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2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1637, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396209

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRs) are master regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression, and they are often dysregulated in individuals suffering from diabetes. We investigated the roles of miR-101-3p and miR-204-5p, both of which negatively regulate insulin secretion and cell survival and are highly expressed in pancreatic ß cells, in the context of type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. Using quantitative real time PCR, we evaluated serum levels of miR-101-3p and miR-204-5p in four groups, including recent-onset T1D patients (T1D group; n = 50), individuals with normal glucose levels expressing one islet autoantibody (Ab) (single Ab group; n = 26) or multiple autoantibodies (multiple Ab group; n = 12), and healthy controls (control group; n = 43). An in silico analysis was performed to identify potential target genes of these miRNAs and to delineate enriched pathways. The relative expression of serum miR-101-3p was approximately three times higher in the multiple Ab and T1D groups than that in the single Ab and control groups (p < 0.0001). When considering all groups together, miR-101-3p expression was positively correlated with the level of islet autoantibodies GADA (r = 0.267; p = 0.0027) and IA-2A (r = 0.291; p = 0.001), and the expression of the miRNA was not correlated with levels of ZnT8A (r = 0.125; p = 0.183). miR-101-3p expression did not correlate with HbA1c (r = 0.178; p = 0.052) or glucose levels (r = 0.177; p = 0.051). No significant differences were observed in miR-204-5p expression among the analyzed groups. Computational analysis of the miR-101-3p target gene pathways indicated a potential activation of the HGF/c-Met, Ephrin receptor, and STAT3 signaling pathways. Our study demonstrated that the circulating levels of miR-101-3p are higher in T1D patients and in individuals with normal glucose levels, testing positive for multiple autoantibodies, indicating that miR-101-3p precedes loss of glucose homeostasis. The pathogenic role of miR-101-3p in T1D may involve multiple molecular pathways.

3.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 276(11): 3247-3249, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363902

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of persistent allergic rhinitis with chronic and refractory nasal obstruction is still unknown. Inflammation and tissue remodeling are known to play a role, but this has not been studied thoroughly. The purpose of this study is to identify the profile of gene expression of inflammatory and remodeling markers in nasal mucosa of patients with PAR and chronic obstruction. METHODS: After informed consent, we obtained nasal mucosa tissue from five aeroallergen-sensitized PAR patients undergoing anterior turbinectomy, and control non-sensitized individuals undergoing cerebrospinal fluid fistula repair or rhinoplasty. We assessed the expression of 34 genes related to inflammation and tissue remodeling using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to quantify each mRNA. RESULTS: IL-4 mRNA was upregulated in nasal mucosa of all five patients; CCR3, CCR8 and Eotaxin-2 were upregulated in four out of five patient samples; while IL-5 and IL-13 were upregulated in two of them. TGF-ß1 was not upregulated in PAR samples. mRNA from metalloproteinases MMP-7, MMP13 and MMP15 were upregulated in three out of five samples. Our results indicate a typical mRNA expression profile of the infiltrating inflammatory Th2 cells and eosinophils, combined with altered gene expression of remodeling-related proteins in stromal cells from the mucosa. CONCLUSION: Prolonged allergen challenge can lead to persistent upregulation of genes for inflammatory mediators such as IL-4 Th2/eosinophil cytokines, chemokines and receptors, which may play an important role in maintaining PAR with chronic nasal obstruction. Our findings may have therapeutic implications, including the use of anti-IL4, -CCR3 or -MMP therapy to ameliorate the condition.


Assuntos
Mediadores da Inflamação , Interleucina-4/análise , Metaloproteases/análise , Mucosa Nasal/imunologia , Obstrução Nasal , Receptores CCR3/análise , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Mediadores da Inflamação/classificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obstrução Nasal/etiologia , Obstrução Nasal/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica/complicações , Rinite Alérgica/patologia , Tempo , Regulação para Cima
4.
Front Immunol ; 10: 740, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073299

