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1.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 136: 1-9, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662511

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many factors are postulated to affect guidelines developments. We set out to identify the key determinants. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: a) Web-based survey of 12 panels of 153 "voting" members who issued 2941 recommendations; b) qualitative analysis of 13 panels of 311 attendees (panel members, systematic review teams and observers). RESULTS: Compared with "no recommendations", when intervention's benefit outweigh harms (BH-balance), probability of issuing strong recommendations in favor of intervention was 0.22 (95%CI: 0.08 to 0.36) when certainty of evidence (CoE) was very low; 0.5 (95%CI:0.36 to 0.63) when low; 0.74 (95%CI 0.61 to 0.87) when moderate and 0.85 (95%CI:0.71 to 1.00) when high. No other postulated factor significantly affected recommendations. The findings are consistent with a J- curve model when recommendations are issued in favor but not against an intervention. Panelists often changed their judgments as a result of the meeting discussion (67% for CoE to 92% for balance between benefits and harms). The panels spent over 50% of their time debating CoE; the chairs and co-chairs dominated discussion. CONCLUSIONS: CoE and BH-balance are key determinants of recommendations in favor of an intervention. Chairs and co-chairs dominate discussion. Panelists often change their judgments as a result of panel deliberation.

2.
Ann Intern Med ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are increasingly used in place of warfarin, but evidence about their effectiveness and safety in patients with valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) remains limited. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness and safety of DOACs compared with warfarin in patients with valvular AF. DESIGN: New-user retrospective propensity score-matched cohort study. SETTING: U.S.-based commercial health care database from 1 January 2010 to 30 June 2019. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with valvular AF who were newly prescribed DOACs or warfarin. MEASUREMENTS: The primary effectiveness outcome was a composite of ischemic stroke or systemic embolism. The primary safety outcome was a composite of intracranial or gastrointestinal bleeding. RESULTS: Among a total of 56 336 patients with valvular AF matched on propensity score, use of DOACs (vs. warfarin) was associated with lower risk for ischemic stroke or systemic embolism (hazard ratio [HR], 0.64 [95% CI, 0.59 to 0.70]) and major bleeding events (HR, 0.67 [CI, 0.63 to 0.72]). The results for the effectiveness and safety outcomes remained consistent for apixaban (HRs, 0.54 [CI, 0.47 to 0.61] and 0.52 [CI, 0.47 to 0.57], respectively) and rivaroxaban (HRs, 0.74 [CI, 0.64 to 0.86] and 0.87 [CI, 0.79 to 0.96], respectively); with dabigatran, results were consistent for the major bleeding outcome (HR, 0.81 [CI, 0.68 to 0.97]) but not for effectiveness (HR, 1.03 [CI, 0.81 to 1.31]). LIMITATION: Relatively short follow-up; inability to ascertain disease severity. CONCLUSION: In this comparative effectiveness study using practice-based claims data, patients with valvular AF who were new users of DOACs had lower risks for ischemic stroke or systemic embolism and major bleeding than new users of warfarin. These data may be used to guide risk-benefit discussions regarding anticoagulant choices for patients with valvular AF. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: None.

3.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies report hypercoagulability in COVID-19, leading many institutions to escalate anticoagulation intensity for thrombosis prophylaxis OBJECTIVE: To determine the bleeding risk with various intensities of anticoagulation in critically-ill patients with COVID-19 compared to other respiratory viral illnesses (ORVI). PATIENTS/METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared the incidence of major bleeding in patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) within a single health system with COVID-19 versus ORVI. In the COVID-19 cohort, we assessed the effect of anticoagulation intensity received on ICU admission on bleeding risk. We performed a secondary analysis with anticoagulation intensity as a time-varying covariate to reflect dose changes after ICU admission. RESULTS: 443 and 387 patients were included in the COVID-19 and ORVI cohorts, respectively. The hazard ratio of major bleeding for the COVID-19 cohort relative to the ORVI cohort was 1.26 (95% CI 0.86-1.86). In COVID-19 patients, an inverse-probability treatment weighted (IPTW) model found therapeutic-intensity anticoagulation on ICU admission had an adjusted hazard ratio of bleeding of 1.55 (95% CI 0.88-2.73) compared to standard prophylactic-intensity anticoagulation. However, when anticoagulation was assessed as a time-varying covariate and adjusted for other risk factors for bleeding, the adjusted hazard ratio for bleeding on therapeutic-intensity anticoagulation compared to standard thromboprophylaxis was 2.59 (95% CI 1.20-5.57). CONCLUSIONS: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 had a similar bleeding risk as ORVI patients. When accounting for changes in anticoagulation that occurred in COVID-19 patients, therapeutic-intensity anticoagulation was associated with a greater risk of major bleeding compared with standard thromboprophylaxis.

