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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245386, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278528

RESUMO

Abstract Herbivory is an interaction with great impact on plant communities since relationships between herbivores and plants are fundamental to the distribution and abundance of species over time and space. The aim of this study was to monitor the rate of leaf expansion in the tree fern Cyathea phalerata and evaluate the damage caused by herbivores to leaves of different ages and whether such damage is related to temperature and precipitation. The study was performed in a subtropical Atlantic Forest fragment located in the municipality of Caraá, in the northeast hillside of Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. We monitored 24 mature individuals of C. phalerata with croziers in a population of approximately 50 plants. Leaf expansion rate, percentage of damaged leaves and leaf blade consumption rate by herbivory were calculated. Monthly means for temperature and accumulated rainfall were calculated from daily data. Croziers of C. phalerata were found to expand rapidly during the first and second months after emergence (3.98 cm day-1; 2.91 cm day-1, respectively). Damage caused by herbivory was observed in all of the monitored leaves, but none of the plants experienced complete defoliation. The highest percentage (57%) of damaged leaves was recorded at 60 days of monitoring, and also the highest monthly consumption rate of the blade (6.04%) occurred with young, newly-expanded leaves, while this rate remained between 1.50 and 2.21% for mature leaves. Rates of monthly leaf consumption and damaged leaves showed positive and strong relationship with each other and with temperature. The rapid leaf expansion observed for C. phalerata can be considered a phenological strategy to reduce damage to young leaves by shortening the developmental period and accelerating the increase of defenses in mature leaves.


Resumo A herbivoria é uma interação de grande impacto sobre as comunidades de plantas, uma vez que as relações entre herbívoros e plantas são fundamentais para a distribuição e abundância das espécies ao longo do tempo e do espaço. O objetivo deste estudo foi monitorar a taxa de expansão foliar da samambaia arborescente Cyathea phalerata e avaliar o dano causado por herbívoros a folhas de diferentes idades, assim como verificar se este dano está relacionado à temperatura e à precipitação. O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica subtropical localizado no município de Caraá, na encosta nordeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no sul do Brasil. Nós monitoramos 24 indivíduos maduros de C. phalerata com báculos em uma população de aproximadamente 50 plantas. A taxa de expansão foliar, a porcentagem de folhas danificadas e a taxa de consumo da lâmina foliar por herbivoria foram calculados. Médias mensais de temperatura e precipitação acumulada foram calculadas a partir de dados diários. Báculos de C. phalerata expandiram rapidamente durante o primeiro e o segundo mês após emergência (3,98 cm dia-1; 2,91 cm dia-1, respectivamente). O dano causado por herbivoria foi observado em todas as folhas monitoradas, mas nenhuma das plantas sofreu desfolhação completa. A maior porcentagem (57%) de folhas danificadas foi registrada aos 60 dias de monitoramento, e também a maior taxa de consumo mensal (6,04%) ocorreu em folhas jovens, recém expandidas, enquanto esta taxa permaneceu entre 1,50 e 2,21% em folhas maduras. As taxas mensais de consumo da lâmina foliar e de folhas danificadas mostraram relação positiva e forte entre si e com a temperatura. A rápida expansão foliar observada em C. phalerata pode ser considerada uma estratégia fenológica para reduzir o dano a folhas jovens, abreviando o período de desenvolvimento e acelerando o aumento das defesas em folhas maduras.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245386, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161461

RESUMO

Herbivory is an interaction with great impact on plant communities since relationships between herbivores and plants are fundamental to the distribution and abundance of species over time and space. The aim of this study was to monitor the rate of leaf expansion in the tree fern Cyathea phalerata and evaluate the damage caused by herbivores to leaves of different ages and whether such damage is related to temperature and precipitation. The study was performed in a subtropical Atlantic Forest fragment located in the municipality of Caraá, in the northeast hillside of Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. We monitored 24 mature individuals of C. phalerata with croziers in a population of approximately 50 plants. Leaf expansion rate, percentage of damaged leaves and leaf blade consumption rate by herbivory were calculated. Monthly means for temperature and accumulated rainfall were calculated from daily data. Croziers of C. phalerata were found to expand rapidly during the first and second months after emergence (3.98 cm day-1; 2.91 cm day-1, respectively). Damage caused by herbivory was observed in all of the monitored leaves, but none of the plants experienced complete defoliation. The highest percentage (57%) of damaged leaves was recorded at 60 days of monitoring, and also the highest monthly consumption rate of the blade (6.04%) occurred with young, newly-expanded leaves, while this rate remained between 1.50 and 2.21% for mature leaves. Rates of monthly leaf consumption and damaged leaves showed positive and strong relationship with each other and with temperature. The rapid leaf expansion observed for C. phalerata can be considered a phenological strategy to reduce damage to young leaves by shortening the developmental period and accelerating the increase of defenses in mature leaves.


