Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 48
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 235, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss to follow-up (LTFU) deprives HIV-exposed infants the lifesaving care required and results in exposing HIV free infants to virus requisition risk. We aimed to determine the rate of LTFU, postnatal mother-to-child HIV-transmission (MTCT) and to identify maternal factors associated with LTFU among HIV-exposed infants enrolled at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital PMTCT clinic. METHODS: Study participants were infants born to HIV-positive mothers enrolled in the PMTCT clinic for HIV care at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital. While access database in the Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) clinic provided data on infants, the open medical record system database at the ISS clinic provided that for mothers. Infants were classified as LTFU if they had not completed their follow-up schedule by 18 months of age. At 18 months, an infant is expected to receive a rapid diagnostic test before being discharged from the PMTCT clinic. Postnatal MTCT of HIV was calculated as a proportion of infants followed and tested from birth to 18 months of age. Logistic regression was used to determine possible associations between mothers' characteristics and LTFU. In-depth interviews of mothers of LTFU infants and health workers who attend to the HIV-exposed infants were carried out to identify factors not captured in the electronic database. RESULTS: Out of 1624 infants enrolled at the clinic, 533 (33%) were dropped for lack of mother's clinic identification number, 18 (1.1%) were either dead or transferred out. Out of 1073 infants analysed, 515 (48%) were LTFU by 18 months of age while out of the 558 who completed their follow-up schedule, 20 (3.6%) tested positive for HIV. Young age of mother, far distance to hospital and non-use of family planning were identified as outstanding factors responsible for LTFU. In addition, in-depth interviews revealed facility-level factors such as "waiting time" which would not be found in routine client databases. CONCLUSION: This study has revealed a high rate of loss to follow up among HIV-exposed infants enrolled at Mbarara Regional Referral hospital PMTCT clinic. Young maternal age, long distance to health facility and failure to use family planning were significantly associated with LTFU. Incorporating family planning services in the ART and PMTCT clinics could reduce loss to follow-up of HIV exposed infants. Young mothers should be targeted with information on the importance of completing the EID follow-up schedule and also, their clinic identification number be gotten at each visit.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 40, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is believed that the current prevalence of malaria in endemic areas reflects selection for the carrier form of sickle cell trait through a survival advantage. Malaria has been incriminated as a great cause of mortality in people with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, people with SCD, a high-risk group, do not benefit from free or subsisized malaria prevention and treatment in Cameroon unlike other vulnerable groups which may be due to insufficient evidence to guide policy makers. This study aimed at describing clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of patients with malaria, determining the prevalence of malaria in hospitalized children and in those with SCD and without, compare frequency of presentation of malaria related complications (using clinical and laboratory elements that define severe malaria) between children admitted for malaria with SCD and those without and finally, determing the risk factors for death in children admitted for malaria. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of admission records of children age 1 to 18 years with a confirmed malaria diagnosis admitted at the Laquintinie Hospital during January 2015 through December 2018. Clinical features, laboratory characteristics and outcome of malarial infections, stratified by SCD status were studied. Patients with HIV infection, malnutrition, renal failure and discharged against medical advice were excluded from the study. Data were analysed using Epi-info 7 software and analysis done. Chi square test, Odds ratios, CI and student's t test were used to determine association between variables. Statistical significance was set at p-value ≤0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of malaria was lower among children with SCD than it was among children without SCD (23.5% vs 44.9%). Similarly, among those with a positive microscopy, the mean parasite density was significantly lower among children with SCD than it was among children without SCD (22,875.6 vs 57,053.6 parasites/ µl with t-value - 3.2, p-value 0.002). The mean hemoglobin concentration was lower in SCD as compared to non SCD (5.7 g/l vs 7.4 g/l, t-value - 12.5, p-value < 0.001). Overall mortality in SCD was 3.4% and malaria was reponsible for 20.4% of these deaths as compared to the 35.4% in non SCD patients. Convulsion and impaired consciousness were significantly lower in SCD group (OR:0.1, CI: 0.1-0.3, p value < 0.01 and OR:0.1, CI:0.1-0.2, p-value < 0.001 respectively). Death was significantly higher in SCD patients with malaria as compared to SCD patients admitted for other pathologies (3.2% vs 1.5%., OR:2.2, CI:1-5, p-value 0.050). CONCLUSION: The SCD population has a lower mortality related to malaria compared to the non-SCD population. Meanwhile, within the SCD population, those admitted with malaria are twice more likely to die than those admitted for other pathologies. Jaundice, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly were common in SCD with malaria, however no risk factors for malaria severity or malaria related death was identified.

