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1.
Am Surg ; 88(5): 953-958, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) has developed a grading system for emergency general surgery (EGS) conditions. We sought to validate the AAST EGS grades for patients undergoing urgent/emergent colorectal resection. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the "Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multicenter Colorectal Resection in EGS-to anastomose or not to anastomose" study undergoing urgent/emergent surgery for obstruction, ischemia, or diverticulitis were included. Baseline demographics, comorbidity severity as defined by Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), procedure type, and AAST grade were prospectively collected. Outcomes included length of stay (LOS) in-hospital mortality, and surgical complications (superficial/deep/organ-space surgical site infection, anastomotic leak, stoma complication, fascial dehiscence, and need for further intervention). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe outcomes and risk factors for surgical complication or mortality. RESULTS: There were 367 patients, with a mean (± SD) age of 62 ± 15 years. 39% were women. The median interquartile range (IQR) CCI was 4 (2-6). Overall, the pathologies encompassed the following AAST EGS grades: I (17, 5%), II (54, 15%), III (115, 31%), IV (95, 26%), and V (86, 23%). Management included laparoscopic (24, 7%), open (319, 87%), and laparoscopy converted to laparotomy (24, 6%). Higher AAST grade was associated with laparotomy (P = .01). The median LOS was 13 days (8-22). At least 1 surgical complication occurred in 33% of patients and the mortality rate was 14%. Development of at least 1 surgical complication, need for unplanned intervention, mortality, and increased LOS were associated with increasing AAST severity grade. On multivariable analysis, factors predictive of in-hospital mortality included AAST organ grade, CCI, and preoperative vasopressor use (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 1.6, 3.1, respectively). The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grade was also associated with the development of at least 1 surgical complication (OR 2.5), while CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, respiratory failure, and pneumoperitoneum were not. CONCLUSION: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grading systems display construct validity for mortality and surgical complications after urgent/emergent colorectal resection. These results support incorporation of AAST EGS grades for quality benchmarking and surgical outcomes research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Cirurgia Geral , Laparoscopia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
2.
Am Surg ; 88(6): 1062-1070, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypothermia is an uncommon, potentially life-threatening condition. We hypothesized (1) advanced rewarming techniques were more frequent with increased hypothermia severity, (2) active rewarming is increasingly performed with smaller intravascular catheters and decreased cardiopulmonary bypass, and (3) mortality was associated with age, hypothermia severity, and type. METHODS: Trauma patients with temperatures <35°C at 4 ACS-verified trauma centers in Wisconsin and Minnesota from 2006 to 2016 were reviewed. Statistical analysis included chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. A P value < .05 was considered significant. RESULTS: 337 patients met inclusion criteria; primary hypothermia was identified in 127 (38%), secondary in 113 (34%), and mixed primary/secondary in 96 (28%) patients. Hypothermia was mild in 69%, moderate in 26%, and severe in 5% of patients. Intravascular rewarming catheter was the most frequent advanced modality (2%), used increasingly since 2014. Advanced techniques were used for primary (12%) vs. secondary (0%) and mixed (5%) (P = .0002); overall use increased with hypothermia severity but varied by institution. Dysrhythmia, acute kidney injury, and frostbite risk worsened with hypothermia severity (P < .0001, P = .031, and P < .0001, respectively). Mortality was greatest in patients with mixed hypothermia (39%, P = .0002) and age >65 years (33%, P = .03). Thirty-day mortality rates were similar among severe, moderate, and mild hypothermia (P = .44). CONCLUSION: Advanced rewarming techniques were used more frequently in severe and primary hypothermia but varied among institutions. Advanced rewarming was less common in mixed hypothermia; mortality was highest in this subgroup. Reliance on smaller intravascular catheters for advanced rewarming increased over time. Given inconsistencies in management, implementation of guidelines for hypothermia management appears necessary.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Hipotermia , Idoso , Cateteres , Humanos , Hipotermia/epidemiologia , Hipotermia/etiologia , Hipotermia/terapia , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Reaquecimento/métodos
3.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(1): 88-92, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma teams are often faced with patients on antithrombotic (AT) drugs, which is challenging when bleeding occurs. We sought to compare the effects of different AT medications on head injury severity and hypothesized that AT reversal would not improve mortality in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. METHODS: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma-sponsored prospective, multicentered, observational study of 15 trauma centers was performed. Patient demographics, injury burden, comorbidities, AT agents, and reversal attempts were collected. Outcomes of interest were head injury severity and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Analysis was performed on 2,793 patients. The majority of patients were on aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid [ASA], 46.1%). Patients on a platelet chemoreceptor blocker (P2Y12) had the highest mean Injury Severity Score (9.1 ± 8.1). Patients taking P2Y12 inhibitors ± ASA, and ASA-warfarin had the highest head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) mean (1.2 ± 1.6). On risk-adjusted analysis, warfarin-ASA was associated with a higher head AIS (odds ratio [OR], 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-4.42) after controlling for Injury Severity Score, Charlson Comorbidity Index, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, and initial systolic blood pressure. Among patients with severe TBI (head AIS score, ≥3) on antiplatelet therapy, reversal with desmopressin (DDAVP) and/or platelet transfusion did not improve survival (82.9% reversal vs. 90.4% none, p = 0.30). In severe TBI patients taking Xa inhibitors who received prothrombin complex concentrate, survival was not improved (84.6% reversal vs. 84.6% none, p = 0.68). With risk adjustment as described previously, mortality was not improved with reversal attempts (antiplatelet agents: OR 0.83; 85% CI, 0.12-5.9 [p = 0.85]; Xa inhibitors: OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.12-4.64; p = 0.77). CONCLUSION: Reversal attempts appear to confer no mortality benefit in severe TBI patients on antiplatelet agents or Xa inhibitors. Combination therapy was associated with severity of head injury among patients taking preinjury AT therapy, with ASA-warfarin possessing the greatest risk. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level II.