RESUMO

Background: Operational tolerance (OT) is a state of graft functional stability that occurs after at least 1 year of immunosuppressant withdrawal. MicroRNAs (microRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that downregulate messenger RNA/protein expression of innumerous molecules and are critical for homeostasis. We investigated whether OT in kidney transplantation displays a differential microRNA profile, which would suggest that microRNAs participate in Operational Tolerance mechanisms, and may reveal potential molecular pathways. Methods: We first compared serum microRNA in OT (n = 8) with chronic rejection (CR) (n = 5) and healthy individuals (HI) (n = 5), using a 768-microRNA qPCR-panel. We used the Thermo Fisher Cloud computing platform to compare the levels of microRNAs in the OT group in relation to the other study groups. We performed validation experiments for miR-885-5p, by q-PCR, in a larger number of study subjects (OT = 8, CR = 12, HI = 12), as individual samples. Results: We detected a differential microRNA profile in OT vs. its opposing clinical outcome-CR-suggesting that microRNAs may integrate transplantation tolerance mechanisms. Some miRNAs were detected at higher levels in OT: miR-885-5p, miR-331-3p, miR-27a-5p vs. CR; others, we found at lower levels: miR-1233-3p, miR-572, miR-638, miR-1260a. Considering highly predicted/experimentally demonstrated targets of these miRNAs, bioinformatics analysis revealed that the granzyme B, and death receptor pathways are dominant, suggesting that cell death regulation integrates transplantation tolerance mechanisms. We confirmed higher miR-885-5p levels in OT vs. CR, and vs. HI, in a larger number of subjects. Conclusions: We propose that epigenetics mechanisms involving microRNAs may integrate human transplantation tolerance mechanisms, and regulate key members of the cell death/survival signaling. miR-885-5p could favor cell survival in OT by diminishing the levels of CRADD/RAIDD and CASP3. Nonetheless, given the nature of any complex phenomenon in humans, only cumulative data will help to determine whether this microRNA differential profile may be related to the cause or consequence of operational tolerance.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 843, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105693

RESUMO

Cellular immune responses are implicated in resistance to HIV and have been considered for the development of an effective vaccine. Despite their safety profile, subunit vaccines need to be delivered combined with an adjuvant. In the last years, in vivo antigen targeting to dendritic cells (DCs) using chimeric monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against the DC endocytic receptor DEC205/CD205 was shown to support long-term T cell immunity. Here, we evaluated the ability of different adjuvants to modulate specific cellular immune response when eight CD4+ HIV-derived epitopes (HIVBr8) were targeted to DEC205+ DCs in vivo. Immunization with two doses of αDECHIVBr8 mAb along with poly(I:C) induced Th1 cytokine production and higher frequency of HIV-specific polyfunctional and long-lived T cells than MPL or CpG ODN-assisted immunization. Although each adjuvant elicited responses against the 8 epitopes present in the vaccine, the magnitude of the T cell response was higher in the presence of poly(I:C). Moreover, poly(I:C) up regulated the expression of costimulatory molecules in both cDC1 and cDC2 DCs subsets. In summary, the use of poly(I:C) in a vaccine formulation that targets multiple epitopes to the DEC205 receptor improved the potency and the quality of HIV-specific responses when compared to other vaccine-adjuvant formulations. This study highlights the importance of the rational selection of antigen/adjuvant combination to potentiate the desired immune responses.

6.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 26(5): 1569-1579, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29392628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial perfusion defects (MPD) due to coronary microvascular dysfunction is frequent in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) and may be involved with development of myocardial damage. We investigated whether MPD precedes left ventricular systolic dysfunction and tested the hypothesis that prolonged use of dipyridamole (DIPY) could reduce MPD in an experimental model of CCC in hamsters. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated female hamsters 6-months after T. cruzi infection (baseline condition) and control animals, divided into T. cruzi-infected animals treated with DIPY (CH + DIPY) or placebo (CH + PLB); and uninfected animals treated with DIPY (CO + DIPY) or placebo (CO + PLB). The animals were submitted to echocardiogram and rest SPECT-Sestamibi-Tc99m myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Next, the animals were treated with DIPY (4 mg/kg bid, intraperitoneal) or saline for 30 days, and reevaluated with the same imaging methods. At baseline, the CH + PLB and CH + DIPY groups showed larger areas of perfusion defect (13.2 ± 13.2% and 17.3 ± 13.2%, respectively) compared with CO + PLB and CO + DIPY (3.8 ± 2.2% e 3.5 ± 2.7%, respectively), P < .05. After treatment, we observed: reduction of perfusion defects only in the CH + DIPY group (17.3 ± 13.2% to 6.8 ± 7.6%, P = .001) and reduction of LVEF in CH + DIPY and CH + PLB groups (from 65.3 ± 9.0% to 53.6 ± 6.9% and from 69.3 ± 5.0% to 54.4 ± 8.6%, respectively, P < .001). Quantitative histology revealed greater extents of inflammation and interstitial fibrosis in both Chagas groups, compared with control group (P < .001), but no difference between Chagas groups (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: The prolonged use of DIPY in this experimental model of CCC has reduced the rest myocardial perfusion defects, supporting the notion that those areas correspond to viable hypoperfused myocardium.