3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 46, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803342

RESUMO

Introduction: Every day, approximately 830 women globally die from pregnancy-child birth related complications and all maternal deaths are mainly due to the three phases of delay usually experienced in maternal care which originates from inadequate or lack of birth and emergency preparedness. Despite the benefit of Birth Preparedness and Complications Readiness (BPACR) in the reduction of the three phases of delay and thus reduction of maternal deaths and complications, no study has been conducted in Adjumani district to assess the knowledge and practice of birth preparedness and complication readiness, thus our objective was to assess the knowledge and practice of Birth Preparedness and Complications Readiness (BPACR) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Openzinzi Health Centre (HC) III in Adjumani District. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study design with a sample of 80 respondents was used for the study. Simple random sampling was used to select the respondents in the study area. A research administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Most of the respondents (27.5%) were in the age group of 26-35 years. The majority 43.75% ended at primary level of education, 50% were unemployed, and the majority 71.25% and 70% knew identifying skilled birth attendants and health facilities respectively as components of BPACR. 76.25% of the respondents mentioned vaginal bleeding and 62.5% over vomiting as danger signs in pregnancy while 12.5% did not know any danger sign in pregnancy. 76.25% identified place for skilled birth, 66.25% identified skilled birth attendant, and only 15% identified blood donor. Conclusion: The practice of BPACR was poor among the pregnant women attending antenatal care at Openzinzi Health Centre III in Adjumani District. The knowledge about BPACR was higher among the educated respondents involved in the study.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Morte Materna/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692753

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite increasing efforts to address the reproductive health needs of persons living with Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus (HIV), a high unmet need for contraception exists among HIV+ women in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, Ethiopia promotes integration of family planning (FP) services in to HIV chronic care. Yet the contraceptive prevalence rate among clients remains low. The objective of the study was to assess the role of socio-cultural factors on modern family planning use among HIV+ clients attending Anti-Retroviral Therapy clinics in Addis Ababa sub-cities. Methods: The study involved a facility based cross sectional survey. The ten sub cities were initially categorized/stratified into 5 based on direction (East, West, South, North and Central) and from each category one sub city was randomly selected. The total sample size was proportionally allocated to the selected health facilities according to previous monthly average client load per health center. Participants were selected using simple random sampling technique during their routine visit at the health centers. Data were collected through a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were generated and results considered significant at 95% confidence level using STATA version 14.0. Results: Six hundred and thirty-six clients participated in the study. Majority of them were age between 30-39 years. Though majority, 607 (95.4%) participants approved the use of modern FP method, current use rate stood at 39%. Condom was the most (14.5%) commonly used single method. The odds of FP use by participants who disclosed their HIV status were almost twice that of their counterparts (AOR= 1.84; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.95). Participants who held discussion with their spouse/partners concerning FP, irrespective of the frequency had an odd of more than four when using FP than their counterparts (AO= 4.35; 95% CI: 2.69, 7.04). Conclusion: This study revealed that 6 out of every 10 HIV+ clients are not currently using FP methods. Disclosure of HIV status as well as open discussion with spouse/partner were positively associated with family planning use. These study findings call for comprehensive and client focus FP education and counseling in line with disclosure of HIV status and dialogue with spouse/partner in order to increase uptake and utilization of FP among clients. Partners have a great influence on the use and choice of FP methods, so their views are paramount.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Educação Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adulto , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Revelação/estatística & dados numéricos , Etiópia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Reprodutiva , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 189, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692788

