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1.
Int J Cancer ; 148(1): 99-105, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930425

RESUMO

Polygenic hazard score (PHS) models are associated with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer. Our model developed in Europeans (PHS46) showed reduced performance in men with African genetic ancestry. We used a cross-validated search to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that might improve performance in this population. Anonymized genotypic data were obtained from the PRACTICAL consortium for 6253 men with African genetic ancestry. Ten iterations of a 10-fold cross-validation search were conducted to select SNPs that would be included in the final PHS46+African model. The coefficients of PHS46+African were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards framework using age at diagnosis as the dependent variable and PHS46, and selected SNPs as predictors. The performance of PHS46 and PHS46+African was compared using the same cross-validated approach. Three SNPs (rs76229939, rs74421890 and rs5013678) were selected for inclusion in PHS46+African. All three SNPs are located on chromosome 8q24. PHS46+African showed substantial improvements in all performance metrics measured, including a 75% increase in the relative hazard of those in the upper 20% compared to the bottom 20% (2.47-4.34) and a 20% reduction in the relative hazard of those in the bottom 20% compared to the middle 40% (0.65-0.53). In conclusion, we identified three SNPs that substantially improved the association of PHS46 with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer in men with African genetic ancestry to levels comparable to Europeans.

2.
J Occup Health Psychol ; 12(3): 266-78, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17638492

RESUMO

Despite work-family conflict being recognized as a source of stress, no published research to our knowledge has considered how it negatively affects workplace safety. A theoretical model linking strain-based work-family conflict and employee safety was tested with 243 health care workers. Within this model, work-family conflict is conceptualized as a workplace hazard. As expected, strong work performance norms and high work overload were associated with higher work-family conflict; increased family-to-work conflict was associated with decreased compliance with safety rules and less willingness to participate in discretionary safety meetings. Work-to-family conflict, however, was not associated with safety. These findings underscore the importance of work redesign strategies that consider work performance norms and work-family conflict for expecting a return on investment in terms of a safer workplace.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Emprego/psicologia , Relações Familiares , Modelos Teóricos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Adulto , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos
3.
J Appl Psychol ; 90(6): 1280-1287, 2005 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16316281

RESUMO

The authors drew from prior research on organizational commitment and from configural organizational theory to propose a framework of affective and continuance commitment profiles. Using cluster analyses, the authors obtained evidence for 4 of these profiles in an energy industry sample (N=970) and a sample of 345 employed college students. The authors labeled the clusters: allied (i.e., moderate affective and continuance commitment), free agents (moderate continuance commitment and low affective commitment), devoted (high affective and continuance commitment), and complacent (moderate affective and low continuance commitment). Using a subset of the employed student sample (n=148), the authors also found that the free agents received significantly poorer supervisor ratings of performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and antisocial behavior than any other group.


Assuntos
Afeto , Satisfação no Emprego , Modelos Organizacionais , Cultura Organizacional , Inovação Organizacional , Lealdade ao Trabalho , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Apego ao Objeto , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes/psicologia
4.
J Occup Health Psychol ; 10(2): 138-54, 2005 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15826224

RESUMO

This study assessed longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between work-family conflict, positive spillover, and depression in a national sample of 234 dual-earner couples. The authors also assessed crossover effects (i.e., the transmission of emotions, affect, or stress from 1 member of a dyad to another) of work-family conflict and positive spillover on spouses' depression. Two general findings of the study were that (a) positive spillover has a stronger impact on depression than does work-family conflict, and (b) the effects of spouses' positive spillover were more strongly related to decreased depression than were the effects of one's own positive spillover. Significant longitudinal effects were related to the crossover of positive spillover on decreased spouse depression.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Depressão/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Relações Familiares , Cônjuges/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
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