Assuntos
/administração & dosagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Desamino Arginina Vasopressina/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos , Hemorragia , Transfusão de Plaquetas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Fibrinolíticos/classificação , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Hemorragia/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
4.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(4): 664-674, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grading systems for acute cholecystitis are essential to compare outcomes, improve quality, and advance research. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grading system for acute cholecystitis was only moderately discriminant when predicting multiple outcomes and underperformed the Tokyo guidelines and Parkland grade. We hypothesized that through additional expert consensus, the predictive capacity of the AAST anatomic grading system could be improved. METHODS: A modified Delphi approach was used to revise the AAST grading system. Changes were made to improve distribution of patients across grades, and additional key clinical variables were introduced. The revised version was assessed using prospectively collected data from an AAST multicenter study. Patient distribution across grades was assessed, and the revised grading system was evaluated based on predictive capacity using area under receiver operating characteristic curves for conversion from laparoscopic to an open procedure, use of a surgical "bail-out" procedure, bile leak, major complications, and discharge home. A preoperative AAST grade was defined based on preoperative, clinical, and radiologic data, and the Parkland grade was also substituted for the operative component of the AAST grade. RESULTS: Using prospectively collected data on 861 patients with acute cholecystitis the revised version of the AAST grade has an improved distribution across all grades, both the overall grade and across each subscale. A higher AAST grade predicted each of the outcomes assessed (all p ≤ 0.01). The revised AAST grade outperformed the original AAST grade for predicting operative outcomes and discharge disposition. Despite this improvement, the AAST grade did not outperform the Parkland grade or the Emergency Surgery Score. CONCLUSION: The revised AAST grade and the preoperative AAST grade demonstrated improved discrimination; however, a purely anatomic grade based on chart review is unlikely to predict outcomes without addition of physiologic variables. Follow-up validation will be necessary. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic Test or Criteria, Level IV.