4.
Blood ; 137(14): 1855-1861, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529333

RESUMO

Immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is a potentially fatal thrombotic microangiopathy caused by autoantibody-mediated severe deficiency of ADAMTS13. Standardized definitions of response, exacerbation, remission, and relapse were initially proposed in 2003 and modified by the International Working Group for TTP in 2017. These definitions, which have been widely used in clinical practice and research, are based primarily on the platelet count and are benchmarked against the timing of discontinuation of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). They do not incorporate ADAMTS13 activity or the temporizing effects on the platelet count of caplacizumab, a novel anti-von Willebrand factor (VWF) nanobody. In light of these limitations, the IWG aimed to develop revised consensus outcome definitions that incorporate ADAMTS13 activity and the effects of anti-VWF therapy, by using an estimate-talk-estimate approach. The updated definitions distinguish clinical remission and clinical relapse (defined primarily by platelet count) from ADAMTS13 remission and ADAMTS13 relapse (defined by ADAMTS13 activity). The revised definitions of exacerbation and remission are benchmarked against not only the timing of discontinuation of TPE but also that of anti-VWF therapy. Retrospective validation of the revised definitions is described, although they have yet to be prospectively validated. Clinical implications of the updated outcome definitions are also discussed and an example of their application to clinical practice is provided to highlight their clinical relevance.

5.
Blood Adv ; 5(3): 872-888, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related critical illness and acute illness are associated with a risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). OBJECTIVE: These evidence-based guidelines of the American Society of Hematology (ASH) are intended to support patients, clinicians, and other health care professionals in decisions about the use of anticoagulation for thromboprophylaxis for patients with COVID-19-related critical illness and acute illness who do not have confirmed or suspected VTE. METHODS: ASH formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel and applied strict management strategies to minimize potential bias from conflicts of interest. The panel included 3 patient representatives. The McMaster University GRADE Centre supported the guideline-development process, including performing systematic evidence reviews (up to 19 August 2020). The panel prioritized clinical questions and outcomes according to their importance for clinicians and patients. The panel used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, including GRADE Evidence-to-Decision frameworks, to assess evidence and make recommendations, which were subject to public comment. RESULTS: The panel agreed on 2 recommendations. The panel issued conditional recommendations in favor of prophylactic-intensity anticoagulation over intermediate-intensity or therapeutic-intensity anticoagulation for patients with COVID-19-related critical illness or acute illness who do not have confirmed or suspected VTE. CONCLUSIONS: These recommendations were based on very low certainty in the evidence, underscoring the need for high-quality, randomized controlled trials comparing different intensities of anticoagulation. They will be updated using a living recommendation approach as new evidence becomes available.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , /complicações , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações
6.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(1): 297-303, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405381