RESUMO

Introduction: Burn injuries are a major cause of hospitalization and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in children aged four years or below. In Cameroon, the mortality rate of pediatric severe burns was estimated at 41.2%. There is need to determine the predictors of such mortality in order to guide appropriate management. Methods: This study is aimed at assessing the predictors of mortality of pediatric patients who sustained a burn injury over a period of 11 years (between 1st of January 2006 and 31st of December 2016) in Douala General Hospital (DGH). The data for this study was entered in an electronic questionnaire and analyzed using Epi info version 7. All variables thought to be associated with mortality were entered in a multiple binary logistic regression model. The magnitude or risk was measured by odds ratio, and the 95% confidence interval was estimated. Results: A total of 125 cases of pediatric burns were recorded over the study period. A total of 69 (55.65%) were males, giving a male to female ratio of 1.25:1. The median age was 4 years. Most pediatric burns resulted from accidents. Most patient 78 (69%) came before 8 hours following injury. Scalding was the predominant mechanism of injury in 56 (45.5%) of patients. Most patients had partial thickness burn and most burns involved 1-9.9% body surface areas (BSA). The mean length of hospital stay in this study was 7 days, more than half of the patients had no complications during admission. Among those that developed complications, 19 (35%) developed sepsis. Conclusion: Mortality rate of pediatric burns obtained in this study was 29%, mostly due to cardiac arrest. Flame burns (p=0.03) and BSA >25% (p=0.001) were statistically significant predictors of mortality.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Queimaduras/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Queimaduras/complicações , Queimaduras/mortalidade , Camarões , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 244, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692810

RESUMO

Introduction: Access to drinking water and sanitation has been a long-standing issue between many States. However, it represents a daily struggle for hundreds of thousands of city dwellers who live mainly in the developing countries. The government of Cameroon with the assistance of providers of funds have implemented strategies to make sanitation and access to safe drinking water a reality. We have therefore decided to assess sanitation and access to drinking water in Douala V sub division. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study from May to June 2018. We used a two-stage random sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The analysis was conducted using Epi Info Version 7.1.3.3. Results: Our study shows that 22.47% of subjects discharged waters into the natural environment after use. Then, 65,55% (493/752) of households consumed borehole water; 53.69% of households rode between 1 to 5 km, 49.25% walked more than 15 minutes to collect water and 85,50% of households did not use a water treatment method. Only 14.49% of subjects used a water treatment method. No household used solar water disinfection (SODIS); 2/752 households (0.26%) had no latrine. Most of the households (54.52%; 410/752) discharged domestic wastes onto the street. Conclusion: The creation of decentralized units: the drillings, waste disposal systems and water treatment education to meet basic needs are essential.


Assuntos
Água Potável/normas , Saneamento/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Desinfecção/métodos , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 292, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692903

RESUMO

Face presentation is a rare obstetric event and most practitioners will go through their carriers without ever meeting one. Face presentation can be delivered vaginally only if the foetus is in the mentum anterior position. More than half of the cases of face presentation are delivered by caesarean section. Newborn infants with face presentation usually have severe facial oedema, facial bruising or ecchymosis. These syndromic facial features usually resolved within 24-48 hours.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Edema/patologia , Apresentação no Trabalho de Parto , Camarões , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lábio , Masculino , Gravidez , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 305, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723372

RESUMO

Introduction: Every 90 seconds, a woman dies of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth, resulting in more than 340,000 maternal deaths a year. Antenatal care (ANC) and postnatal care (PNC) are significant determinants of maternal health and, particularly, safe motherhood. Antenatal care is an important predictor of safe delivery and provides health information and services that can improve the health of women and infants. mHealth broadly encompasses the use of mobile telecommunication and multimedia technologies as they are integrated within increasingly mobile and wireless health care delivery systems. This study aimed at assessing the acceptable implementation modalities of mHealth intervention on pregnant Women in Dschang health district, West Region of Cameroon.ng ba. Methods: This was a cross sectional descriptive study in the Dschang health district, West region of Cameroon. Key informants were all pregnant women from 18 years and above and a total of 372 pregnant women were included. This study was carried out from March to July 2017. Results: Majority of the women, that is, 252(67.74%) were married, 117(31.45%) declaredtheir status as being single, while 3(0.81%) were devorced. Out of the 335 women that declared wanting an mHealth intervention, 41.79% of this number preferred SMS texts in the afternoon, 111(33.13%) in the evening, 46(13.73%) anytime and 38(11.34%) in the morning hours. A total of 83.33% women confirmed using telephone services. Conclusion: This study reveals that cell phones would be the acceptable medium of providing pregnancy and postpartum support to women in the Dschang health district. This is justified by the fact that a vast majority of women interviewed had access to a cell phone and referred to it as their desired and accepted means of communication.