Assuntos
Colecistite Aguda , Laparoscopia , Colecistite Aguda/diagnóstico , Colecistite Aguda/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos
5.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(5): 834-840, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blunt traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWH) occur in approximately 15,000 patients per year. Limited data are available to guide the timing of surgical intervention or the feasibility of nonoperative management. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients presenting with blunt TAWH from January 2012 through December 2018 was conducted. Patient demographic, surgical, and outcomes data were collected from 20 institutions through the Western Trauma Association Multicenter Trials Committee. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty-one patients with TAWH were identified. One hundred and seventy-six (62.6%) patients underwent operative hernia repair, and 105 (37.4%) patients underwent nonoperative management. Of those undergoing surgical intervention, 157 (89.3%) were repaired during the index hospitalization, and 19 (10.7%) underwent delayed repair. Bowel injury was identified in 95 (33.8%) patients with the majority occurring with rectus and flank hernias (82.1%) as compared with lumbar hernias (15.8%). Overall hernia recurrence rate was 12.0% (n = 21). Nonoperative patients had a higher Injury Severity Score (24.4 vs. 19.4, p = 0.010), head Abbreviated Injury Scale score (1.1 vs. 0.6, p = 0.006), and mortality rate (11.4% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.031). Patients who underwent late repair had lower rates of primary fascial repair (46.4% vs. 77.1%, p = 0.012) and higher rates of mesh use (78.9% vs. 32.5%, p < 0.001). Recurrence rate was not statistically different between the late and early repair groups (15.8% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.869). CONCLUSION: This report is the largest series and first multicenter study to investigate TAWHs. Bowel injury was identified in over 30% of TAWH cases indicating a significant need for immediate laparotomy. In other cases, operative management may be deferred in specific patients with other life-threatening injuries, or in stable patients with concern for bowel injury. Hernia recurrence was not different between the late and early repair groups. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/care management, Level IV.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Hérnia Ventral/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/cirurgia , Traumatismos Abdominais/complicações , Parede Abdominal/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Hérnia Ventral/etiologia , Herniorrafia/métodos , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Adulto Jovem
6.
WMJ ; 120(3): 178-182, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies of deaths from traumatic injury are from urban trauma centers. In contrast, rural areas have higher incidence of traumatic fatal injuries than urban areas. The objective of this research was to describe trends of injuries and mortality from a trauma center serving a largely rural population and compare results with reports from the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of patients admitted to a rural Wisconsin level II trauma center from 2000 through 2018. Details on injuries and deaths prior to discharge were obtained from the trauma registry. Event counts and fatality ratios were described by year, sex, age, mechanism of injury, and injury severity score (ISS). Trends were analyzed across 2000-2005, 2006-2011, and 2012-2018 calendar year eras. RESULTS: During 2000-2018, there were 17,334 injury events among 16,495 patients included in the trauma registry. Across the 3 eras, the proportion of injuries related to falls increased (35.6%, 40.6%, and 51.5%, respectively), and the proportion from on-road motor vehicle events decreased (37.0 %, 32.8, and 22.5%, respectively), similar to the trends from 3 corresponding NTDB reports for 2004, 2010, and 2016. There was a statistically significant decreasing trend (P < 0.001) in overall fatality ratios across the 3 eras, 5.3% (95% CI, 4.7%-6.0%), 4.1% (95% CI, 3.7%-4.6%), and 3.9 (95% CI, 3.4%-4.4%), respectively. The fatality ratios point estimates were similar to overall fatality ratios from the NTDB reports (4.7%, 4.0%, 4.3%, respectively). The median patient age increased significantly from 42, 45, and 55 years across the 3 eras (test for trend P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Long-term trends of traumatic injuries and mortality were generally similar to national trends, particularly in the shift to older patients and in the increasing proportion of injury events due to falls. Further research on traumatic injuries and deaths in rural populations is needed, particularly regarding immediate deaths at the scene and longer-term deaths after discharge.