RESUMO

Clinical research in venous thromboembolism (VTE) is hindered by variability in the collection and reporting of data and outcomes. A consistent data language facilitates efficiencies, leads to higher quality data, and permits between-study comparisons and evidence synthesis. The International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) launched an international task force of more than 50 researchers to develop common data elements for clinical research in venous thromboembolism. The project was organized in seven working groups, each focusing on a topic area: General Core Data Elements; Anticoagulation and Other Therapies; Chronic VTE and Functional Outcomes; Diagnosis of VTE; Malignancy; Perioperative; and Predictors of VTE. The groups met via teleconference to collaboratively identify key data elements and develop definitions and data standards that were structured in a project-specific taxonomy. A Steering Committee met by teleconference and in-person to determine the overall scope of the project and resolve questions arising from the working groups. ISTH held an open public comment period to enable broader stakeholder involvement and feedback. The common data elements were then refined by the working groups to create a set of 512 unique data elements that are publicly available at http://isth.breakthrough.healthcare. The ISTH VTE Common Data Elements are intended to be a living project with ongoing curation, future expansion, and adaptation to meet the needs of the thrombosis and hemostasis research community.

8.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 4(7): 1131-1140, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134779

RESUMO

Background: Second-line treatment for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is not well reported for patients treated in real-world clinical settings. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of four second-line treatments for ITP. Patients/methods: Included adult patients had at least two medical records containing ITP diagnoses and second-line eltrombopag, romiplostim, rituximab, or splenectomy. Date of treatment initiation or splenectomy was set as index date, between July 1, 2008, and March 31, 2017. Patients had first-line corticosteroid or intravenous immune globulin treatment and continuous database activity from 6 months before to 12 months after index. Patient characteristics, treatment patterns, platelet counts, bleeding-related episodes (BREs), and thrombotic events (TEs) were compared by second-line treatment cohort. Results: The sample included 3332 patients (mean age, 60.5 years; 52.3% female): eltrombopag (5.8%), romiplostim (9.9%), rituximab (73.3%), and splenectomy (11.0%). Patients having splenectomy were younger, more likely female and commercially insured, and less likely to require a third line of treatment than medical regimen cohorts. Proportions of patients having treatment-free (≥180 days with no second-line index or rescue agent) periods varied significantly (P = .01) by regimen: 33% for eltrombopag, 23% for romiplostim, 26% for rituximab, and 17% for splenectomy. All regimens significantly improved platelet counts, while TE and BRE rates differed significantly (P = .03 and P = .01, respectively) when all treatment groups were compared. Conclusions: Over an average 7-year follow-up, all second-line regimens improved platelet counts, but eltrombopag yielded the highest proportion of patients with completely treatment-free periods of at least 180 days.

9.
Blood Adv ; 4(19): 4693-4738, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), occurs in ∼1 to 2 individuals per 1000 each year, corresponding to ∼300 000 to 600 000 events in the United States annually. OBJECTIVE: These evidence-based guidelines from the American Society of Hematology (ASH) intend to support patients, clinicians, and others in decisions about treatment of VTE. METHODS: ASH formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel balanced to minimize potential bias from conflicts of interest. The McMaster University GRADE Centre supported the guideline development process, including updating or performing systematic evidence reviews. The panel prioritized clinical questions and outcomes according to their importance for clinicians and adult patients. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess evidence and make recommendations, which were subject to public comment. RESULTS: The panel agreed on 28 recommendations for the initial management of VTE, primary treatment, secondary prevention, and treatment of recurrent VTE events. CONCLUSIONS: Strong recommendations include the use of thrombolytic therapy for patients with PE and hemodynamic compromise, use of an international normalized ratio (INR) range of 2.0 to 3.0 over a lower INR range for patients with VTE who use a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) for secondary prevention, and use of indefinite anticoagulation for patients with recurrent unprovoked VTE. Conditional recommendations include the preference for home treatment over hospital-based treatment for uncomplicated DVT and PE at low risk for complications and a preference for direct oral anticoagulants over VKA for primary treatment of VTE.

