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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902128

RESUMO

AKI is commonly encountered in patients with decompensated cirrhosis, and it is associated with unfavorable outcomes. Among factors specific to cirrhosis, hepatorenal syndrome type 1, also referred to as hepatorenal syndrome-AKI, is the most salient and unique etiology. Patients with cirrhosis are vulnerable to traditional causes of AKI, such as prerenal azotemia, acute tubular injury, and acute interstitial nephritis. In addition, other less common etiologies of AKI specifically related to chronic liver disease should be considered, including abdominal compartment syndrome, cardiorenal processes linked to cirrhotic cardiomyopathy and portopulmonary hypertension, and cholemic nephropathy. Furthermore, certain types of GN can cause AKI in cirrhosis, such as IgA nephropathy or viral hepatitis related. Therefore, a comprehensive diagnostic approach is needed to evaluate patients with cirrhosis presenting with AKI. Management should be tailored to the specific underlying etiology. Albumin-based volume resuscitation is recommended in prerenal AKI. Acute tubular injury and acute interstitial nephritis are managed with supportive care, withdrawal of the offending agent, and, potentially, corticosteroids in acute interstitial nephritis. Short of liver transplantation, vasoconstrictor therapy is the primary treatment for hepatorenal syndrome type 1. Timing of initiation of vasoconstrictors, the rise in mean arterial pressure, and the degree of cholestasis are among the factors that determine vasoconstrictor responsiveness. Large-volume paracentesis and diuretics are indicated to relieve intra-abdominal hypertension and renal vein congestion. Direct-acting antivirals with or without immunosuppression are used to treat hepatitis B/C-associated GN. In summary, AKI in cirrhosis requires careful consideration of multiple potentially pathogenic factors and the implementation of targeted therapeutic interventions.

3.
Liver Transpl ; 2022 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665591

RESUMO

The burden of early hospitalization (within 6 months) following simultaneous liver-kidney transplant (SLKT) is not known. We examined risk factors associated with early hospitalization after SLKT and their impact on patient mortality conditional on 6-month survival. We used data from the US Multicenter SLKT Consortium cohort study of all adult SLKT recipients between 2002 and 2017 who were discharged alive following SLKT. We used Poisson regression to model rates of early hospitalizations after SLKT. Cox regression was used to identify risk factors associated with mortality conditional on survival at 6 months after SLKT. Median age (N = 549) was 57.7 years (interquartile range [IQR], 50.6-63.9) with 63% males and 76% Whites; 33% had hepatitis C virus, 20% had non-alcohol-associated fatty liver disease, 23% alcohol-associated liver disease, and 24% other etiologies. Median body mass index (BMI) and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-sodium scores were 27.2 kg/m2 (IQR, 23.6-32.2 kg/m2 ) and 28 (IQR, 23-34), respectively. Two-thirds of the cohort had at least one hospitalization within the first 6 months of SLKT. Age, race, hospitalization at SLKT, diabetes mellitus, BMI, and discharge to subacute rehabilitation (SAR) facility after SLKT were independently associated with a high incidence rate ratio of early hospitalization. Number of hospitalizations within the first 6 months did not affect conditional survival. Early hospitalizations after SLKT were very common but did not affect conditional survival. Although most of the risk factors for early hospitalization were nonmodifiable, discharge to SAR after initial SLKT was associated with a significantly higher incidence rate of early hospitalization. Efforts and resources should be focused on identifying SLKT recipients at high risk for early hospitalization to optimize their predischarge care, discharge planning, and long-term follow-up.