Assuntos
Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
7.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(1): 24-33, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the widespread institution of modern massive transfusion protocols with balanced blood product ratios, survival for patients with traumatic hemorrhage receiving ultramassive transfusion (UMT) (defined as ≥20 U of packed red blood cells [RBCs]) in 24 hours) remains low and resource consumption remains high. Therefore, we aimed to identify factors associated with mortality in trauma patients receiving UMT in the modern resuscitation era. METHODS: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter retrospective study of 461 trauma patients from 17 trauma centers who received ≥20 U of RBCs in 24 hours was performed (2014-2019). Multivariable logistic regression and Classification and Regression Tree analysis were used to identify clinical characteristics associated with mortality. RESULTS: The 461 patients were young (median age, 35 years), male (82%), severely injured (median Injury Severity Score, 33), in shock (median shock index, 1.2; base excess, -9), and transfused a median of 29 U of RBCs, 22 U of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and 24 U of platelets (PLT). Mortality was 46% at 24 hours and 65% at discharge. Transfusion of RBC/FFP ≥1.5:1 or RBC/PLT ≥1.5:1 was significantly associated with mortality, most pronounced for the 18% of patients who received both RBC/PLT and RBC/FFP ≥1.5:1 (odds ratios, 3.11 and 2.81 for mortality at 24 hours and discharge; both p < 0.01). Classification and Regression Tree identified that age older than 50 years, low initial Glasgow Coma Scale, thrombocytopenia, and resuscitative thoracotomy were associated with low likelihood of survival (14-26%), while absence of these factors was associated with the highest survival (71%). CONCLUSION: Despite modern massive transfusion protocols, one half of trauma patients receiving UMT are transfused with either RBC/FFP or RBC/PLT in unbalanced ratios ≥1.5:1, with increased associated mortality. Maintaining focus on balanced ratios during UMT is critical, and consideration of advanced age, poor initial mental status, thrombocytopenia, and resuscitative thoracotomy can aid in prognostication. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level III.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Hemorragia/terapia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Trombocitopenia/terapia , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
8.
Am J Surg ; 221(5): 873-884, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic hemothorax poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges both acutely and chronically. A working group of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma convened to formulate a practice management guideline for traumatic hemothorax. METHODS: We formulated four questions: whether tube thoracostomy vs observation be performed, should pigtail catheter versus thoracostomy tube be placed to drain hemothorax, should thrombolytic therapy be attempted versus immediate thoracoscopic assisted drainage (VATS) in retained hemothorax (rHTX), and should early VATS (≤4 days) versus late VATS (>4 days) be performed? A systematic review was undertaken from articles identified in multiple databases. RESULTS: A total of 6391 articles were identified, 14 were selected for guideline construction. Most articles were retrospective with very low-quality evidence. We performed meta-analysis for some of the outcomes for three of the questions. CONCLUSIONS: For traumatic hemothorax we conditionally recommend pigtail catheters, in hemodynamically stable patients. In patients with rHTX, we conditionally recommend VATS rather than attempting thrombolytic therapy and recommend that it should be performed early (≤4 days).


Assuntos
Hemotórax/cirurgia , Tubos Torácicos , Drenagem/métodos , Drenagem/normas , Hemotórax/terapia , Humanos , Toracostomia/métodos , Toracostomia/normas , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Terapia Trombolítica/normas
9.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(1): 87-96, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) patient assessment committee has created grading systems for emergency general surgery diseases to assist with clinical decision making and risk adjustment during research. Single-institution studies have validated the cholecystitis grading system as associated with patient outcomes. Our aim was to validate the grading system in a multi-institutional fashion and compare it with the Parkland grade and Tokyo Guidelines for acute cholecystitis. METHODS: Patients presenting with acute cholecystitis to 1 of 8 institutions were enrolled. Discrete data to assign the AAST grade were collected. The Parkland grade was collected prospectively from the operative surgeon from four institutions. Parkland grade, Tokyo Guidelines, AAST grade, and the AAST preoperative grade (clinical and imaging subscales) were compared using linear and logistic regression to the need for surgical "bailout" (subtotal or fenestrated cholecystectomy, or cholecystostomy), conversion to open, surgical complications (bile leak, surgical site infection, bile duct injury), all complications, and operative time. RESULTS: Of 861 patients, 781 underwent cholecystectomy. Mean (SD) age was 51.1 (18.6), and 62.7% were female. There were six deaths. Median AAST grade was 2 (interquartile range [IQR], 1-2), and median Parkland grade was 3 (interquartile range [IQR], 2-4). Median AAST clinical and imaging grades were 2 (IQR, 2-2) and 1 (IQR, 0-1), respectively. Higher grades were associated with longer operative times, and worse outcomes although few were significant. The Parkland grade outperformed the AAST grade based on area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. CONCLUSION: The AAST cholecystitis grading schema has modest discriminatory power similar to the Tokyo Guidelines, but generally lower than the Parkland grade, and should be modified before widespread use. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic study, level IV.