Assuntos
Cuidado Pós-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Camarões , Telefone Celular , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Mensagem de Texto , Adulto Jovem
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 310, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723373

RESUMO

Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health problem worldwide owing to its high prevalence and significant morbidity and mortality. There are about 2 billion people living with HBV worldwide and over 360 million chronic carriers. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and practices of pregnant women and health care workers in the ANC and maternity units on HBV infection and its transmission. Methods: About 270 women attending ANC and 31 health care workers were selected by convenience sampling. They were evaluated using a structured questionnaire to assess their knowledge and practices on HBV prevention and transmission. Results: Pregnant women in the Limbe Health District demonstrated good knowledge but adopted poor practices whereas in the Muyuka Health District, pregnant women demonstrated poor knowledge and adopted poor practices regarding the mode of transmission and prevention of HBV infection. Health care workers in both the Limbe and Muyuka Health Districts however, demonstrated good knowledge and adopted good practices. Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between the knowledge and practice of pregnant women and health care workers on Hepatitis B prevention in the Muyuka Health District (P = 0.0006).


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Camarões , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 315, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723374

RESUMO

Introduction: The study investigated the prevalence of stillbirth at the Buea regional hospital, by taking cases of pregnant women who attended antenatal clinic(s) and those who did not attend but had their deliveries at the Buea regional hospital. The study specifically estimated the prevalence of stillbirths; identified possible risk factors associated with stillbirths, and determined whether the number of antenatal clinic visits is related to the occurrence of stillbirths-because during antenatal clinic visits, pregnant women are educated on risk factors of stillbirths such as: preterm deliveries; sex of the stillbirth; history of stillbirth; history of abortion(s); what age group of mothers are more likely to have a stillbirth. Methods: The study was a hospital based retrospective study at the maternity in which there were 3577 deliveries registered at the Buea regional hospital dated May 1st, 2014 to April 30th, 2017. With the aid of a checklist data was collected, analysed and presented with the use of tables, pie-charts and bar charts. Results: The prevalence of stillbirths was 26‰; possible risk factors associated with stillbirths included: preterm deliveries; women aged 20-29 years; history of abortion(s); a history of stillbirth; sex of stillbirths were more of females than males; and insufficient antenatal clinic attendance (≤1 antenatal clinic attendance) had more stillbirths. Conclusion: The study established that stillbirths can occur in any woman of child-bearing age. possible risk factors associated with stillbirths included: preterm deliveries; women aged 20-29 years; history of abortion(s); a history of stillbirth; gender of stillbirths were more of females than males; and insufficient antenatal clinic attendance (≤1 antenatal clinic attendance) had more stillbirths.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 44, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762911

RESUMO

Introduction: Cervical cancer is a major cause of death amongst women around the world. In Ghana, it accounts for over 2,119 female deaths and about 3,151 new diagnoses of the disease. It is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage, making it difficult to treat. This study aims at assessing the knowledge on risk factors, prevention and treatment of cervical cancer among women in Kenyase Bosore, Ghana. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted among women in Bosore Kenyase, Ghana. A total of 200 women were selected for the studies using the convenience sampling technique. Structured questionnaires were used for data collection and statistical package for social sciences application was also used to analyse the data. Pearson chi-square test was used to find associations between knowledge and awareness level and socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Results: Overall, 9.7% of the respondents had high knowledge on cervical cancer, 20.6% had moderate knowledge and 69.7% had low knowledge on cervical cancer. There was a significant association between educational background (p=0.000) and awareness level of the respondents. There was also a significant association between the occupation (p=0.003), educational background (p=0.000) and knowledge level of the respondents. Conclusion: The knowledge level of the respondents was very low. Specifically, the respondents had inadequate knowledge on risk factors, signs and symptoms, prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. The authors recommend the intensification of cervical cancer education in Kenyase Bosore, and Ghana as a whole.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 47, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762913