4.
Hepatology ; 76(3): 689-699, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We investigated the impact of the inclusion of kidney dysfunction type on the discrimination and calibration of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease with sodium (MELD-Na-KT) score. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We included all adults listed for ≥90 days without exception points from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2018. We defined kidney dysfunction types as follows: acute kidney disease (AKD; an increase of ≥0.3 mg/dL or ≥50% in serum creatinine in the last 7 days or fewer than 72 days of hemodialysis), chronic kidney disease (CKD; an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2  for 90 days or ≥72 days of hemodialysis), AKD on CKD (met both definitions), or none (met neither definition). We then developed and validated a multivariable survival model with follow-up beginning at the first assessment after 90 days from waitlist registration and ending at the time of death, waitlist removal, or 90 days from enrollment in this study. The predictor variables were MELD-Na and the derived MELD-Na-KT model. In the derivation cohort, kidney dysfunction type was significantly associated with waitlist mortality after controlling for MELD-Na. There was a significant linear interaction between kidney dysfunction type and MELD-Na score. In the validation cohort, we saw an improvement in the discrimination of the model with an increase in the c-index from 0.76 with MELD-Na to 0.78 with MELD-Na-KT (p = 0.002) and a net reclassification index of 10.8% (95% CI, 1.9%-11.4%). The newly derived MELD-Na-KT model had lower Brier scores (MELD-Na-KT 0.042 vs. MELD-Na 0.053). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility and the potential for objectively defined kidney dysfunction types to enhance the prognostication of waitlist mortality provided by the MELD-Na score.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Humanos , Rim , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sódio , Listas de Espera
5.
Hepatology ; 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35357707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Kidney function in patients with cirrhosis is dynamic. After controlling for the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI), we investigated the impact of variation in clinical function on pre-liver transplantation (LT) and post-LT outcomes. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We included adults listed for LT from 2011 through 2018. We excluded those with any exceptions, those on hemodialysis at listing, and those with fewer than three clinical updates in the United Network for Organ Sharing database. Our primary exposure was the serum creatinine coefficient of variation (sCr CoV). Logistic regression determined the associations between our exposures and higher sCr CoV. Competing risk regression determined the associations between our exposures and waitlist mortality, accounting for LT as a competing risk. Cox regression determined the associations between our exposures and either listing for kidney transplant or death. We divided our cohort into tertiles of sCr CoV: low variability, 8.8% (interquartile range [IQR], 6.6%-10.8%); intermediate variability, 17.4% (IQR, 14.8%-20.4%); high variability, 36.8% (IQR, 29.5%-48.8%). We demonstrate that women, those with CKD, and those with advanced liver disease were more likely to have a greater sCr CoV. Compared to those with low variability, those with high variability had significantly higher waitlist mortality (34.7% vs. 19.6% vs. 11.7%, p < 0.001). We highlight that the sCr CoV was associated with higher waitlist and post-LT mortality-an association independent of baseline sCr, the degree of underlying liver disease, the presence of AKI, or the presence of CKD. CONCLUSION: This study informs the long-term impact of the variation in kidney function we all see in clinical practice. These data highlight that all fluctuations in sCr are associated with worse pre-LT and post-LT outcomes.

6.
J Hepatol ; 76(5): 1122-1126, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studies regarding acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) among liver transplant (LT) candidates from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database are being used to inform LT policy changes worldwide. We assessed the validity of identifying ACLF in UNOS. METHODS: We performed stratified random sampling among 3 US LT centers between 2013-2019 to obtain a representative patient sample across ACLF grades. We compared the concordance of ACLF classification by UNOS vs. blinded manual chart review, according to EASL-CLIF. RESULTS: Among 481 sampled LT registrants, 250 (52%) had no ACLF, 75 (16%) had ACLF grade 1, 79 (16%) had ACLF grade 2, and 77 (16%) had ACLF grade 3 per UNOS categorization. Concordance of ACLF grade by UNOS vs. chart review was: 72%, 64%, 56%, and 64% for no ACLF, grade 1, grade 2, and grade 3, respectively, with an overall Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.48 (95% CI 0.42-0.54). Absence of acute decompensation was the most common reason for overestimation, and discordant brain and respiratory failure categorization were the most common reasons for underestimation of ACLF by UNOS. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective multi-center study, ACLF categorization by UNOS showed weak agreement with manual chart review. These findings are informative for ongoing allocation policy discussions, highlight the importance of prospective studies regarding ACLF in LT, and should encourage UNOS reform. LAY SUMMARY: Acute-on-chronic-liver-failure (ACLF) is a specific and common form of liver failure associated with high death rates. Studies have been published using the United States transplant registry (UNOS) to identify and describe outcomes of transplant candidates and recipients with ACLF, and these data are driving policy changes for transplant allocation around the world, but nobody has shown whether these data are reliable. We found that UNOS was not categorizing ACLF in concordance or accurately when compared to chart review, which shows the need for UNOS reform and non-UNOS studies to appropriately inform policies regarding the transplantation of patients with ACLF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Transplante de Fígado , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Hepatol Commun ; 6(4): 910-919, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676697

