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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(26): 14453-14464, 2019 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210192

RESUMO

Single photon ionization and subsequent unimolecular ion decomposition were studied on jet-cooled benzophenone and fluorenone separately, using VUV synchrotron radiation in a photoion/photoelectron coincidence setup. Slow PhotoElectron Spectra (SPES) were recorded in coincidence with either the parent or the fragment ions for hν < 12.5 eV. Dissociative ionization is observed for benzophenone only. The full interpretation of the measurements, including the identification of the neutral and ionic species when dissociative ionization is at play, benefits from high level ab initio computations for determining the equilibrium structures and the energetics of the neutral and ionized molecules and of their fragments. Electronically excited states of the parent molecular ions were calculated also. From this analysis, an accurate experimental determination of the energetics of the benzophenone and fluorenone ions and of their fragmentation channels is available: adiabatic ionization energies of benzophenone at 8.923 ± 0.005 eV and of fluorenone at 8.356 ± 0.007 eV; and appearance energies of benzophenone fragment ions at 11.04 ± 0.02 eV (loss of C6H5), 11.28 ± 0.02 eV (loss of H) and 11.45 ± 0.02 eV (loss of CO). The corresponding fragmentation mechanisms are explored, showing likely concerted bonds rearrangement. Possible pre-ionizing fragmentation is discussed in light of the spectra presented. The structural rigidity of fluorenone diarylketone seems to be the origin of the inhibition of the fragmentation of its cation.

2.
J Chem Phys ; 149(20): 204313, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501230

RESUMO

The photodissociation dynamics of CH3I and CH2ClI at 272 nm were investigated by time-resolved Coulomb explosion imaging, with an intense non-resonant 815 nm probe pulse. Fragment ion momenta over a wide m/z range were recorded simultaneously by coupling a velocity map imaging spectrometer with a pixel imaging mass spectrometry camera. For both molecules, delay-dependent pump-probe features were assigned to ultraviolet-induced carbon-iodine bond cleavage followed by Coulomb explosion. Multi-mass imaging also allowed the sequential cleavage of both carbon-halogen bonds in CH2ClI to be investigated. Furthermore, delay-dependent relative fragment momenta of a pair of ions were directly determined using recoil-frame covariance analysis. These results are complementary to conventional velocity map imaging experiments and demonstrate the application of time-resolved Coulomb explosion imaging to photoinduced real-time molecular motion.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(17): 11730-11739, 2018 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687125

RESUMO

A combined theoretical and experimental approach has been used to investigate the binding energy of a ruthenium metalloporphyrin ligated with CO, ruthenium tetraphenylporphyrin [RuII TPP], in the RuII oxidation degree. Measurements performed with VUV ionization using the DESIRS beamline at Synchrotron SOLEIL led to adiabatic ionization energies of [RuII TPP] and its complex with CO, [RuII TPP-CO], of 6.48 ± 0.03 eV and 6.60 ± 0.03 eV, respectively, while the ion dissociation threshold of [RuII TPP-CO]+ is measured to be 8.36 ± 0.03 eV using the ground-state neutral complex. These experimental data are used to derive the binding energies of the CO ligand in neutral and cationic complexes (1.88 ± 0.06 eV and 1.76 ± 0.06 eV, respectively) using a Born-Haber cycle. Density functional theory calculations, in very satisfactory agreement with the experimental results, help to get insights into the metal-ligand bond. Notably, the high ligation energies can be rationalized in terms of the ruthenium orbital structure, which is singular compared to that of the iron atom. Thus, beyond indications of a strengthening of the Ru-CO bond due to the decrease in the CO vibrational frequency in the complex as compared to the Fe-CO bond, high-level calculations are essential to accurately describe the metal ligand (CO) bond and show that the Ru-CO bond energy is strongly affected by the splitting of triplet and singlet spin states in uncomplexed [Ru TPP].