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite the fact that mothers know the exact age to wean their infants, majority of the mothers do not practice exclusive breastfeeding due to cultural beliefs and practices. The purpose of the study was to explore cultural beliefs and practices associated with weaning children at the Maternal Child Health Clinic Kalisizo Hospital. Methods: This was a simple qualitative study. Seven in-depth-interviews were conducted among 7 mothers of children within the ages 0-12 months attending post-natal care services using self-generated semi-structured key informant's guide. This took place at the Maternal Child Health Clinic Kalisizo Hospital. Purposive sampling method was used to select mothers for the study. Three themes were generated namely: identification of the different cultural beliefs and practices associated with weaning, how the different cultural beliefs are practiced and the impacts of these cultural beliefs and practices. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Although a majority of the mothers knew the recommended age to wean their infants, they did not ignore the ill-informed cultural beliefs, taboos and practices from their elders such as peer pressure, advice and counselling from mother-in laws and teachings from older women who are seen as role models. Conclusion: Adherence to cultural beliefs, taboos and practices, have a powerful influence on weaning, hence hindering exclusive breast feeding.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Desmame/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Centros de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 371, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth preparedness and complication readiness has as goal to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. This concept developed by the organizations of the United Nations permits pregnant women and their families seek health care without delay in case of obstetric complications and delivery. Though its benefits have been proven in several countries, little is known of this in Cameroon and specifically in the North West Region. Therefore, the intention of the study was to assess the awareness and practice of birth preparedness and complication readiness in this health district. METHODS: This was a facility-based cross sectional study carried out in the Bamenda health district of the North West Region, Cameroon. Three hundred forty-five pregnant women of ≥32 weeks gestational age seen at the antenatal consultation units were recruited. The dependent variable was birth preparedness and complication readiness while the independent variables were the socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics. Data collected was analyzed with SPSS and Microsoft excel. Frequency distributions were used to determine the awareness and practice of birth preparedness and complication readiness. RESULTS: Of the 345 pregnant women included in this study, 159(46.1%) were aware of birth preparedness and complication readiness. The practice of birth preparedness and complication readiness was unsatisfactory as only 65(18.8%) were considered prepared. CONCLUSION: Education and counselling on birth preparedness and complication readiness is not made available to the pregnant women resulting in poor knowledge. Thus, reflected in the low practice of preparation for birth and its complication observed.

15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 127, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558926

RESUMO

Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW) is an important predictor of newborn survival and development. Given its pathophysiology, malaria is presumed to be one of the risk factors for low birth weight. This study aims to determine the association between malaria in pregnant women (PW) and LBW (weight < 2500 g). Methods: We conducted a case-control analytical study based on the administration of a questionnaire and an observation chart. We calculated the crude odds ratio (OR) and the adjusted odds ratio to determine this association. Logistic regression was applied to recognize the variables which act as determinants of the issue under discussion. Results: This study involved 156 women (78 cases and 78 controls). The prevalence of LBW was 12.32% (105/852); 41.02% (64/156) of women had had malaria during pregnancy and 42.14% of parturients had received three doses of IPT (intermittent preventive treatment). A significant association between malaria and LBW emerged. Crude odds ratio= 3.75 [P = 0.0001 (p < 0.05)] and adjusted OR = 2.82 [P = 0.01 (p < 0.05)] were calculated taking into account the various confusion factors. Conclusion: Malaria during pregnancy is a factor increasing the risk of LBW. Efforts should be made to improve IPT coverage and the use of long lasting impregnated mosquito nets in order to prevent malaria during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Peso ao Nascer , Malária/complicações , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Camarões , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 137, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558935

RESUMO

Introduction: Malaria is a life threatening disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite, transmitted through the bites of infected female anopheles' mosquitoes. According to the latest WHO data published in 2017, malaria deaths in Cameroon reached 9.161 deaths accounting for 4.14% of total deaths. The age adjusted death rate is 29.11 per 100,000 and Cameroon is ranked the 30th in the world with a high prevalence of malaria. The aim of this study was therefore, to access the knowledge of the modes of transmission and prevention of malaria among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic (ANC) at the Nkwen Health Center, Bamenda. Methods: This was a cross-sectional hospital based survey study. The researchers recruited 51 eligible women in the Nkwen Health Centre and used a validated and pre-tested questionnaires to collect data. Collected data were entered into Excel and analysed using descriptive statistics and the results presented in tables and figures. Results: Sixty four percent of the women have basic knowledge about the mode of malaria transmission. Thirty six percent of the women had little knowledge about malaria transmission modes and the possible dangers of the disease. Conclusion: Slightly above 50% of pregnant women have basic knowledge on the modes of malaria transmission. Lack of knowledge regarding the modes of malaria transmission can be one of the reasons why there is still quite a high level of malaria prevalence among pregnant women attending ANC at the Nkwen Health Center, Bamenda. There is therefore, a need to educate women on malaria transmission modes.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Malária/prevenção & controle , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 152, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558949