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) and frailty are major drivers of outcomes among patients with cirrhosis. What is unknown is the impact of physical frailty on the development of AKI. We included adults with cirrhosis without hepatocellular carcinoma listed for liver transplantation at nine US centers (n = 1,033). Frailty was assessed using the Liver Frailty Index (LFI); "frail" was defined by LFI ≥ 4.2. Chronic kidney disease as a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 . Our primary outcome, AKI, was defined as an increase in serum creatinine ≥0.3 mg/dL or a serum creatinine ≥1.5-fold increase. Wait-list mortality was defined as either a death on the wait list or removal for being too sick. We performed Cox regression analyses to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for AKI and wait-list mortality. Of 1,033 participants, 41% were frail and 23% had CKD. Twenty-one percent had an episode of AKI during follow-up. Frail versus nonfrail patients were more likely to develop AKI (25% vs. 19%) and wait-list mortality (21% vs. 13%) (P < 0.01 for each). In multivariable Cox regression, each of the following groups was associated with a higher risk of AKI as compared with not frail/no CKD: frail/no CKD (adjusted HR [aHR] = 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29-2.72); not frail/CKD (aHR = 4.30, CI = 2.88-6.42); and frail/CKD (aHR = 4.85, CI = 3.33-7.07). We use a readily available metric, LFI, to identify those patients with cirrhosis most at risk for AKI. We highlight that serum creatinine and creatinine-based estimations of glomerular filtration rate may not fully capture a patient's vulnerability to AKI among the frail phenotype. Conclusion: Our work lays the foundation for implementing physical frailty in clinical practice to identify AKI earlier, implement reno-protective strategies, and expedite liver transplantation.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Fragilidade , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/complicações , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Listas de Espera
10.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Kidney dysfunction is associated with increased mortality among patients with cirrhosis. We investigated whether kidney dysfunction types [e.g., acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and AKI on CKD] were differentially associated with inpatient mortality. METHODS: We utilized the nationwide inpatient sample, a nationally representative database, from 2007 to 2014. We included all hospitalizations with previously validated codes for cirrhosis or associated decompensated cirrhosis diagnoses. We defined kidney dysfunction types also from previously validated codes, and we grouped hospitalizations into the following diagnoses: normal, AKI, CKD, and AKI on CKD. Our primary outcome was inpatient mortality. RESULTS: There were 1,293,779 hospitalizations with cirrhosis sampled in this study. Of these hospitalizations, 849,193 (66%) had normal kidney function, 176,418 (14%) had AKI, 157,600 (12%) had CKD, and 110,568 (9%) had AKI on CKD. We found that the proportion of hospitalizations with AKI, CKD, and AKI on CKD increased significantly throughout the study period (p < 0.001, test for trend for all). Kidney dysfunction type was differentially associated with inpatient mortality, even after adjustment: as compared to those with CKD, normal kidney function: OR 0.75 [95 CI 0.73-0.78], AKI: OR 2.40 [95 CI 2.32-2.48], and AKI on CKD: OR 1.66 [95 CI 1.60-1.72]. DISCUSSION: Using a nationally representative cohort of all hospitalizations with cirrhosis, our study highlights that the burden of kidney dysfunction, especially AKI, among hospitalizations with cirrhosis is rising, and the inclusion of kidney dysfunction type may be an opportunity to improve prognostication.