4.
J Chem Phys ; 147(15): 154302, 2017 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29055295

RESUMO

The methyl carbocation is ubiquitous in gaseous environments, such as planetary ionospheres, cometary comae, and the interstellar medium, as well as combustion systems and plasma setups for technological applications. Here we report on a joint experimental and theoretical study on the mechanism of the reaction CH3+ + CH3CCCH3 (but-2-yne, also known as dimethylacetylene), by combining guided ion beam mass spectrometry experiments with ab initio calculations of the potential energy hypersurface. Such a reaction is relevant in understanding the chemical evolution of Saturn's largest satellite, Titan. Two complementary setups have been used: in one case, methyl cations are generated via electron ionization, while in the other case, direct vacuum ultraviolet photoionization with synchrotron radiation of methyl radicals is used to study internal energy effects on the reactivity. Absolute reactive cross sections have been measured as a function of collision energy, and product branching ratios have been derived. The two most abundant products result from electron and hydride transfer, occurring via direct and barrierless mechanisms, while other channels are initiated by the electrophilic addition of the methyl cation to the triple bond of but-2-yne. Among the minor channels, special relevance is placed on the formation of C5H7+, stemming from H2 loss from the addition complex. This is the only observed condensation product with the formation of new C-C bonds, and it might represent a viable pathway for the synthesis of complex organic species in astronomical environments and laboratory plasmas.

5.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(33): 6529-40, 2016 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27471793

RESUMO

The chemical composition of Titan organic haze is poorly known. To address this issue, laboratory analogues named tholins are synthesized and analyzed by methods often requiring an extraction process in a carrier solvent. These methods exclude the analysis of the insoluble tholins' fraction and assume a hypothetical chemical equivalence between soluble and insoluble fractions. In this work, we present a powerful complementary analysis method recently developed on the DESIRS VUV synchrotron beamline at SOLEIL. It involves soft pyrolysis of tholins at ∼230 °C and electron/ion coincidence analysis of the emitted volatile compounds photoionized by tunable synchrotron radiation. By comparison with reference photoelectron spectra (PES), the spectral information collected on the detected molecules yields their isomeric structure. The method is more readily applied to light species (m/z ≤ 69), while for heavier ones, the number of possibilities and the lack of PES reference spectra in the literature limit its analysis. A notable pattern in the analyzed tholins is the presence of species containing adjacent doubly bonded N atoms, which might be a signature of heterogeneous incorporation of N2 in tholins.

6.
J Chem Phys ; 142(18): 184306, 2015 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25978890

RESUMO

The threshold photoelectron spectra (TPES) of two unstable nitrogen-containing species, HNCO and NCO, were recorded utilizing vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. Both are intermediates in combustion processes and play a role in the removal of nitrogen oxides from exhaust gases. The rovibronic structure of the first band in the TPES of HNCO(+) was analyzed within the framework of an orbital ionization model, and the resolved structure of the origin band was assigned to ΔK subbands. An ionization energy of 11.602 ± 0.005 eV was determined and the vibrational structure of the cationic ground state was analyzed by a Franck-Condon fit. Low lying electronically excited states of HNCO(+) were also observed. In a second series of experiments, the NCO radical was generated by flash pyrolysis from chlorine isocyanate. The ionization energy to the X(+) (3)Σ(-) ground state was determined to be 11.76 ± 0.02 eV, while for the a(+) (1)Δ state, a value of 12.93 ± 0.02 eV was obtained. Vibrational structure was observed for both states, and bands were assigned by Franck-Condon simulations.

7.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(23): 6082-98, 2015 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25721439