RESUMO

Introduction: Access to free diagnoses and treatments has been shown to be a major determinant in malaria control. The Cameroon government launched in 2011 and 2014 the exemption of the under-fives' simple and severe malaria treatment policy to increase access to health care and reduce inequality, so as to reduce the mortality related to malaria among the under-fives. This study assessed the effect of providing free malaria treatment in the Buea health district. Methods: This retrospective and cross sectional study was carried out in the Buea health district. Aggregated monthly data from (2008-2010) before and (2012-2014) after the implementation of free malaria treatment was compared, to assess the attributable outcomes of free treatment. A semi-structure questionnaire was also used to assess barriers faced in providing free malaria treatment services by health care workers. Data was collected using a semi-structure questionnaire and a data review summary sheet. The data was analysed using Epi-Info 7, Excel and SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) version 20.0 for Windows. All statistical tests were performed at 95% confidence interval (significance level of 0.05). Results: Increase utilisation of health care; as general and malaria related consultations (by 5.7% (p=0.001) witnessed an increase after the implementation of free malaria treatment services. Severe malaria hospitalisation also increased, indicating that most caregivers used the health facility when complications had already set in, which could have led to no significant reduction in mortality due to malaria among under-five children (4.4%, p=0.533). Conclusion: Utilisation of health care increased; as consultation and morbidity rate increased after the implementation of free malaria treatment services. Communication strategy should therefore be strengthened so as to better disseminate information, so as to enhance the effectiveness of the program. There is the need to make a large-scale study to assess the impact of subsidized malaria treatment.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Antimaláricos/economia , Camarões , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Financiamento Governamental/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Malária/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 85, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489063

RESUMO

Introduction: Testicular self-examination (TSE) is a screening technique that involves inspection of the appearance and palpation of the testes to detect any changes from the normal. Globally, the incidence of cancer has increased among which is testicular cancer (TC). Data on this topic among male secondary school adolescents in Uganda is limited therefore this study sought to assess the knowledge and practice of testicular self-examination among secondary students at Ntare School, Mbarara District in south western Uganda. The objective of the study is to assess the knowledge and practice of testicular self-examination among secondary students at Ntare School in Mbarara district, south western Uganda. Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study among 165 students. Recruitment was made using simple random sampling technique. Respondents were selected among advanced level (A' level) male students studying at Ntare School in Mbarara district, south western Uganda. Structured self-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Results: Of the male students, 41.8% reported to have knowledge about TSE and only 23.6% practiced TSE. Most students rated their knowledge of TSE to be below 5 (from 1-10). Of the 39 students who admitted performing TSE, only 16 did so as recommended (monthly). Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of TSE were low among adolescent secondary school boys in Ntare School in Mbarara District, south western Uganda. This suggests that these students are unaware of the value of this personal health promotion tool which is fundamental in early diagnosis of testicular cancer.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Autoexame/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 87, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489065

RESUMO

Introduction: The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the treatment of HIV infection has provided different good results: like long-term viral suppression, the decrease of opportunistic infections, and repair of the immune system. Methods: We carried out a hospital-based cross-sectional analytic study involving 315 participants 228 were on HAART (group 1) and 87 were HAART-naïve (group 2) at the HIV treatment centre of the Bamenda regional hospital with our study population being all people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in the North West region of Cameroon. The sampling was performed from the 15th of March to the 30th of June 2017. The questionnaire was administered face to face with participants and their vital signs taken. Blood pressure was measured using an automated electronic blood pressure monitor and hypertension (HTN) was considered as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90mmHg. Results: The prevalence of hypertension in the HAART group was 36.44% (n=82, CI: 30.15%-43.10%) compared to that of the HAART-naïve group which was 13.33% (n=12, CI: 7.08%-22.13%, P=0.01). HAART was associated with HTN after controlling for gender, family history of hypertension, body mass index (BMI), smoking and alcohol consumption. The odds ratio of the HAART-treated versus the HAART-naïve was 3.86 (95% CI: 1.98-7.50). We also found an association between TDF/3TC/EFV (OR=2.83), AZT/3TC/NVP (OR=2.82), AZT/3TC+EFV (OR=3.48) and TDF/3TC+NVP (OR=2.36) and HTN whereas those on AZT+3TC+ATV/r (OR=0.84) and TDF+3TC+ATV/r (OR=0.45) were not associated to hypertension. Conclusion: Our result suggests that blood pressure should be periodically measured and treated when necessary in PLWHIV on HAART.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA