46.3% and 85.7%-97.7%, respectively) or the uniform threshold (16.2%-34.3% and 94.0%-98.0%, respectively). Adjusting thresholds to yield a specificity of 99%, 97%, or 93% resulted in almost equal sensitivities for detection of AN (14.4%-18.5%, 21.3%-23.6%, and 30.1%-35.2%, respectively) and almost equal positivity rates (2.8%-3.4%, 5.8%-6.1%, and 10.1%-10.9%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Apparent heterogeneity in diagnostic performance of quantitative FITs can be overcome to a large extent by adjusting thresholds to yield defined levels of specificity or positivity rates. Rather than simply using thresholds recommended by the manufacturer, screening programs should choose thresholds based on intended levels of specificity and manageable positivity rates.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Fezes/química , Técnicas Imunológicas , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Colonoscopia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Imediatos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Int J Cancer ; 142(2): 290-296, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28913878

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a very aggressive tumor with a five-year survival of less than 6%. Chronic pancreatitis (CP), an inflammatory process in of the pancreas, is a strong risk factor for PDAC. Several genetic polymorphisms have been discovered as susceptibility loci for both CP and PDAC. Since CP and PDAC share a consistent number of epidemiologic risk factors, the aim of this study was to investigate whether specific CP risk loci also contribute to PDAC susceptibility. We selected five common SNPs (rs11988997, rs379742, rs10273639, rs2995271 and rs12688220) that were identified as susceptibility markers for CP and analyzed them in 2,914 PDAC cases, 356 CP cases and 5,596 controls retrospectively collected in the context of the international PANDoRA consortium. We found a weak association between the minor allele of the PRSS1-PRSS2-rs10273639 and an increased risk of developing PDAC (ORhomozygous = 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.38, p = 0.023). Additionally all the SNPs confirmed statistically significant associations with risk of developing CP, the strongest being PRSS1-PRSS2-rs10273639 (ORheterozygous = 0.51, 95% CI 0.39-0.67, p = 1.10 × 10-6 ) and MORC4-rs 12837024 (ORhomozygous = 2.07 (1.55-2.77, ptrend = 0.7 × 10-11 ). Taken together, the results from our study do not support variants rs11988997, rs379742, rs10273639, rs2995271 and rs12688220 as strong predictors of PDAC risk, but further support the role of these SNPs in CP susceptibility. Our study suggests that CP and PDAC probably do not share genetic susceptibility, at least in terms of high frequency variants.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Pancreatite Crônica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Pancreatite Crônica/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tripsina/genética , Tripsinogênio/genética
16.
Clin Epidemiol ; 9: 517-526, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29184444

RESUMO

Objective: Reliable noninvasive biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) are highly desirable for efficient population-based screening with high adherence rates. We aimed to discover and validate blood-based protein markers for the early detection of CRC. Patients and methods: A two-stage design with a discovery and a validation set was used. In the discovery phase, plasma levels of 92 protein markers and serum levels of TP53 autoantibody were measured in 226 clinically recruited CRC patients and 118 controls who were free of colorectal neoplasms at screening colonoscopy. An algorithm predicting the presence of CRC was derived by Lasso regression and validated in a validation set consisting of all available 41 patients with CRC and a representative sample of 106 participants with advanced adenomas and 107 controls free of neoplasm from a large screening colonoscopy cohort (N=6018). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to evaluate the diagnostic performance of individual biomarkers and biomarker combinations. Results: An algorithm based on growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), amphiregulin (AREG), Fas antigen ligand (FasL), Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) and TP53 autoantibody was constructed. In the validation set, the areas under the curves of this five-marker algorithm were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.74-0.90) for detecting CRC and 0.60 (95% CI, 0.52-0.69) for detecting advanced adenomas. At cutoffs yielding 90% specificity, the sensitivities (95% CI) for detecting CRC and advanced adenomas were 56.4% (38.4%-71.8%) and 22.0% (13.4%-35.4%), respectively. The five-marker panel showed similar diagnostic efficacy for the detection of early- and late-stage CRC. Conclusion: The identified most promising biomarkers could contribute to the development of powerful blood-based tests for CRC screening in the future.