RESUMO

An experimental study has been carried out on the reactions of state selected O(+)((4)S, (2)D, (2)P) ions with methane with the aims of characterizing the effects of both the parent ion internal energy and collision energy on the reaction dynamics and determining the fate of oxygen species in complex media, in particular the Titan ionosphere. Absolute cross sections and product velocity distributions have been determined for the reactions of (16)O(+) or (18)O(+) ions with CH4 or CD4 from thermal to 5 eV collision energies by using the guided ion beam (GIB) technique. Dissociative photoionization of O2 with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation delivered by the DESIRS beamline at the SOLEIL storage ring and the threshold photoion photoelectron coincidence (TPEPICO) technique are used for the preparation of purely state-selected O(+)((4)S, (2)D, (2)P) ions. A complete inversion of the product branching ratio between CH4(+) and CH3(+) ions in favor of the latter is observed for excitation of O(+) ions from the (4)S ground state to either the (2)D or the (2)P metastable state. CH4(+) and CH3(+) ions, which are by far the major products for the reaction of ground state and excited states, are strongly backward scattered in the center of mass frame relative to O(+) parent ions. For the reaction of O(+)((4)S), CH3(+) production also rises with increasing collision energy but with much less efficiency than with O(+) excitation. We found that a mechanism of dissociative charge transfer, mediated by an initial charge transfer step, can account very well for all the observations, indicating that CH3(+) production is associated with the formation of H and O atoms (CH3(+) + H + O) rather than with OH formation by an hydride transfer process (CH3(+) + OH). Therefore, as the CH4(+) production by charge transfer is also associated with O atoms, the fate of oxygen species in these reactions is essentially the O production, except for the reaction of O(+)((4)S), which also produces appreciable amounts of H2O(+) ions but only at very low collision energy. The production of O atoms and the nature of the states in which they are formed are discussed for the reactions of O(+) ions with CH4 and N2.

8.
J Phys Chem A ; 118(47): 11185-92, 2014 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25340309

RESUMO

Gas-phase studies of biomolecules are often difficult to initiate because of the thermolability of these systems. Such studies are nevertheless important to determine fundamental intrinsic properties of the molecules. Here we present the valence shell photoionization of gas-phase vitamins A and B1 close to their ionization threshold. The study was performed by means of an aerosol thermodesorption source coupled to an electron/ion coincidence spectrometer and synchrotron radiation (SOLEIL facility, France). Ion yield curves were recorded for both molecules over a few electronvolt energy range and the threshold photoelectron spectrum was also obtained for vitamin A. Some fundamental properties were extracted for both ions such as adiabatic and the three first vertical ionization energies of retinol (IEad = 6.8 ± 0.2 eV and IEvert = 7.4, 8.3, and 9.2 eV) and dissociation appearance energies for the main fragment ions of vitamin B1. Analysis of the data was supported by ab initio calculations which show a very good agreement with the experimental observations.


Assuntos
Processos Fotoquímicos , Síncrotrons , Temperatura , Tiamina/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Vácuo , Vitamina A/química , Aerossóis , Elétrons , Gases/química , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Termodinâmica
9.
J Phys Chem A ; 118(15): 2765-79, 2014 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24654892

RESUMO

The valence shell photoionization of the simplest proteinaceous chiral amino acid, alanine, is investigated over the vacuum ultraviolet region from its ionization threshold up to 18 eV. Tunable and variable polarization synchrotron radiation was coupled to a double imaging photoelectron/photoion coincidence (i(2)PEPICO) spectrometer to produce mass-selected threshold photoelectron spectra and derive the state-selected fragmentation channels. The photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD), an orbital-sensitive, conformer-dependent chiroptical effect, was also recorded at various photon energies and compared to continuum multiple scattering calculations. Two complementary vaporization methods-aerosol thermodesorption and a resistively heated sample oven coupled to an adiabatic expansion-were applied to promote pure enantiomers of alanine into the gas phase, yielding neutral alanine with different internal energy distributions. A comparison of the photoelectron spectroscopy, fragmentation, and dichroism measured for each of the vaporization methods was rationalized in terms of internal energy and conformer populations and supported by theoretical calculations. The analytical potential of the so-called PECD-PICO detection technique-where the electron spectroscopy and circular dichroism can be obtained as a function of mass and ion translational energy-is underlined and applied to characterize the origin of the various species found in the experimental mass spectra. Finally, the PECD findings are discussed within an astrochemical context, and possible implications regarding the origin of biomolecular asymmetry are identified.