11.
Liver Transpl ; 27(11): 1613-1622, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265161

RESUMO

We aimed to understand the contemporary changes in the characteristics and the determinants of outcomes among simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation (SLKT) recipients at 6 liver transplantation centers in the United States. We retrospectively enrolled SLKT recipients between 2002 and 2017 in the US Multicenter SLKT Consortium. We analyzed time-related trends in recipient characteristics and outcomes with linear regression and nonparametric methods. Clustered Cox regression determined the factors associated with 1-year and overall survival. We enrolled 572 patients. We found significant changes in the clinical characteristics of SLKT recipients: as compared with 2002, recipients in 2017 were older (59 versus 52 years; P < 0.001) and more likely to have chronic kidney disease (71% versus 33%; P < 0.001). There was a marked improvement in 1-year survival during the study period: 89% in 2002 versus 96% in 2017 (P < 0.001). We found that the drivers of 1-year mortality were SLKT year, hemodialysis at listing, donor distance, and delayed kidney allograft function. The drivers of overall mortality were an indication of acute kidney dysfunction, body mass index, hypertension, creatinine at SLKT, ventilation at SLKT, and donor quality. In this contemporary cohort of SLKT recipients, we highlight changes in the clinical characteristics of recipients. Further, we identify the determinants of 1-year and overall survival to highlight the variables that require the greatest attention to optimize outcomes.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Transplante de Fígado , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Rim , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Fígado , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Liver Transpl ; 27(8): 1144-1153, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641218