Assuntos
Colecistite Aguda/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Colecistectomia , Colecistite Aguda/patologia , Colecistite Aguda/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
10.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(1): 37-43, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196508

RESUMO

To determine if there is a significant association between administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) in severely bleeding, injured patients, and venous thromboembolism (VTE), myocardial infarction (MI), or cerebrovascular accident (CVA). A multicenter, retrospective study was performed. Inclusion criteria were: age 18-80 years old and need for 5 units or more of blood in the first 24 h after injury. Exclusion criteria included: death within 24 h, pregnancy, administration of TXA more than 3 h following injury, and routine ultrasound surveillance for deep venous thrombosis. Incidence of VTE was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included MI, CVA, and death. A power analysis found that a total of 830 patients were needed to detect a true difference in VTE risk. 1333 patients (TXA = 887, No-TXA = 446 patients) from 17 centers were enrolled. There were no differences in age, shock index, Glasgow coma score, pelvis/extremity abbreviated injury score, or paralysis. Injury severity score was higher in the No-TXA group. Incidence of VTE, MI, or CVA was similar between the groups. The TXA group required significantly less transfusion (P < 0.001 for all products) and had a lower mortality [adjusted odds ratio 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.45-0.98)]. Despite having a higher extremity/pelvis abbreviated injury score, results did not change when evaluating only patients with blunt injury. Use of TXA in bleeding, injured patients is not associated with VTE, MI, or CVA but is associated with a lower transfusion need and mortality.


Assuntos
Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ácido Tranexâmico , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(6): 1023-1031, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evidence comparing stoma creation (STM) versus anastomosis after urgent or emergent colorectal resection is limited. This study examined outcomes after colorectal resection in emergency general surgery patients. METHODS: This was an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma-sponsored prospective observational multicenter study of patients undergoing urgent/emergent colorectal resection. Twenty-one centers enrolled patients for 11 months. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were recorded. χ, Mann-Whitney U test, and multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe outcomes and risk factors for surgical complication/mortality. RESULTS: A total of 439 patients were enrolled (ANST, 184; STM, 255). The median (interquartile range) age was 62 (53-71) years, and the median Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was 4 (1-6). The most common indication for surgery was diverticulitis (28%). Stoma group was older (64 vs. 58 years, p < 0.001), had a higher CCI, and were more likely to be immunosuppressed. Preoperatively, STM patients were more likely to be intubated (57 vs. 15, p < 0.001), on vasopressors (61 vs. 13, p < 0.001), have pneumoperitoneum (131 vs. 41, p < 0.001) or fecal contamination (114 vs. 33, p < 0.001), and had a higher incidence of elevated lactate (149 vs. 67, p < 0.001). Overall mortality was 13%, which was higher in STM patients (18% vs. 8%, p = 0.02). Surgical complications were more common in STM patients (35% vs. 25%, p = 0.02). On multivariable analysis, management with an open abdomen, intraoperative blood transfusion, and larger hospital size were associated with development of a surgical complication, while CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, steroid use, open abdomen, and intraoperative blood transfusion were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: This study highlights a tendency to perform fecal diversion in patients who are acutely ill at presentation. There is a higher morbidity and mortality rate in STM patients. Independent predictors of mortality include CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, steroid use, open abdomen, and intraoperative blood transfusion. Following adjustment by clinical factors, method of colon management was not associated with surgical complications or mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level IV.