Assuntos
Gleiquênias , Herbivoria , Brasil , Florestas , Humanos , Folhas de Planta
3.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 21(4): 481-496, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297547

RESUMO

In professional soccer, increasing amounts of data are collected that harness great potential when it comes to analysing tactical behaviour. Unlocking this potential is difficult as big data challenges the data management and analytics methods commonly employed in sports. By joining forces with computer science, solutions to these challenges could be achieved, helping sports science to find new insights, as is happening in other scientific domains. We aim to bring multiple domains together in the context of analysing tactical behaviour in soccer using position tracking data. A systematic literature search for studies employing position tracking data to study tactical behaviour in soccer was conducted in seven electronic databases, resulting in 2338 identified studies and finally the inclusion of 73 papers. Each domain clearly contributes to the analysis of tactical behaviour, albeit in - sometimes radically - different ways. Accordingly, we present a multidisciplinary framework where each domain's contributions to feature construction, modelling and interpretation can be situated. We discuss a set of key challenges concerning the data analytics process, specifically feature construction, spatial and temporal aggregation. Moreover, we discuss how these challenges could be resolved through multidisciplinary collaboration, which is pivotal in unlocking the potential of position tracking data in sports analytics.

4.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 34(11): 2613-2619, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genital warts are the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) and are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Persistent anal infection by oncogenic genotypes of HPV is a determinant for anal cancer. Currently, anal cancer screening is not widely implemented. OBJECTIVES: Our aim is to evaluate the role of perianal warts as a risk marker for anal high-risk (HR) HPV detection and anal dysplasia. METHODS: In this observational, retrospective, cohort study of attendees of a STI outpatient clinic between January 2010 and June 2018, all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) who performed anal cytology, anal HPV DNA detection and anoscopy were included. A comparison was made between patients with and without perianal warts. Primary endpoint: proportion of patients with an abnormal anal cytology. Secondary endpoints: proportion of patients with (i) anal HR-HPV detection; (ii) anal HPV 16 detection; (iii) abnormal anal biopsy; and (iv) anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). RESULTS: Seventy-eight individuals were included: 39 with perianal warts and 39 without perianal warts. Subjects with perianal warts more frequently had an abnormal anal cytology (71.8% vs. 38.5%; P = 0.003). This group also had a higher rate of anal HPV 16 detection (38.5% vs. 12.8%; P = 0.01). No differences were detected in the proportion of patients with anal HR-HPV detection, with an abnormal anal biopsy or with anal HSIL. Perianal warts was an independent risk factor for an abnormal anal cytology (OR: 7.2) and for anal HPV 16 detection (OR: 6.7). CONCLUSION: Given the high risk of anal cancer in HIV-positive MSM, effective screening strategies are greatly needed. This study suggests that the presence of perianal warts is a suitable risk marker for anal HPV 16 detection and anal dysplasia.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Neoplasias do Ânus , Condiloma Acuminado , Infecções por HIV , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Neoplasias do Ânus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Ânus/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Condiloma Acuminado/complicações , Condiloma Acuminado/diagnóstico , Condiloma Acuminado/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Food Res Int ; 135: 109293, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527484

RESUMO

The presence of bisphenol A (BPA) and eight BPA analogues was investigated in 30 canned meat samples (sausages, pâtés, and whole meals). For that, a previously developed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology based on a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) with "in situ" acetylation was optimized, namely by the introduction of a novel solid-phase dispersive sorbent. Results showed that all the samples were contaminated with at least one compound from the five bisphenol analogues found (BPA, BPB, BPF, BPAF, and BPZ). Nineteen samples showed the simultaneous presence of BPA and one or more analogues, with a maximum of four different compounds in two of the samples. In half of the samples, the sum of all bisphenols was higher than 50 µg/kg, with a maximum of 236 µg/kg. Regarding human food safety, the estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) assessed were higher than those established by the European Food Safety Authority suggesting hazard risk for human consumers.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Fenóis/análise
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8620, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451399