10.
JB JS Open Access ; 5(2): e0085, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123670

RESUMO

Background: Individuals with hemophilia undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty are at risk for complications such as bleeding and infection. However, data on hospital length of stay (LOS) and readmission rates compared with nonhemophilic controls are lacking. This study compared the complication rates, LOS, and unplanned 30-day readmission rates between patients with hemophilia and nonhemophilic controls. Methods: This retrospective cohort study used the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council (PHC4) database from 2007 to 2015 to compare outcomes in patients with hemophilia and nonhemophilic controls undergoing partial and total hip arthroplasty, knee arthroplasty, and revision knee arthroplasty. Results: A total of 118 patients with hemophilia and 3,811 controls were identified. Compared with controls, patients with hemophilia had a higher risk of bleeding complications after hip procedures (38.7% versus 16.1%, p = 0.003), a higher risk of surgical site infection after knee procedures (8.1% versus 1.1%, p < 0.001), longer median LOS after hip (6 versus 3 days, p < 0.001) and knee (5 versus 3 days, p < 0.001) procedures, and higher rates of unplanned 30-day readmission after hip (22.6% versus 4.1%, p < 0.001) and knee (10.3% versus 4.5%, p = 0.018) procedures. The most common reason for unplanned 30-day readmission in patients with hemophilia was bleeding or the patient's underlying coagulopathy (25.1%). Conclusions: Patients with hemophilia undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty had a higher incidence of postoperative bleeding (hip procedures) and surgical site infections (knee procedures), longer LOS, and higher rates of unplanned 30-day readmission compared with nonhemophilic controls. Key limitations of our study include the potential for inaccurate coding, the relatively small number of patients in the hemophilia cohort, and the uneven distribution of procedure type in the hemophilia and control cohorts. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

11.
Blood Adv ; 4(20): 5184-5193, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095876

RESUMO

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothrombotic adverse drug reaction occurring in <0.1% to 7% of patients receiving heparin products depending on the patient population and type of heparin. Management of HIT is highly dependent on a sequence of tests for which clinicians may or may not have the results when care decisions need to be made. We conducted systematic reviews of the effects of management strategies in persons with acute HIT, subacute HIT A or B, and remote HIT. We searched Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database through July 2019 for previously published systematic reviews and primary studies. Two investigators independently screened and extracted data and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. We found primarily noncomparative studies and case series assessing effects of treatments, which led to low to very low certainty evidence. There may be little to no difference in the effects between nonheparin parenteral anticoagulants and direct oral anticoagulants in acute HIT. The benefits of therapeutic-intensity may be greater than prophylactic-intensity anticoagulation. Using inferior vena cava filters or platelet transfusion may result in greater harm than not using these approaches. Evidence for management in special situations, such as for patients undergoing cardiovascular interventions or renal replacement therapy, was also low to very low certainty. Additional research to evaluate nonheparin anticoagulants is urgently needed, and the development of novel treatments that reduce thrombosis without increasing hemorrhage should be a priority.

12.
Blood Adv ; 4(18): 4327-4332, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915974

RESUMO

We have shown that patients with suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) have a high incidence of major bleeding. Recent studies have implicated elevated soluble glycoprotein VI (sGPVI) levels as a potential risk factor for bleeding. We sought to determine if elevated sGPVI plasma levels are associated with major bleeding events in patients with suspected HIT. We used a cohort of 310 hospitalized adult patients with suspected HIT who had a blood sample collected at the time HIT was suspected. Plasma sGPVI levels were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were excluded who had received a platelet transfusion within 1 day of sample collection because of the high levels of sGPVI in platelet concentrates. We assessed the association of sGPVI (high vs low) with International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding events by multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for other known risk factors for bleeding. Fifty-four patients were excluded due to recent platelet transfusion, leaving 256 patients for analysis. Eighty-nine (34.8%) patients had a major bleeding event. Median sGPVI levels were significantly elevated in patients with major bleeding events compared with those without major bleeding events (49.09 vs 31.93 ng/mL; P < .001). An sGPVI level >43 ng/mL was independently associated with major bleeding after adjustment for critical illness, sepsis, cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, and degree of thrombocytopenia (adjusted odds ratio, 2.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.51-5.23). Our findings suggest that sGPVI is associated with major bleeding in hospitalized patients with suspected HIT. sGPVI may be a novel biomarker to predict bleeding risk in patients with suspected HIT.