Assuntos
Colectomia/métodos , Cirurgia Colorretal/educação , Doença Diverticular do Colo/cirurgia , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Idoso , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Colectomia/educação , Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Emergências , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
12.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(1): 118-124, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently developed and retrospectively validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively validate ESS, specifically in the high-risk nontrauma emergency laparotomy (EL) patient. METHODS: This is an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, 19 centers enrolled all adults (aged >18 years) undergoing EL. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were prospectively and systematically collected. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for each patient and validated using c-statistic methodology by correlating it with three postoperative outcomes: (1) 30-day mortality, (2) 30-day complications (e.g., respiratory/renal failure, infection), and (3) postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: A total of 1,649 patients were included. The mean age was 60.5 years, 50.3% were female, and 71.4% were white. The mean ESS was 6, and the most common indication for EL was hollow viscus perforation. The 30-day mortality and complication rates were 14.8% and 53.3%; 57.0% of patients required ICU admission. Emergency Surgery Score gradually and accurately predicted 30-day mortality; 3.5%, 50.0%, and 85.7% of patients with ESS of 3, 12, and 17 died after surgery, respectively, with a c-statistic of 0.84. Similarly, ESS gradually and accurately predicted complications; 21.0%, 57.1%, and 88.9% of patients with ESS of 1, 6, and 13 developed postoperative complications, with a c-statistic of 0.74. Emergency Surgery Score also accurately predicted which patients required intensive care unit admission (c-statistic, 0.80). CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective multicenter study to validate ESS as an accurate predictor of outcome in the EL patient. Emergency Surgery Score can prove useful for (1) perioperative patient and family counseling, (2) triaging patients to the intensive care unit, and (3) benchmarking the quality of emergency general surgery care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level III.


Assuntos
Emergências , Cirurgia Geral , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
13.
J Pediatr Surg ; 54(11): 2363-2368, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101423

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pediatric blunt solid organ injury management based on hemodynamic monitoring rather than grade may safely reduce resource expenditure and improve outcomes. Previously we have reported a retrospectively validated management algorithm for pediatric liver and spleen injuries which monitors hemodynamics without use of routine phlebotomy. We hypothesize that stable blunt pediatric isolated splenic/liver injuries can be managed safely using a protocol reliant on vital signs and not repeat hemoglobin levels. METHODS: A prospective multi-institutional study was performed at three pediatric trauma centers. All pediatric patients from 07/2016-12/2017 diagnosed with liver or splenic injuries were identified. If appropriate for the protocol, only a baseline hemoglobin was obtained unless hemodynamic instability as defined in an age-appropriate fashion was determined by treating physician discretion. Descriptive statistics were conducted. RESULTS: One hundred four patients were identified of which 38 were excluded from the protocol. There was a significant difference in abnormal shock index, pediatric age-adjusted (SIPA) values, hematocrit, and percentage of patients with hemoglobin less than 10 between the excluded and included patients. Of the 66 patients managed on the protocol, four patients had to be removed, two each on day one and day two. Of those four patients, only one required intervention. There were no mortalities. CONCLUSION: A phlebotomy limiting protocol may be a safe option for stable pediatric splenic and liver injuries cared for in a pediatric trauma center with the resources for rapid intervention should the need arise. The differences in groups highlight the importance of utilizing this protocol in the correct patient population. Reduced phlebotomy offers the potential for reduced resource expenditure without any evidence of increased morbidity or mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Fígado/lesões , Flebotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Baço/lesões , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia , Sinais Vitais
15.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 86(3): 505-515, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of penetrating colon injuries in civilians has evolved over the last four decades. The objectives of this meta-analysis are to evaluate the current treatment regimens available for penetrating colon injuries and assess the role of anastomosis in damage control surgery to develop a practice management guideline for surgeons. METHODS: Using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology, a subcommittee of the Practice Management Guidelines section of EAST conducted a systematic review using MEDLINE and EMBASE articles from 1980 through 2017. We developed three relevant problem, intervention, comparison, and outcome (PICO) questions regarding penetrating colon injuries. Outcomes of interest included mortality and infectious abdominal complications. RESULTS: Thirty-seven studies were identified for analysis, of which 16 met criteria for quantitative meta-analysis and included 705 patients considered low-risk in six prospective randomized studies. Seven hundred thirty-eight patients in 10 studies undergoing damage control laparotomy and repair or resection and anastomosis (R&A) were included in a separate meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of high-risk patients undergoing repair or R&A was not feasible due to inadequate data. CONCLUSIONS: In adult civilian patients sustaining penetrating colon injury without signs of shock, significant hemorrhage, severe contamination, or delay to surgical intervention we recommend that colon repair or R&A be performed rather than routine colostomy. In adult high-risk civilian trauma patients sustaining penetrating colon injury, we conditionally recommend that colon repair or R&A be performed rather than routine colostomy. In adult civilian trauma patients sustaining penetrating colon injury who had damage control laparotomy, we conditionally recommend that routine colostomy not be performed; instead, definitive repair or delayed R&A or anastomosis at initial operation should be performed rather than routine colostomy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Systematic review/meta-analysis, level III.