Assuntos
Alanina/química , Gases/química , Fótons , Aerossóis , Processos Fotoquímicos , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Estereoisomerismo , Síncrotrons , Termodinâmica , Raios Ultravioleta , Vácuo , Volatilização
10.
J Phys Chem A ; 115(25): 7310-5, 2011 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21520905

RESUMO

Reactions of (14)N(+)((3)P), (15)N(+)((3)P), and Kr(+) with propane, propene, and propyne were studied using the selected ion flow tube, SIFT, technique. Thermal rate constants in all N(+)/C(3) systems were k = (2 ± 0.4) × 10(-9) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), close to the collisional rate constants. With propane and propene, only hydrocarbon ions were found among the products of reactions with N(+); in propyne about 15% of the products were N-containing ions (C(3)H(2)N(+), C(2)H(4)N(+), C(2)H(3)N(+), C(2)H(2)N(+)), and the rest were hydrocarbon ions. A comparison with product ions from electron transfer between Kr(+) (of recombination energy similar to that for N(+)((3)P)) and the C(3) hydrocarbons and further analysis of the results led to an estimation of an approximate ratio of electron transfer vs hydride-ion transfer reactions leading to the hydrocarbon product ions: in propane the ratio was 2:1, in propene 3:1, and in propyne 5:1. A fraction of product ions resulted from reactions leading to the excited neutral product N*.

11.
J Phys Chem A ; 115(11): 2225-30, 2011 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21366257

RESUMO

In this Article, we present mass-selected threshold photoelectron spectra of propargyl as well as the 1- and 3-bromopropargyl radicals. The reactive intermediates were produced by flash pyrolysis of suitable precursors and ionized by VUV synchrotron radiation. The TPES of the propargyl radical was simulated using data from a recent high-level computational study. An ionization energy (IE) of 8.71 ± 0.02 eV was obtained, in excellent agreement with computations, but slightly above previous experimental IEs. The pyrolysis of 1,3-dibromopropyne delivers both 1- and 3-bromopropargyl radicals that can be distinguished by their different ionization energies (8.34 and 8.16 eV). To explain the vibrational structure, a Franck-Condon simulation was performed, based on DFT calculations, which can account for all major spectral features. Bromopropargyl photoionizes dissociatively beginning at around 10.1 eV. Cationic excited states of 1- and 3-bromopropargyl were tentatively identified. The dissociative photoionization of the precursor (1,3-dibromopropyne) was also examined, delivering an AE(0K) (C(3)H(2)Br(+)/C(3)H(2)Br(2)) of 10.6 eV.

12.
J Phys Chem A ; 114(42): 11269-76, 2010 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20545378

RESUMO

Cyclopropenylidene (c-C(3)H(2)), chlorocyclopropenylidene (c-C(3)HCl), and their deuterated isotopomers were studied by the threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) technique using VUV synchrotron radiation. The carbenes were generated via flash pyrolysis. In all species a change in geometry is visible upon ionization, with significant activity in the C═C, C-C-stretching mode and, in the case of c-C(3)H(2)/D(2), the C-H-bending mode. The electron is removed from an sp(2) like hybrid orbital centered on the carbene C atom. The mass selected threshold photoelectron (TPE) spectra were fitted by a Franck-Condon simulation, yielding the equilibrium geometry of the cation ground state ((1)A(1)). The adiabatic ionization energy IE(ad) of c-C(3)H(2) was determined to be 9.17 eV, in good agreement with calculations and literature values. Two vibrational wavenumbers of the cation were determined experimentally (ν(3)(+) = 1150 cm(-1) and ν(2)(+) = 1530 cm(-1)). Chlorocyclopropenylidene was also studied by TPE spectroscopy and has a similar IE(ad) of 9.17 eV. The spectrum also shows a vibrational progression that corresponds to the C═C- and C-C-stretching modes of the cation. The equilibrium geometry was also determined by a Franck-Condon fit. The IE(ad) of the deuterated isotopomers, c-C(3)D(2) and c-C(3)DCl, were also determined to be 9.17 eV. The spectra confirm the assignments for the nondeuterated species.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos/química , Deutério/química , Hidrocarbonetos Cíclicos/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Teoria Quântica
13.
J Phys Chem A ; 114(14): 4818-30, 2010 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20218643

