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Rev Sci Instrum ; 94(9)2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37702561


Novel photocathode materials like ordered surfaces of single crystal metals, epitaxially grown high quantum efficiency thin films, and topologically non-trivial materials with dirac cones show great promise for generating brighter electron beams for various accelerator and ultrafast electron scattering applications. Despite several materials being identified as brighter photocathodes, none of them have been tested in electron guns to extract electron beams due to technical and logistical challenges. In this paper, we present the design and commissioning of a cryocooled 200 kV DC electron gun that is capable of testing a wide variety of novel photocathode materials over a broad range of temperatures from 298 to 35 K for bright electron beam generation. This gun is designed to enable easy transfer of the photocathode to various standard ultra-high-vacuum surface diagnostics and preparation techniques, allowing a full characterization of the dependence of beam brightness on the photocathode material and surface properties. We demonstrate the development of such a high-voltage, high-gradient gun using materials and equipment that are easily available in any standard university lab, making the development of such 200 kV electron guns more accessible.

J Chem Phys ; 153(14): 144705, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086829


High-performance photocathodes for many prominent particle accelerator applications, such as x-ray free-electron lasers, cannot be grown in situ. These highly reactive materials must be grown and then transported to the electron gun in an ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) suitcase, during which time monolayer-level oxidation is unavoidable. Thin film Cs3Sb photocathodes were grown on a variety of substrates. Their performance and chemical state were measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy after transport in a UHV suitcase as well as after O2-induced oxidation. The unusual chemistry of cesium oxides enabled trace amounts of oxygen to drive structural reorganization at the photocathode surface. This reorganization pulled cesium from the bulk photocathode, leading to the development of a structurally complex and O2-exposure-dependent cesium oxide layer. This oxidation-induced phase segregation led to downward band bending of at least 0.36 eV as measured from shifts in the Cs 3d5/2 binding energy. At low O2 exposures, the surface developed a low work function cesium suboxide overlayer that had little effect on quantum efficiency (QE). At somewhat higher O2 exposures, the overlayer transformed to Cs2O; no antimony or antimony oxides were observed in the near-surface region. The development of this overlayer was accompanied by a 1000-fold decrease in QE, which effectively destroyed the photocathode via the formation of a tunnel barrier. The O2 exposures necessary for degradation were quantified. As little as 100 L of O2 irreversibly damaged the photocathode. These observations are discussed in the context of the rich chemistry of alkali oxides, along with potential material strategies for photocathode improvement.

Rev Sci Instrum ; 89(8): 083303, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184700


Linear electron accelerators and their applications such as ultrafast electron diffraction require compact high-brightness electron sources with high voltage and electric field at the photocathode to maximize the electron density and minimize space-charge induced emittance growth. Achieving high brightness from a compact source is a challenging task because it involves an often-conflicting interplay between various requirements imposed by photoemission, acceleration, and beam dynamics. Here we present a new design for a compact high voltage DC electron gun with a novel cryogenic photocathode system and report on its construction and commissioning process. This photoemission gun can operate at ∼200 kV at both room temperature and cryogenic temperature with a corresponding electric field of 10 MV/m, necessary for achieving high quality electron beams without requiring the complexity of guns, e.g., based on RF superconductivity. It hosts a compact photocathode plug compatible with that used in several other laboratories opening the possibility of generating and characterizing electron beam from photocathodes developed at other institutions.

Rev Sci Instrum ; 86(7): 073309, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26233374


This paper reports the development of a simple and reliable apparatus for measuring ultra-low emittance, or equivalently the mean transverse energy from cryogenically cooled photocathodes. The existing methods to measure ultra-low emittance from photocathodes are reviewed. Inspired by the available techniques, we have implemented two complementary methods, the waist scan and voltage scan, in one system giving consistent results. Additionally, this system is capable of measuring the emittance at electric fields comparable to those obtained in DC photoinjectors.

Rev Sci Instrum ; 86(3): 033301, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25832217


A 2-D electron energy analyzer is designed and constructed to measure the transverse and longitudinal energy distribution of low energy (<1 eV) electrons. The analyzer operates on the principle of adiabatic invariance and motion of low energy electrons in a strong longitudinal magnetic field. The operation of the analyzer is studied in detail and a design to optimize the energy resolution, signal to noise ratio, and physical size is presented. An energy resolution better than 6 meV has been demonstrated. Such an analyzer is a powerful tool to study the process of photoemission which limits the beam quality in modern accelerators.

Phys Rev Lett ; 112(9): 097601, 2014 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24655275


Crucial photoemission properties of layered III-V semiconductor cathodes are predicted using Monte Carlo simulations. Using this modeling, a layered GaAs structure is designed to reduce simultaneously the transverse energy and response time of the emitted electrons. This structure, grown by molecular beam epitaxy and activated to negative electron affinity, is characterized. The measured values of quantum efficiency and transverse energy are found to agree well with the simulations. Such advanced layered structures will allow generation of short electron bunches from photoinjectors with superior beam brightness.