RESUMO

Besides technical and tactical aspects, basketball matches involve high aerobic and anaerobic capacities, conferring the final performance of a team. Thus, the evaluation of physical and technical responses is an effective way to predict the performance of athletes. Field and laboratory tests have been used in sports. The first involving high ecological validity and low cost, and the second, greater control and accuracy but not easy application, considering the different preparation phases in a season. This study aimed, through complex networks analysis, to verify whether centrality parameters analysed from significant correlations behave similarly in distinct scenarios (laboratory and on-court), emphasizing aerobic and anaerobic physical parameters and technical performances. The results showed that, in a compelling  analysis involving basketball athletes, the studied centralities (degree, betweenness, eigenvector and pagerank) revealed similar responses in both scenarios, which is widely attractive considering the greater financial economy and lower time when applying tests in the field.

7.
Hum Reprod ; 35(2): 265-274, 2020 02 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990346

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: What are the effects of endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) in uterine natural killer (unK) cells from miscarriage decidua, regarding their cytokine profile and endometrial stromal cell (ESC) crosstalk? SUMMARY ANSWER: uNK-conditioned media from miscarriage samples present high TNF-α levels which inhibit ESC decidualisation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: AEA plasma levels are higher in women who have suffered a miscarriage. Moreover, AEA inhibits ESC proliferation and differentiation, although the levels and impact on the uNK cell cytokine profile at the feto-maternal interface remain elusive. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This laboratory-based study used human primary uNK cells which were isolated from first-trimester decidua (gestational age, 5-12 weeks) derived from 8 women with elective pregnancy termination and 18 women who suffered a miscarriage. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The first-trimester placental tissues were assayed for AEA levels by UPLC-MS/MS and respective enzymatic profile by western blot. The uNK cells were isolated and maintained in culture. The expression of angiogenic markers in uNK cells was examined by quantitative PCR (qPCR). The uNK-conditioned medium was analysed for IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the impact on ESC differentiation was assessed by measuring decidual markers Prl, Igfbp-1 and Fox01 mRNA expression using qPCR. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: AEA levels were higher in miscarriage decidua compared with decidua from elective terminations. The uNK cell-conditioned medium from the miscarriage samples exhibited high TNF-α levels and interfered with the decidualisation of ESCs. Exacerbated inflammation and elevated TNF-α levels at the feto-maternal interface may trigger AEA signalling pathways that, in turn, may impact decidualisation and the angiogenic ability of uNK cells. LARGE-SCALE DATA: N/A. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Primary uNK cell responses are based on a simple in vitro model. Thus, in complex microenvironments, such as the feto-maternal interface, the mechanisms may not be exactly the same. Also, the inflammatory events of miscarriage that, in this study, have happened prior to processing of the samples may cause different responses to that observed. In addition, the magnitude of the inflammatory response, required to trigger the AEA pathways that impact decidualisation and the uNK angiogenic ability in vivo, is still unclear. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The endocannabinoid AEA is a modulator of reproductive competence. AEA not only may contribute to neuroendocrine homeostasis but also can take part in uterine changes occurring during early pregnancy. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The work was supported by UID/MULTI/04378/2019 with funding from Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)/MCTES through national funds and PORTUGAL 2020 Partnership Agreement, NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000024. S.C. Cunha acknowledges FCT for the IF/01616/2015 contract. There are no conflicts of interest.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/metabolismo , Canabinoides/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides/fisiologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Receptores de Canabinoides/fisiologia , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Ácidos Araquidônicos , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides , Endocanabinoides/genética , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas , Portugal , Gravidez , Receptores de Canabinoides/genética , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 119-124, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088905

RESUMO

This case report describes the outcome of treatment of dogs with advanced (deeply invasive) nasal planum squamous cell carcinomas with palliative or definitive radiation therapy. All dogs were diagnosed with nasal planum squamous cell carcinoma by histopathology, and their owners declined aggressive surgery. Dogs were treated with a cobalt-60 unit, definitive-intent radiation protocol consisting of 15 daily fractions (Monday-Friday) of 2.8 Gy, and palliative radiation protocol consisting of 4 fractions of 8 Gy performed once a week. Three dogs had T3 tumors and three had T4 tumors according to the WHO staging system. Two dogs had tumor complete remission and four had tumor partial remission. Survival time of dogs submitted to radiation therapy was 95-417 days. Radiation acute side effects involved only mild epilation and cutaneous erythema in palliative protocols, and moist desquamation, epilation, mild rhinitis and oral mucositis in definitive-intent RT. Radiation therapy, especially palliative protocols, can be a treatment option for nasal planum squamous cell carcinoma in dogs, when the owner declines aggressive surgery. It may contribute to partial or complete tumor remission and better patient quality of life, even at advanced stages, leading to mild side effects.(AU)