RESUMO

Simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation (SLKT) is increasingly common in the United States. However, little is known about the renal-related outcomes following SLKT, which are essential to maximize the health of these allografts. We examined the factors impacting renal function following SLKT. This is an observational multicenter cohort study from the US Multicenter SLKT Consortium consisting of recipients of SLKT aged ≥18 years of transplantations performed between February 2002 and June 2017 at 6 large US centers in 6 different United Network for Organ Sharing regions. The primary outcome was incident post-SLKT stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as <30 mL/minute/1.73 m2 or listing for kidney transplant. The median age of the recipients (n = 570) was 58 years (interquartile range, 51-64 years), and 37% were women, 76% were White, 33% had hepatitis C virus infection, 20% had nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and 23% had alcohol-related liver disease; 68% developed ≥ stage 3 CKD at the end of follow-up. The 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year incidence rates of post-SLKT stage 4-5 CKD were 10%, 12%, and 16%, respectively. Pre-SLKT diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio [HR], 1.45; 95% CI, 1.00-2.15), NASH (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.01-2.45), and delayed kidney graft function (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.10-2.71) were the recipient factors independently associated with high risk, whereas the use of tacrolimus (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.22-0.89) reduced the risk. Women (ß = -6.22 ± 2.16 mL/minute/1.73 m2 ; P = 0.004), NASH (ß = -7.27 ± 3.27 mL/minute/1.73 m2 ; P = 0.027), and delayed kidney graft function (ß = -7.25 ± 2.26 mL/minute/1.73 m2 ; P = 0.007) were independently associated with low estimated glomerular filtration rate at last follow-up. Stage 4-5 CKD is common after SLKT. There remains an unmet need for personalized renal protective strategies, specifically stratified by sex, diabetes mellitus, and liver disease, to preserve renal function among SLKT recipients.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Transplante de Fígado , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Fígado , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Transplantation ; 105(4): 816-823, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the implementation of the "Safety Net," we aimed to determine the impact of simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation (SLKT), as compared to kidney transplant after liver transplant (KALT), on kidney allograft failure (KF). METHODS: An analysis of the UNOS database for all adult patients who received either an SLKT or KALT from 2002 to 2017. The outcomes were 90-day KF and 1-year KF (as reported to UNOS, at 90- and 365-day postkidney transplant, respectively). We compared the following groups of patients: SLKT <25 (SLKT with final model for end-stage liver disease [MELD] <25), SLKT25/35 (MELD ≥25/<35), and SLKT35 (MELD ≥35) to KALT. RESULTS: Of the 6276 patients, there were 1481 KALT, 1579 SLKT <25, 1832 SLKT25/35, and 1384 SLKT ≥35. The proportion of patients with 90-day and 1-year KF increased significantly among the KALT, SLKT <25, SLKT25/35, and SLKT ≥35 groups (P < 0.001; test for trend): 90-day KF: 3.3% versus 5.5% versus 7.3% versus 9.3% and 1-year KF: 5.1% versus 9.4% versus 12.3% versus 14.7%. After adjustment and compared with KALT, beginning at an MELD ≥25 those undergoing SLKT had significantly higher risk of 90-day and 1-year KF: 90-day KF: SLKT25/35: hazard ratio, 1.6(1.0-2.3); SLKT ≥35: 2.1(1.3-3.3); 1-year KF: SLKT25/35: hazard ratio, 1.7(1.2-2.4); SLKT ≥35: 2.1(1.5-3.0). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to KALT recipients, SLKT recipients with an MELD ≥25 had significantly higher risk of early KF. Given the now well-established "Safety Net," KALT may serve as an opportunity to improve kidney outcomes in patients with an MELD ≥25.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Transplantation ; 105(11): 2420-2426, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with chronic liver disease have lower rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as compared to men; it is unknown if there are sex-based differences in HCC recurrence postliver transplant. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of patients who underwent liver transplant for HCC in the United Network for Organ Sharing/Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network from January 1, 2012 through December 31, 2017. RESULTS: A total of 12 711 patients underwent liver transplant for HCC: 2909 (23%) women and 9802 (73%) men. Women had significantly lower rates of postliver transplant HCC recurrence than men (4.0% versus 5.4%, P = 0.002). A cox-regression analysis for postliver transplant HCC recurrence highlighted that even after accounting for etiology of cirrhosis, alpha-fetoprotein at liver transplant, tumor diameter, tumor pathology, and vascular invasion, female sex was associated with a 25% lower risk of postliver transplant HCC recurrence (95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.99). There were no interactions between female sex and the following variables: age, type of locoregional therapy, alpha-fetoprotein, donor sex, body mass index, or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis etiology (P > 0.05 for each). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates an independent effect of sex on risk for HCC recurrence postliver transplant. Our data highlight an opportunity to better understand HCC tumor biology by investigating the drivers of this sex-based difference in HCC recurrence.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Transplante de Fígado , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Liver Int ; 40(7): 1725-1735, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women on the liver transplant waitlist are at greater risk of hospitalization compared with men, but whether this impacts length of stay (LOS) post-transplant is unknown. We aimed to evaluate gender disparities in post-transplant LOS, an important surrogate of health resource utilization post-transplant. METHODS: Using the UNOS/OPTN registry, we analysed all non-Status 1 adult deceased donor liver transplant recipients without exception points from 2008 to 2017. Poisson regression associated female gender with post-transplant LOS. RESULTS: Of 27 294 transplant recipients, 36% were women. Women were more likely to be hospitalized pretransplant than men (44% vs 39%, P < .01). Post-transplant, women were more likely to have prolonged (≥20d) LOS (25% vs 22%, P < .01). In univariable analysis, female gender was associated with longer post-transplant LOS (IRR 1.09, 95%CI 1.06-1.12, P < .01). Prolonged pretransplant admission was also associated with post-transplant LOS (IRR 1.83, 95%CI 1.77-1.89, P < .01). In multivariable analysis, female gender remained independently associated with post-transplant LOS (aIRR 1.05, 95%CI 1.02-1.08, P < .01), after adjustment for age, UNOS region, insurance type, MELDNa, cirrhosis complications, and donor risk index. Pretransplant hospitalization mediated this relationship, explaining 14.1% (95%CI 9.7%-25.4%) of the total effect. CONCLUSIONS: Women who undergo deceased donor liver transplant have increased healthcare utilization in the peritransplant period compared with men. Reducing gender disparities in liver transplantation, including the disproportionate burden of healthcare utilization by women pre- and post-transplant, will require interventions targeted at preventing hospitalization among women on the transplant waitlist and developing tools aimed at better characterizing the severity of end-stage liver disease in women.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal , Transplante de Fígado , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Doadores Vivos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Clin Transplant ; 34(6): e13848, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112458