13.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(9): 2126-2137, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881337

RESUMO

Clarity and guidance is required with regard to the use of direct oral anticoagulants in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) patients, within the confines of the recent European Medicines Agency recommendations, discrepant recommendations in other international guidelines and the limited evidence base. To address this, the Lupus Anticoagulant/Antiphospholipid Antibodies Scientific and Standardization Committee (SSC) chair and co-chairs together with SSC Control of Anticoagulation members propose guidance for healthcare professionals to help them manage APS patients. Uncertainty in this field will be addressed. This guidance will also serve as a call and focus for research.

14.
Blood Adv ; 4(17): 4208-4216, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898246

RESUMO

The indicated dose of 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) for urgent vitamin K antagonist (VKA) reversal in patients with an international normalized ratio (INR) of 2 to 4 is 25 IU/kg, but there is no indicated dose for INR <2. We explored 4F-PCC dosing strategies for baseline INR <2. Clinical trial data were used to develop pharmacometric models for Factor X (FX) and FII, accounting for covariates including baseline INR. FX and FII levels over time were simulated for mean baseline INR levels of the clinical trial participants plus baseline INRs 3.1, 1.9, and 1.6. For each INR, 200 virtual male patients were simulated to evaluate 4F-PCC doses of 35, 25, 20, 15, 12.5, and 10 IU/kg. Given an elevated bleeding risk with VKA therapy in Japanese vs Western populations, results were stratified by Japanese and non-Japanese patients. Target levels of FX and FII were ≥50% activity at 30 minutes after dosing in ≥80% of patients. FX- and FII-time models were developed with 1088 FX observations from 193 patients and 1074 FII observations from 192 patients. Model-based simulations indicated that at baseline INR 3.1, ≥80% of patients achieved ≥50% FX and FII activity with 25 IU/kg and 20 IU/kg 4F-PCC, respectively; at baseline INR 1.9, corresponding doses were 20 IU/kg and 15 IU/kg 4F-PCC, and at baseline INR 1.6, corresponding doses were 15 IU/kg, and 10 IU/kg 4F-PCC. Trends in Japanese and non-Japanese patients were similar. In conclusion, low 4F-PCC doses (15-20 IU/kg) may be sufficient to achieve hemostatic levels of FX and FII in Japanese and non-Japanese patients with baseline INR <2.

15.
Transfusion ; 60(9): 2047-2057, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PLASMIC score was developed to identify patients with thrombotic microangiopathy who are most likely to have immune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and benefit from therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). PLASMIC scores of 0-4, 5, and 6-7 are said to correspond to low, intermediate, and high probability of TTP, respectively. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the diagnostic accuracy of the PLASMIC score in adults with suspected TTP. We evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value (NPV) of PLASMIC score thresholds of ≥5 and ≥6. Study quality was appraised using the QUADAS-2 tool. RESULTS: We identified 13 eligible studies, which collectively enrolled 970 patients. The median prevalence of TTP among eligible studies was 35%. The sensitivity and specificity of a PLASMIC score ≥5 was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91-1.00) and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.41-0.72), respectively. At a prevalence of 35%, the NPV of a PLASMIC score ≥5 was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.92-1.00). A PLASMIC score ≥6 was associated with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.67-0.94) and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.81-0.94), respectively. The NPV of a PLASMIC score ≥6 at a prevalence of 35% was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.82-0.97). CONCLUSION: A PLASMIC score threshold of ≥5 is associated with high sensitivity and NPV and may be a useful screening tool for identifying patients who are unlikely to have TTP and do not require TPE, though prospective assessment is required. A PLASMIC score <6 appears to have insufficient sensitivity to rule out TTP and the need for TPE.