Este relato descreve seis casos de carcinoma de células escamosas de plano nasal canino tratados com radioterapia definitiva ou paliativa. Em todos os casos, o diagnóstico definitivo foi feito mediante biópsia, e os tutores declinaram da cirurgia agressiva. A radioterapia foi realizada utilizando-se um equipamento de cobalto-60, e o protocolo definitivo consistiu de 15 frações de 2,8 Gy, cinco vezes por semana (segunda a sexta), enquanto o protocolo paliativo consistiu de quatro frações de 8 Gy, uma vez por semana. Seis cães foram tratados, entre os quais três tinham tumores em estágio T3 e três em estágio T4, de acordo com a tabela TNM da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Dois animais apresentaram remissão completa do tumor após o tratamento e quatro apresentaram remissão parcial. O tempo de sobrevida variou entre 95-417 dias, sendo que dois animais ainda estão vivos e em observação. Os efeitos colaterais da radioterapia foram apenas epilação e eritema leve, no protocolo paliativo, e epilação, radiodermite úmida, rinite e mucosite oral, no protocolo definitivo. A radioterapia, especialmente no protocolo paliativo, pode ser considerada uma opção de tratamento quando os tutores declinam da cirurgia agressiva. Ela pode contribuir para remissão (parcial ou completa) do tumor e melhor qualidade de vida do paciente, mesmo nos casos avançados, levando a efeitos colaterais mínimos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Neoplasias Nasais/veterinária , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/veterinária , Cuidados Paliativos
9.
Arch Toxicol ; 93(3): 649-658, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659320

RESUMO

Cannabis use has become a hot topic in several countries due to the debate about its legalization for medical purposes. However, data are limited regarding adverse events, safety and potential impact on reproductive health. Cannabis consumption during pregnancy has been associated with gestational disorders such as preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, low birth weight and increased risk of miscarriage, though the underlying biochemical mechanisms are still unknown. Given that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in several reproductive processes, we tested the hypothesis that the negative outcomes may result from the impact on the ECS homeostasis caused by the main psychoactive compound of cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). We demonstrate that THC (10-40 µM) impairs placental endocannabinoid system by disrupting the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) levels and the expression of AEA synthetic and degrading enzymes N-arachidonoylphosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), respectively. Although, no alterations in cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 expression were observed. Thus, long-term local AEA levels are associated with a shift in the enzymatic profile to re-establish ECS homeostasis. In chronic cannabis users, high AEA levels in placenta may disturb the delicate balance of trophoblast cells turnover leading to alterations in normal placental development and foetal growth.


Assuntos
Dronabinol/toxicidade , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Psicotrópicos/toxicidade , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Ácidos Araquidônicos/metabolismo , Cannabis , Feminino , Humanos , Placenta/fisiologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/metabolismo , Gravidez , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo
10.
Oper Dent ; 44(2): 168-177, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953338

RESUMO

PURPOSE:: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four in-office desensitizing products on dentin tubule occlusion and erosive wear. METHODS:: Dentin hypersensitivity was simulated by EDTA application for five minutes. The specimens were randomly allocated into five groups (n=11), according to treatment: No treatment - Control (C), Duraphat (DUR), Desensibilize Nano P (NP), ClinPro XT Varnish (XTV), and ClinPro White Varnish (CWV). They were then submitted to erosive/abrasive cycling for five days. After EDTA, treatment, and cycling, the specimens were analyzed with an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) to verify the number of opened dentin tubules (ODT) which were counted by using ImageJ software, and with a profilometer to determine the surface curvature/loss. ESEM data were analyzed with two-way repeated measure analysis of variance and Tukey tests. For the profilometer, data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Tukey, and Mann-Whitney tests. RESULTS:: After treatment, all groups showed lower ODT than the control, without significant differences between them. After cycling, the only group that showed lower ODT than the control was group XTV; however, it did not significantly differ from the other groups. For the profilometric analysis, there were significant differences in SL between the experimental times after treatment and after cycling for all groups ( p<0.05). After cycling, no surface loss was detected in groups DUR and XTV, which presented a significantly different curvature than group NP and the control group, but not from group CWV. Surface loss was detected for the control and groups NP and CWV, without difference among them. CONCLUSION:: All desensitizing agents tested presented promising results concerning the obliteration of dentin tubules immediately after treatment. XTV was the only desensitizer capable of preventing the reopening of the tubules after the erosive/abrasive challenges. XTV and DUR presented a protective effect against dentin erosive wear.