RESUMO

Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have impaired functional status compared with the general population. We sought to explore the association between Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) and death/delisting from the kidney transplantation waitlist and whether this association differed by age. Patients listed for single-organ kidney transplantation in the United Network for Organ Sharing/Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network from January 1, 2015, to January 1, 2018, were included. We performed competing-risk regression analyses to determine the association between KPS ("Severely impaired", "Moderately impaired", "Non-impaired") and death/delisting, with deceased-donor kidney transplantation as a competing risk. We tested for interactions between age and KPS on death/delisting. Of the 89,819 patients analyzed, 39% were impaired (KPS < 80) and 20% were aged ≥ 65 years. Older age and lower KPS were independently associated with higher risk of death/delisting (age 45-64 years, HR 1.97 [95% CI 1.73-2.24]; age ≥ 65 years, HR 3.62 [95% CI 3.33-3.92] compared with age < 45 years; moderately impaired, HR 1.68 [95% CI 1.45-1.95]; severely impaired, HR 4.80 [95% CI 3.71-6.21] compared with non-impaired). Lower KPS was associated with higher risk of death/delisting among all ages, but this effect was slightly less pronounced among individuals aged ≥ 65 years. Performance status should be used when counseling patients with ESRD on their risks for death/delisting.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Transplante de Órgãos , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Avaliação de Estado de Karnofsky , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Listas de Espera
18.
Liver Transpl ; 26(4): 498-506, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785069

RESUMO

The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising among patients with cirrhosis, though it is not known what impact this has had on outcomes after liver transplantation (LT). All patients listed for LT in the United States between 2002 and 2017 were analyzed, excluding those listed with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) exceptions. The primary outcome was post-LT mortality. We defined pre-LT CKD as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/minute for 90 days or ≥42 days of hemodialysis. Cox regression determined the association between pre-LT CKD and post-LT mortality. Of 78,640 LT candidates, the proportion with CKD among LT recipients increased from 7.8% in 2002 to 14.6% in 2017 (test for trend, P < 0.001). Among the 39,719 LT recipients, pre-LT CKD was significantly associated with post-LT mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.16; P < 0.001) even after adjusting for donor risk index (DRI), age, MELD, etiology, hepatic encephalopathy, simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation (SLKT), and diabetes. There was no mediating influence of SLKT on the effect of pre-LT CKD on post-LT survival (P > 0.05). Therefore, pre-LT CKD has a deleterious impact on post-LT outcomes, which is an impact that is not mediated through SLKT. These findings highlight the need for the identification of CKD when preventative measures are possible.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal , Transplante de Fígado , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Transplantation ; 104(2): 242-250, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517785

RESUMO

Risk scoring for patients with cirrhosis has evolved greatly over the past several decades. However, patients with low Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-Sodium scores still suffer from liver-related morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, it is not clear which of these low Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-Sodium score patients would benefit from earlier consideration of liver transplantation. This article reviews the literature of risk prediction in patients with cirrhosis, identifies which patients may benefit from earlier interventions, such as transplantation, and proposes directions for future research.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Listas de Espera/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Liver Transpl ; 26(2): 283-293, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714011

RESUMO

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a feared complication that can develop at any stage of chronic liver disease. The incidence of ACLF is increasing, leading to a significant burden to both the affected individual and health care systems. To date, our understanding of ACLF suggests that it may be initiated by precipitants such as systemic infection, alcohol use, or viral hepatitis. The prevalence of these vary significantly by geography and underlying liver disease, and these precipitants have a varying impact on patient prognosis. Herein, we present a review of our current understanding of the precipitants of ACLF, including gaps in current data and opportunities for meaningful intervention and areas of future research.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Hepatite Viral Humana , Transplante de Fígado , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/etiologia , Previsões , Humanos , Prognóstico
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