17.
Oncotarget ; 8(33): 54537-54547, 2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28903362

RESUMO

Non-invasive blood-based molecule markers are evaluated as promising biomarkers these days. Here we investigated the potential of cell-free circulating DNA Integrity (cfDI) as blood-based marker for the prediction of recurrence during the follow-up of breast cancer patients within a prospective study cohort. cfDI was determined in plasma of 212 individuals, by measuring ALU and LINE1 repetitive DNA elements using quantitative PCR. A significant decrease of cfDI in recurrent breast cancer patients was observed. The group of patients who had impending recurrence during the follow-up had significant lower cfDI compared to the group of non-recurrent patients (P < 0.001 for ALU and LINE1 cfDI). cfDI could differentiate recurrent breast cancer patients from non-recurrent breast cancer subjects (area under the curve, AUC = 0.710 for ALU and 0.704 for LINE1). Univariate and multivariate analysis confirmed a significant association of recurrence and cfDI. Breast cancer patients with a lower cfDI had a much higher risk to develop recurrence than the patients with a higher cfDI (P = 0.020 for ALU cfDI and P = 0.019 for LINE1 cfDI, respectively). Further we show that cfDI is an independent predictor of breast cancer recurrence. In combination with other molecular markers, cfDI might be a useful biomarker for the prediction for breast cancer recurrence in clinic utility. We propose that cfDI might also be useful for the prediction of recurrence during the follow-up of other cancers.

18.
Carcinogenesis ; 38(8): 781-788, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28582482

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in both men and women. The gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as having an important role in human health and disease. Fusobacterium has been identified in former studies as a leading gut bacterium associated with colorectal cancer, but it is still not clear if it plays an oncogenic role. In the current study, fecal samples were collected prior to bowel preparation from participants of screening colonoscopy in the German BliTz study. Using 16S rRNA gene analysis, we examined the presence and relative abundance of Fusobacterium in fecal samples from 500 participants, including 46, 113, 110 and 231 individuals with colorectal cancer, advanced adenomas, non-advanced adenomas and without any neoplasms, respectively. We found that the abundance of Fusobacterium in feces was strongly associated with the presence of colorectal cancer (P-value < 0.0001). This was confirmed by PCR at the species level for Fusobacterium nucleatum. However, no association was seen with the presence of advanced adenomas (P-value = 0.80) or non-advanced adenomas (P-value = 0.80), nor were there any associations observed with dietary or lifestyle habits. Although a causal role cannot be ruled out, our observations, based on fecal microbiome, support the hypothesis that Fusobacterium is a passenger that multiplies in the more favorable conditions caused by the malignant tumor rather than a causal factor in colorectal cancer development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Fusobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fusobacterium/genética , Fusobacterium/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
19.
Carcinogenesis ; 38(3): 312-320, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28426874

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cancer in women worldwide. Changes in DNA methylation in peripheral blood could be associated with malignant diseases. Making use of screening results by llumina 27K Methylation Assay, we validated demethylation of five CpG sites of S100P gene in blood cell DNA of BC patients by three independent retrospective studies with subjects from different centers (Validation I: 235 familial BC case and 206 controls, odds ratio per -1% methylation > 1.03, and P < 6.00 × 10-8 for all five CpG sites; Validation II: 189 sporadic BC case and 189 controls, odds ratio per -1% methylation > 1.03, P < 8.0 × 10-5 for four CpG sites; Validation III: 156 sporadic BC case and 151 controls, odds ratio per -1% methylation > 1.03, P < 6.0 × 10-4 for four CpG sites). In addition, the blood-based S100P methylation pattern was similar among BC patients with differential clinical characteristics regardless of stage, receptor status and menopause status. The observed BC-associated decreased S100P methylation in blood mainly originates from the leucocytes subpopulations but not B cells. The methylation levels of most S100P CpG sites were inversely correlated with the expression of S100P in leucocytes (P < 1.2 × 10-4) and in tissue (P < 1.1 × 10-4). This study reveals significant association between blood-based decreased S100P methylation and BC, and provides another proof for the application of altered DNA methylation signatures from blood cells as potential markers for the detection of BC, especially for the early stage.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/sangue , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue
20.
Sci Rep ; 6: 36874, 2016 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27845421

RESUMO

NBS1, also known as NBN, plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability. Interestingly, rs2735383 G > C, located in a microRNA binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of NBS1, was shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to lung and colorectal cancer. However, the relation between rs2735383 and susceptibility to breast cancer is not yet clear. Therefore, we genotyped rs2735383 in 1,170 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 1,077 controls using PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) analysis, but found no association between rs2735383CC and breast cancer risk (OR = 1.214, 95% CI = 0.936-1.574, P = 0.144). Because we could not exclude a small effect size due to a limited sample size, we further analyzed imputed rs2735383 genotypes (r2 > 0.999) of 47,640 breast cancer cases and 46,656 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). However, rs2735383CC was not associated with overall breast cancer risk in European (OR = 1.014, 95% CI = 0.969-1.060, P = 0.556) nor in Asian women (OR = 0.998, 95% CI = 0.905-1.100, P = 0.961). Subgroup analyses by age, age at menarche, age at menopause, menopausal status, number of pregnancies, breast feeding, family history and receptor status also did not reveal a significant association. This study therefore does not support the involvement of the genotype at NBS1 rs2735383 in breast cancer susceptibility.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Alelos , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
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