Assuntos
Colo/lesões , Peritônio/lesões , Ferimentos Penetrantes/mortalidade , Ferimentos Penetrantes/cirurgia , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Colostomia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias
16.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 86(5): 864-870, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Historically, hemorrhage has been attributed as the leading cause (40%) of early death. However, a rigorous, real-time classification of the cause of death (COD) has not been performed. This study sought to prospectively adjudicate and classify COD to determine the epidemiology of trauma mortality. METHODS: Eighteen trauma centers prospectively enrolled all adult trauma patients at the time of death during December 2015 to August 2017. Immediately following death, attending providers adjudicated the primary and contributing secondary COD using standardized definitions. Data were confirmed by autopsies, if performed. RESULTS: One thousand five hundred thirty-six patients were enrolled with a median age of 55 years (interquartile range, 32-75 years), 74.5% were male. Penetrating mechanism (n = 412) patients were younger (32 vs. 64, p < 0.0001) and more likely to be male (86.7% vs. 69.9%, p < 0.0001). Falls were the most common mechanism of injury (26.6%), with gunshot wounds second (24.3%). The most common overall primary COD was traumatic brain injury (TBI) (45%), followed by exsanguination (23%). Traumatic brain injury was nonsurvivable in 82.2% of cases. Blunt patients were more likely to have TBI (47.8% vs. 37.4%, p < 0.0001) and penetrating patients exsanguination (51.7% vs. 12.5%, p < 0.0001) as the primary COD. Exsanguination was the predominant prehospital (44.7%) and early COD (39.1%) with TBI as the most common later. Penetrating mechanism patients died earlier with 80.1% on day 0 (vs. 38.5%, p < 0.0001). Most deaths were deemed disease-related (69.3%), rather than by limitation of further aggressive care (30.7%). Hemorrhage was a contributing cause to 38.8% of deaths that occurred due to withdrawal of care. CONCLUSION: Exsanguination remains the predominant early primary COD with TBI accounting for most deaths at later time points. Timing and primary COD vary significantly by mechanism. Contemporaneous adjudication of COD is essential to elucidate the true understanding of patient outcome, center performance, and future research. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic, level II.


Assuntos
Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Exsanguinação/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade
17.
J Robot Surg ; 13(3): 383, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327987

RESUMO

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake.

