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1.
Circulation ; 140(19): 1543-1556, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity troponin assays promise earlier discrimination of myocardial infarction. Yet, the benefits and harms of this improved discriminatory performance when incorporated within rapid testing protocols, with respect to subsequent testing and clinical events, has not been evaluated in an in-practice patient-level randomized study. This multicenter study evaluated the noninferiority of a 0/1-hour high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) protocol in comparison with a 0/3-hour masked hs-cTnT protocol in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome presenting to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to either a 0/1-hour hs-cTnT protocol (reported to the limit of detection [<5 ng/L]) or masked hs-cTnT reported to ≤29 ng/L evaluated at 0/3-hours (standard arm). The 30-day primary end point was all-cause death and myocardial infarction. Noninferiority was defined as an absolute margin of 0.5% determined by Poisson regression. RESULTS: In total, 3378 participants with an emergency presentation were randomly assigned between August 2015 and April 2019. Ninety participants were deemed ineligible or withdrew consent. The remaining participants received care guided either by the 0/1-hour hs-cTnT protocol (n=1646) or the 0/3-hour standard masked hs-cTnT protocol (n=1642) and were followed for 30 days. Median age was 59 (49-70) years, and 47% were female. Participants in the 0/1-hour arm were more likely to be discharged from the ED (0/1-hour arm: 45.1% versus standard arm: 32.3%, P<0.001) and median ED length of stay was shorter (0/1-hour arm: 4.6 [interquartile range, 3.4-6.4] hours versus standard arm: 5.6 (interquartile range, 4.0-7.1) hours, P<0.001). Those randomly assigned to the 0/1-hour protocol were less likely to undergo functional cardiac testing (0/1-hour arm: 7.5% versus standard arm: 11.0%, P<0.001). The 0/1-hour hs-cTnT protocol was not inferior to standard care (0/1-hour arm: 17/1646 [1.0%] versus 16/1642 [1.0%]; incidence rate ratio, 1.06 [ 0.53-2.11], noninferiority P value=0.006, superiority P value=0.867), although an increase in myocardial injury was observed. Among patients discharged from ED, the 0/1-hour protocol had a negative predictive value of 99.6% (95% CI, 99.0-99.9%) for 30-day death or myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: This in-practice evaluation of a 0/1-hour hs-cTnT protocol embedded in ED care enabled more rapid discharge of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Improving short-term outcomes among patients with newly recognized troponin T elevation will require an evolution in management strategies for these patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au. Unique identifier: ACTRN12615001379505.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2529-2540, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. METHODS: In 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. RESULTS: Among 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: A risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research [DZHK]; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00470587, NCT02355457, NCT01852123, NCT01994577, and NCT03227159; and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry numbers, ACTRN12611001069943, ACTRN12610000766011, ACTRN12613000745741, and ACTRN12611000206921.).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina I/sangue
3.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(11): 1108-1112, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347004

RESUMO

Importance: Emergency department (ED) investigations of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are time consuming, partly because of the turnaround time of laboratory tests. Current point-of-care troponin assays shorten test turnaround times but lack precision at lower concentrations. Development of point-of-care troponin assays with greater analytical precision could reduce the decision-making time in EDs for ruling out AMI. Objective: To determine the clinical accuracy for AMI of a single troponin concentration measured on arrival to ED with a new-generation, higher precision point-of-care assay with a 15-minute turnaround time. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational study occurred at a single urban regional ED. Adults presenting acutely from the community to the ED with symptoms suggestive of AMI were included. Troponin concentrations were measured on ED arrival with both a novel point-of-care assay (i-STAT TnI-Nx; Abbott Point of Care) and a high-sensitivity troponin I assay (Architect hs-cTnI; Abbott Diagnostics). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was type 1 AMI during index presentation. We compared the discrimination ability of the TnI-Nx assay with the hs-cTnI assay using the area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) and sensitivity, negative predictive value, and the proportion of negative test results at thresholds with 100% sensitivity. Results: Of 354 patients (255 [72.0%] men; mean [SD] age, 62 [12] years), 57 (16.1%) experienced an AMI. Eighty-five patients (24.0%) presented to the ED less than 3 hours after symptom onset. No difference was found between the AUC of the TnI-Nx assay (0.975 [95% CI, 0.958-0.993]) and the hs-cTnI assay (0.970 [95% CI, 0.949 to 0.990]; P = .46). A TnI-Nx assay result of less than 11 ng/L identified 201 patients (56.7%) as low risk, with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 93.7%-100%) and a negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI, 98.2%-100%). In comparison, an hs-cTnI assay result of less than 3 ng/L identified 154 patients (43.5%) as low risk, with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 93.7%-100%) and a negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI, 97.6%-100%). Conclusions and Relevance: A novel point-of-care troponin assay that can produce a result 15 minutes after blood sampling had comparable discrimination ability to an hs-cTnI assay for ruling out AMI after a single blood test. Use in the ED may facilitate earlier decision making and could expedite the safe discharge of a large proportion of low-risk patients.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Troponina I/análise , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Nova Zelândia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Clin Chem ; 63(1): 129-139, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28062616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chest pain comprise a large proportion of emergency presentations and place a major burden on healthcare resources. Therefore, efforts to safely and rapidly identify those with and without acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are needed. The challenge for clinicians is to accurately identify patients with acute coronary syndromes, while balancing the need to safely and rapidly reassure and discharge those without serious conditions. CONTENT: This review summarizes the evidence to date on optimum accelerated strategies for the rule-in and rule-out of AMI, using strategies focused on optimum use of troponin results. Evidence based on both sensitive and highly sensitive troponin assay results is presented. The use of novel biomarkers is also addressed and the combination of biomarkers with other clinical information in accelerated diagnostic strategies is discussed. SUMMARY: The majority of patients, who are not at risk of myocardial infarction or other serious harm, may be suitable for discharge directly from the emergency setting using approaches focused on troponin algorithms and accelerated diagnostic protocols. Evidence about the clinical and health economic impact of use of such strategies is needed, as they may have major benefits for both patients and healthcare providers.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/análise , Humanos , Troponina/análise
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