Assuntos
Dessensibilizantes Dentinários , Sensibilidade da Dentina , Desgaste dos Dentes , Dentina , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
11.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 83: 348-358, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227256

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of four autochthonous bacteria isolated from juvenile sole (Solea senegalensis) intestine as dietary probiotic supplement against bacterial pathogen infection and handling/transport stressors. Growth performance and immune responses were evaluated after 85 days of feeding trial. Sole (IBW = 16.07 ±â€¯0.11 g) were fed six experimental diets, a control diet (CTRL, without the dietary probiotic supplementation), and five diets supplemented with probiotic bacteria: PB1 (Shewanella hafniensis), PB2 (Enterococcus raffinosus), PB3 (Shewanella hafniensis + Arthrobacter soli), PB4 (Pseudomonas protegens + Arthrobacter soli) and PB5 (Shewanella hafniensis + Arthrobacter soli + Enterococcus raffinosus). All bacteria were selected based on their in vitro antimicrobial activity. After the growth trial, fish were submitted to a stress factor (transport) and then each dietary group was divided in two additional groups: non-infected (placebo) and infected with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. Immune and antioxidant responses were evaluated at day 10 post-infection. In infection trial A, fish were infected on the same day of transport, whereas in trial B fish were infected after a 7-day recovery from the transport stress. At the end of the feeding trial, fish fed with PB2 and PB4 showed lower final body weight when compared with the other dietary groups. Respiratory burst activity and nitric oxide production were not affected by probiotic supplementation. Fish fed with PB5 presented lower peroxidase activity compared to CTRL. Lysozyme and alternative complement pathway activity (ACH50) showed no significant differences between treatments. The innate immune responses were significantly affected after handling stress and bacterial infection. In trial A, the ACH50 levels of infected fish were significantly lower than the placebo groups. On the other hand, in trial B fish infected with Pdp demonstrated higher ACH50 levels when compared to placebos. Peroxidase levels were strongly modulated by bacterial infection and handling stress. In trials A and B, infection had a clear downgrade effect in peroxidase levels. Lipid peroxidation, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase were altered by both bacterial infection and transport. Overall, dietary probiotic supplementation did not influence growth performance of sole. The immune and oxidative defenses of sole responded differently to infection depending on the probiotic and the synergy between pathogen infection and transport.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Linguados/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Photobacterium , Probióticos/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Linguados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária
12.
Mar Environ Res ; 138: 110-118, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29709294

RESUMO

The increasing production and consumption of Personal Care Products (PCPs), containing UV-filters and musk fragrances, has led to its widespread presence in the aquatic environment which can cause harmful effects to the aquatic organisms due to its intrinsic toxicity. This study aims to evaluate the degree of contamination of wild mussels along the entire Portuguese coastline, continually exposed in their habitat to different contaminants. For this purpose, approximately 1000 mussel specimens were sampled during one year in seven different locations, along the Portuguese coastline. Simultaneous quantification of five UV-filters and seven musks in mussels was achieved by a Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction procedure combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Ten out of the twelve target analytes were found in the analysed samples, highlighting the presence of AHTN (tonalide), EHS (2-ethylhexylsalicylate) and EHMC (2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate) in all positive samples (93%). Overall, the results obtained indicate a widespread contamination of wild mussels along Portuguese coastline, all over the year. UV-filters were more frequently detected (90%) than musk fragrances (70%) and also quantified at higher levels, with average total concentrations reaching 1155.8 ng/g (dw) against 397.7 ng/g (dw) respectively. A high correlation was observed between the most densely populated and industrialized locations and the higher levels of musks and UV-filters found. In other hand, lower levels of PCPs were found in protected areas. As expected, an increase in UV-filters levels was observed after the summer, likely due to the intense period of recreational activities.