RESUMO

Threshold photoelectron spectra (TPES) of the isotopomers of the methyl radical (CH(3), CH(2)D, CHD(2), and CD(3)) have been recorded in the 9.5-10.5 eV VUV photon energy range using third generation synchrotron radiation to investigate the vibrational spectroscopy of the corresponding cations at a 7-11 meV resolution. A threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) spectrometer based on velocity map imaging and Wiley-McLaren time-of-flight has been used to simultaneously record the TPES of several radical species produced in a Ar-seeded beam by dc flash-pyrolysis of nitromethane (CH(x)D(y)NO(2), x + y = 3). Vibrational bands belonging to the symmetric stretching and out-of-plane bending modes have been observed and P, Q, and R branches have been identified in the analysis of the rotational profiles. Vibrational configuration interaction (VCI), in conjunction with near-equilibrium potential energy surfaces calculated by the explicitly correlated coupled cluster method CCSD(T*)-F12a, is used to calculate vibrational frequencies for the four radical isotopomers and the corresponding cations. Agreement with data from high-resolution IR spectroscopy is very good and a large number of predictions is made. In particular, the calculated wavenumbers for the out-of-plane bending vibrations, nu(2)(CH(3)(+)) = 1404 cm(-1), nu(4)(CH(2)D(+)) = 1308 cm(-1), nu(4)(CHD(2)(+)) = 1205 cm(-1), and nu(2)(CD(3)(+)) = 1090 cm(-1), should be accurate to ca. 2 cm(-1). Additionally, computed Franck-Condon factors are used to estimate the importance of autoionization relative to direct ionization. The chosen models globally account for the observed transitions, but in contrast to PES spectroscopy, evidence for rotational and vibrational autoionization is found. It is shown that state-selected methyl cations can be produced by TPEPICO spectroscopy for ion-molecule reaction studies, which are very important for the understanding of the planetary ionosphere chemistry.

14.
J Phys Chem A ; 114(9): 3237-46, 2010 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19947606

RESUMO

A pyrolysis source coupled to a supersonic expansion has been used to produce the CH3 radical from two precursors, iodomethane CH3I and nitromethane CH3NO2. The relative ionization yield of CH3 has been recorded at the SOLEIL Synchrotron Radiation source in the range 9.0-11.6 eV, and its ionization threshold has been modeled by taking into account the vibrational and rotational temperature of the radical in the molecular beam. The relative photoionization yield has been normalized to an absolute cross section scale at a fixed wavelength (118.2 nm, sigma(i)(CH3) = 6.7(-1.8)(+2.4) Mb, 95% confidence interval) in an independent laboratory experiment using the same pyrolysis source, a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser, and a carefully calibrated detection chain. The resulting absolute cross section curve is in good agreement with the recently published measurements by Taatjes et al., although with an improved signal-to-noise ratio. The absolute photoionization cross section of CH3I at 118.2 nm has also been measured to be sigma(i)(CH3I) = (48.2 +/- 7.9) Mb, in good agreement with previous electron impact measurements. Finally, the photoionization yield of the iodine atom in its ground state 2P(3/2) has been recorded using the synchrotron source and calibrated for the first time on an absolute cross section scale from our fixed 118.2 nm laser measurement, sigma(i)(I2P(3/2)) = 74(-23)(+33) Mb (95% confidence interval). The ionization curve of atomic iodine is in good agreement, although with slight variations, with the earlier relative ionization yield measured by Berkowitz et al. and is also compared to an earlier calculation of the iodine cross section by Robicheaux and Greene. It is demonstrated that, in the range of pyrolysis temperature used in this work, all the ionization cross sections are temperature-independent. Systematic care has been taken to include all uncertainty sources contributing to the final confidence intervals for the reported results.

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