17.
Transl Res ; 225: 1-8, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434007

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common disorder associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. It may be encountered by clinicians in virtually all medical specialties and healthcare settings. A large number of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) on VTE have been published in recent years to support clinicians in delivering high-quality care for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of VTE. Essential elements of CPGs include a guideline panel composed of content experts from multiple disciplines, methodologists, and representatives from key affected groups; a systematic review of evidence; consideration of patient subgroups and patient values and preferences; management of conflicts of interest; an explanation of the relationship between alternative care options and health outcomes; and rating of the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. These elements enhance the transparency and trustworthiness of CPGs and set them apart from other types of clinical guidance documents. The objectives of this narrative review are to summarize methods used to develop CPGs and to provide guidance to end-users on how to interpret recommendations and apply them in clinical practice. While much of the content of this review applies to CPGs in general, irrespective of disease focus, a number of examples specific to VTE are included.


Assuntos
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Humanos
18.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(8): 2018-2024, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most patients with suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and an intermediate probability 4Ts score do not have HIT. We aimed to develop a metric based on the rate of platelet count fall to aid in discriminating HIT status among patients with an intermediate 4Ts score. METHODS: We derived a measure of the maximum 24-hour percentage decrease in platelet count (Fallmax ) in a cohort of patients with suspected HIT and an intermediate 4Ts score at the University of Pennsylvania. We validated this metric in a prospectively collected cohort of patients with suspected HIT and an intermediate 4Ts score from four hospitals in Hamilton, Ontario. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-eight and 139 patients were included in the analysis from the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. Fallmax was significantly higher in HIT-positive patients in the derivation cohort (49.6% versus 38.6%, P = .009) and validation cohort (43.5% versus 29.3%, P = .027). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-0.78) and 0.71 (0.59-0.83) in the two cohorts, respectively. At Fallmax  ≥ 30%, sensitivity and specificity were 95.5% and 29.4% in the derivation cohort and 80.0% and 52.7% in the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with suspected HIT and an intermediate 4Ts score, Fallmax aided in discriminating HIT-negative from HIT-positive patients. Using a measure that accounts for the rate of platelet count fall may help to avoid unnecessary suspension of heparin and treatment with an alternative anticoagulant in HIT-negative patients with an intermediate probability 4Ts score, though further evaluation is warranted.

19.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(1): 72-81, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440883

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infection that can, in severe cases, result in cytokine storm, systemic inflammatory response and coagulopathy that is prognostic of poor outcomes. While some, but not all, laboratory findings appear similar to sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), COVID-19- induced coagulopathy (CIC) appears to be more prothrombotic than hemorrhagic. It has been postulated that CIC may be an uncontrolled immunothrombotic response to COVID-19, and there is growing evidence of venous and arterial thromboembolic events in these critically ill patients. Clinicians around the globe are challenged with rapidly identifying reasonable diagnostic, monitoring and anticoagulant strategies to safely and effectively manage these patients. Thoughtful use of proven, evidence-based approaches must be carefully balanced with integration of rapidly emerging evidence and growing experience. The goal of this document is to provide guidance from the Anticoagulation Forum, a North American organization of anticoagulation providers, regarding use of anticoagulant therapies in patients with COVID-19. We discuss in-hospital and post-discharge venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention, treatment of suspected but unconfirmed VTE, laboratory monitoring of COVID-19, associated anticoagulant therapies, and essential elements for optimized transitions of care specific to patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Transferência de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Terapia Trombolítica , Tromboembolia Venosa/virologia , Varfarina
20.
Blood Adv ; 4(9): 2095-2110, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396622

RESUMO

Since November 2018, Blood Advances has published American Society of Hematology (ASH) clinical practice guidelines on venous thromboembolism, immune thrombocytopenia, and sickle cell disease. More ASH guidelines on these and other topics are forthcoming. These guidelines have been developed using consistent processes, methods, terminology, and presentation formats. In this article, we describe how patients, clinicians, policymakers, researchers, and others may use ASH guidelines and the many related derivates by describing how to interpret information and how to apply it to clinical decision-making. Also, by exploring how these documents are developed, we aim to clarify their limitations and possible inappropriate usage.

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