Assuntos
Bivalves/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/análise , Protetores Solares/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Perfumes , Portugal
13.
Environ Res ; 161: 399-408, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197758

RESUMO

In the framework of the FP7 ECsafeSeafood project, 62 seafood samples commercialized in Europe Union from several representative species - mackerel, tuna, salmon, seabream, cod, monkfish, crab, shrimp, octopus, perch and plaice - were analysed for residues of 21 personal care products (PCPs), including 11 UV-filters (UV-Fs) and 10 musk fragrances (musks). PCPs analysis were performed by Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective Rugged, Safe (QuEChERS), combined with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE), followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The results showed the presence in a wide range of samples of nine out of eleven UV-Fs compounds analysed, namely 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS), 2-ethylhexyl,4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidenecamphor (4-MBC), benzophenone-1 (BP1), benzophenone-3 (BP3), isoamyl-4-methoxycinnamate (IMC), 2,2'-dihydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxybenzophenone (DHMB), homosalate (HS), and octocrylene (OC), whereas galaxolide (HHCB), galaxolide lactone (HHCB-lactone), and tonalide (AHTN) were the most found musks. The potential risks to human health associated with the exposure to eight of the more prevalent PCPs - EHS, EHMC, 4-MBC, BP1, BP3, IMC, HHCB, and AHTN - through seafood consumption were assessed for consumers from five European countries (Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain). Results showed that the human exposure to UV-Fs and musks estimated from the concentration values found in seafood and the daily consumption of concerned seafood species, were far below toxicological reference values.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Odorantes , Alimentos Marinhos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
14.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2017 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current treatments for neurodegenerative diseases are challenging, due to the absence of full effective medicines. One of the major problems associated to these is the occurrence of non-targeting events, which leads to adverse effects and requires frequent dose administration. METHODS: Researches have been performed to develop new drug delivery systems administrated by alternative routes. For example, the direct nose-to-brain delivery of drugs by means of lipid nanoparticles, such as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), have been showing promising results. RESULTS: Among the advantages of intranasal administration is the avoidance of passing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to reach the central nervous system (CNS), allowing the direct delivery of drugs to the brain by a non-invasive way, minimizing systemic exposure and prolonging residence time. This review article discusses the advantages of using SLN and NLC for direct nose-to-brain drug delivery. A brief reference to other lipid-based carriers (liposomes, nanoemulsions and microemulsions) is also provided. CONCLUSION: The benefits of using SLN and NLC for improve nasal drug delivery have been demonstrated by in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments. However, more in vivo animal studies are needed for advance to human clinical trials and reach clinics.

15.
Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst ; 34(3): 257-282, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28845761

RESUMO

Studies on the development of drug delivery systems have increased because these systems have particular characteristics that allow them to improve therapeutics. Among these, lipid nanoparticles (solid lipid nanoparticles, SLNs; and nanostructured lipid carriers, NLCs) have demonstrated suitability for drug targeting. The nasal administration of drug-loaded lipid nanoparticles showed effectiveness in treating central nervous system (CNS) disorders, particularly neurodegenerative diseases, because the nasal route (also called intranasal route) allows direct nose-to-brain drug delivery by means of lipid nanoparticles. Nonetheless, the feasibility of this application remains an open field for researchers. Drawbacks must be overcome before reaching the clinic (e.g., drug absorption at subtherapeutic levels, rapid mucociliary clearance). The intranasal administration of drugs for systemic absorption is effective for treating other conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, infections, severe pain, and menopausal syndrome. In the near future, it is expected that patients will benefit from the advantages of lipid nanoparticle-based formulations, via the nasal/intranasal route, which bypasses the blood-brain barrier (BBB), avoiding first-pass metabolism and gastrointestinal degradation. This review discusses the use of SLNs and NLCs for nasal drug administration. A brief description of the nasal route and the features of SLNs and NLCs is initially provided.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Administração Intranasal , Portadores de Fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Lipídeos
16.
Environ Pollut ; 225: 354-360, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28284552