18.
J Surg Res ; 233: 408-412, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrografin (GG)-based nonoperative approach is both diagnostic and therapeutic for partial small bowel obstruction (SBO). Absence of X-ray evidence of GG in the colon after 8 h is predictive of the need for operation, and a recent trial used 48 h to prompt operation. We hypothesize that a significant number of patients receiving the GG challenge require >48 h before an effect is seen. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multi-institutional SBO database was performed including only those receiving GG challenge. Successful nonoperative management (NOM) was defined as passage of flatus or nasogastric tube (NGT) removal. NOM was considered a failure if operative intervention was required. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of delayed (>48 h) GG challenge effect and expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Of 286 patients receiving GG, 208 patients (73%) were successfully managed nonoperatively. A total of 60 (29%) NOM patients had NGT decompression for >48 h (n = 54) or required >48 h to pass flatus (n = 34), with some requiring both (n = 28). Prior abdominal operations and SBO admission were protective of delayed GG effect (0.411 [0.169-1.00], P < 0.05; 0.478 [0.240-0.952], P < 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of patients at 48 h (29%) "failed" the GG challenge as they had yet to pass flatus or still required NGT but were nonetheless successfully managed nonoperatively. Extending the GG challenge beyond 48 h may help avoid unnecessary operations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Diatrizoato de Meglumina/administração & dosagem , Obstrução Intestinal/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Intestino Delgado/diagnóstico por imagem , Intubação Gastrointestinal , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Aderências Teciduais/diagnóstico por imagem , Aderências Teciduais/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 85(1): 33-36, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29965940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of small bowel obstruction (SBO) has become more conservative, especially in those patients with previous abdominal surgery (PAS). However, surgical dogma continues to recommend operative exploration for SBO with no PAS. With the increased use of computed tomography imaging resulting in more SBO diagnoses, it is important to reevaluate the role of mandatory operative exploration. Gastrografin (GG) administration decreases the need for operative exploration and may be an option for SBO without PAS. We hypothesized that the use of GG for SBO without PAS will be equally effective in reducing the operative exploration rate compared with that for SBO with PAS. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted for patients with SBO from February 2015 through December 2016. Patients younger than 18 years, pregnant patients, and patients with evidence of hypotension, bowel strangulation, peritonitis, closed loop obstruction or pneumatosis intestinalis were excluded. The primary outcome was operative exploration rate for SBO with or without PAS. Rate adjustment was accomplished through multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 601 patients with SBO were included in the study, 500 with PAS and 101 patients without PAS. The two groups were similar except for age, sex, prior abdominal surgery including colon surgery, prior SBO admission, and history of cancer. Multivariate analysis showed that PAS (odds ratio [OR], 0.47; p = 0.03) and the use of GG (OR, 0.11; p < 0.01) were independent predictors of successful nonoperative management, whereas intensive care unit admission (OR, 16.0; p < 0.01) was associated with a higher likelihood of need for operation. The use of GG significantly decreased the need for operation in patients with and without PAS. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with and without PAS who received GG had lower rates of operative exploration for SBO compared with those who did not receive GG. Patients with a diagnosis of SBO without PAS should be considered for the nonoperative management approach using GG. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, level IV.


Assuntos
Diatrizoato de Meglumina/administração & dosagem , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Intestino Delgado/diagnóstico por imagem , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Abdome/cirurgia , Idoso , Tratamento Conservador/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/terapia , Intestino Delgado/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 85(5): 858-866, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening for blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVIs) in asymptomatic high-risk patients has become routine. To date, the length of this asymptomatic period has not been defined. Determining the time to stroke could impact therapy including earlier initiation of antithrombotics in multiply injured patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the time to stroke in patients with a BCVI-related stroke. We hypothesized that the majority of patients suffer stroke between 24 hours and 72 hours after injury. METHODS: Patients with a BCVI-related stroke from January 2007 to January 2017 from 37 trauma centers were reviewed. RESULTS: During the 10-year study, 492 patients had a BCVI-related stroke; the majority were men (61%), with a median age of 39 years and ISS of 29. Stroke was present at admission in 182 patients (37%) and occurred during an Interventional Radiology procedure in six patients. In the remaining 304 patients, stroke was identified a median of 48 hours after admission: 53 hours in the 144 patients identified by neurologic symptoms and 42 hours in the 160 patients without a neurologic examination and an incidental stroke identified on imaging. Of those patients with neurologic symptoms, 88 (61%) had a stroke within 72 hours, whereas 56 had a stroke after 72 hours; there was a sequential decline in stroke occurrence over the first week. Of the 304 patients who had a stroke after admission, 64 patients (22%) were being treated with antithrombotics when the stroke occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients suffer BCVI-related stroke in the first 72 hours after injury. Time to stroke can help inform clinicians about initiation of treatment in the multiply injured patient. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic/Epidemiologic, level III.


Assuntos
Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/complicações , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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