RESUMO

Diclofenac a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) has been confirmed as an emerging contaminant in the aquatic environment. Toxicology studies have revealed that harmful effects may emerge from diclofenac presence not only for human health, but also for marine organisms, which implies its monitoring. To overcome the demanding challenges of diclofenac quantification in biotic aquatic species, a novel method for the determination of diclofenac in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mytilus edulis) and macroalgae (Laminaria digitata) using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated according to the EC Decision 2002/657/EC. Additionally, a study was done about diclofenac contamination in mussels collected from 8 sites along the 1115 miles of coastline in Portugal in 2015. The results suggested that levels in mussels are closely related to the environmental contamination. Therefore, mussels can be a potential bioindicator of diclofenac contamination in the coastal environment.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/análise , Organismos Aquáticos , Humanos , Mytilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Mytilus/fisiologia , Portugal , Frutos do Mar/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 69(1): 101-105, jan.-fev. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-834122

RESUMO

Um canino da raça Boxer, fêmea, de oito anos de idade, foi atendido com salivação, halitose e disfagia. No exame clínico, foi observada uma massa ulcerada no terço médio da língua medindo 3,5 x 4,0cm. A histopatologia e a imuno-histoquímica levaram ao diagnóstico de um mastocitoma de alto grau. O tratamento cirúrgico (glossectomia parcial) foi declinado pelo proprietário, sendo a radioterapia indicada em seu lugar. O protocolo radioterápico empregado foi 15 frações de 300cGy, realizadas cinco vezes por semana. O equipamento utilizado foi de ortovoltagem. A lesão neoplásica apresentou remissão clínica completa a partir da quarta sessão radioterápica. O único efeito colateral observado foi mucosite leve na região irradiada, que, entretanto, não levou a sintomas clínicos. A quimioterapia sistêmica consistiu de vimblastina e lomustina, alternadas a cada 14 dias, durante quatro meses. Até o momento (22 meses após o tratamento), não há evidências de recidiva local ou metástases do mastocitoma. A associação da radioterapia e da quimioterapia pode ser considerada uma alternativa terapêutica nos casos de mastocitomas irressecáveis, já que, neste caso, levou à remissão completa e duradoura de um tumor agressivo, com ótima tolerância do paciente ao tratamento e posterior qualidade de vida.(AU)


An 8 year old female boxer was presented with salivation, halitosis and dysphagia. In the clinical examination, an ulcerated mass in the middle third of the tongue was observed, measuring 3.5 x 4.0cm. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry the confirmed diagnosis of a high-grade mast cell tumor. Surgical treatment (partial glossectomy) was declined by owner, and radiotherapy was indicated. The protocol consisted of fifteen daily fractions of 300 cGy each. The equipment used was an orthovoltage unit. The tumor had complete clinical remission after the fourth session, and mild mucositis was the only side effect observed. Systemic chemotherapy was performed with vinblastine and lomustine, alternated every 14 days, during four months. There is no evidence of local recurrence or metastasis in this patient twenty-two months after treatment. The combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy can be considered as an alternative therapy in cases of unresectable mast cell tumors. It led to complete and durable remission of an aggressive tumor, with great quality of life.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Cães , Mastocitoma/radioterapia , Mastocitoma/veterinária , Boca/patologia , Tratamento Farmacológico/veterinária , Mastocitoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Bucais/radioterapia , Neoplasias Bucais/veterinária
19.
Curr Med Chem ; 23(31): 3618-3631, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27554805

RESUMO

Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are prevalent neurodegenerative disorders worldwide, which are essentially related to aging. Within the remarkable era of nanomedicine, nowadays several delivery systems have been suggested to improve the treatment of these disorders, namely, liposomes, micelles, nanoparticles (polymeric, lipid, metallic and inorganic), exosomes, dendrimers and fullerenes. The advantage that has been claimed to these delivery systems is that they facilitate the passage of drugs through the blood brain barrier (BBB), enabling targeting before body degradation, and increasing therapeutic efficacy, comparied to conventional pharmaceutical dosage forms. This review article provides a state of the art regarding the drug delivery systems that have been studied for the treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. It begins with a brief description of the central nervous system (CNS) and the mechanisms involved in the development of these diseases. Later, some examples of drugs used in the treatment of these neurodegenerative diseases are presented, which are currently available in conventional pharmaceutical dosage forms, and in new drug delivery systems that are under development.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Dopaminérgicos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Dendrímeros/química , Dopaminérgicos/química , Humanos , Lipossomos/química , Micelas , Nanopartículas/química , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/química
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