7.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2791, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559742

RESUMO

Chagas disease is caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and affects over 8 million people worldwide. In spite of a powerful innate and adaptive immune response in acute infection, the parasite evades eradication, leading to a chronic persistent infection with low parasitism. Chronically infected subjects display differential patterns of disease progression. While 30% develop chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC)-a severe inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy-decades after infection, 60% of the patients remain disease-free, in the asymptomatic/indeterminate (ASY) form, and 10% develop gastrointestinal disease. Infection of genetically deficient mice provided a map of genes relevant for resistance to T. cruzi infection, leading to the identification of multiple genes linked to survival to infection. These include pathogen resistance genes (PRG) needed for intracellular parasite destruction, and genes involved in disease tolerance (protection against tissue damage and acute phase death-DTG). All identified DTGs were found to directly or indirectly inhibit IFN-γ production or Th1 differentiation. We hypothesize that the absolute need for DTG to control potentially lethal IFN-γ PRG activity leads to T. cruzi persistence and establishment of chronic infection. IFN-γ production is higher in CCC than ASY patients, and is the most highly expressed cytokine in CCC hearts. Key DTGs that downmodulate IFN-γ, like IL-10, and Ebi3/IL27p28, are higher in ASY patients. Polymorphisms in PRG and DTG are associated with differential disease progression. We thus hypothesize that ASY patients are disease tolerant, while an imbalance of DTG and IFN-γ PRG activity leads to the inflammatory heart damage of CCC.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/imunologia , Doença de Chagas/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Coração/parasitologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/parasitologia
8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1513, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29666415

RESUMO

Chagas disease is caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) and is an important cause of severe inflammatory heart disease. However, the mechanisms driving Chagas disease cardiomyopathy have not been completely elucidated. Here, we show that the canonical PI3Kγ pathway is upregulated in both human chagasic hearts and hearts of acutely infected mice. PI3Kγ-deficient mice and mutant mice carrying catalytically inactive PI3Kγ are more susceptible to T. cruzi infection. The canonical PI3Kγ signaling in myeloid cells is essential to restrict T. cruzi heart parasitism and ultimately to avoid myocarditis, heart damage, and death of mice. Furthermore, high PIK3CG expression correlates with low parasitism in human Chagas' hearts. In conclusion, these results indicate an essential role of the canonical PI3Kγ signaling pathway in the control of T. cruzi infection, providing further insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of chagasic heart disease.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/imunologia , Classe Ib de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Biópsia , Linhagem Celular , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/parasitologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/patologia , Classe Ib de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Coração/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Miocárdio/imunologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade , Regulação para Cima
9.
J Nucl Med ; 59(9): 1430-1436, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700129

RESUMO

Altered myocardial perfusion is a common finding in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), but its underlying histologic changes have not been elucidated. We investigated the occurrence of myocardial perfusion defects (MPDs) and the correlated regional changes to histology in an experimental model of CCC in hamsters. Methods: Female Syrian hamsters (n = 34) were infected with 3.5 × 104 to 105 trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, Y strain, and 6-10 mo afterward underwent in vivo imaging including resting 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT, segmental and global left ventricular function assessment using 2-dimensional echocardiography, and 18F-FDG PET for evaluation of myocardial viability. Histologic analysis included quantification of fibrosis, inflammatory infiltration, and the diameter and density of myocardial microcirculation. Results: MPDs were present in 17 (50%) of the infected animals. Histologic analysis revealed no transmural scar in segments with an MPD, and normal or mildly reduced 18F-FDG uptake, indicating viable myocardium. Infected animals with an MPD, in comparison to infected animals without an MPD and control animals, showed a lower left ventricular ejection fraction (P = 0.012), a higher wall motion score index (P = 0.004), and a higher extent of inflammatory infiltration (P = 0.018) but a similar extent of fibrosis (P = 0.15) and similar microvascular diameter and density (P > 0.05). Segments with an MPD (n = 65), as compared with normally perfused regions in the same animal (n = 156), showed a higher wall motion score index (P = 0.005) but a similar extent of inflammatory infiltration, a similar extent of fibrosis, and a similar microvascular diameter and density. Conclusion: Resting MPDs are frequent in experimental CCC and are associated with myocardial inflammation but do not designate scar tissue, corresponding to regions with metabolically viable myocardium.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/fisiopatologia , Circulação Coronária , Animais , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/patologia , Doença Crônica , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Microvasos/diagnóstico por imagem , Microvasos/fisiopatologia , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio , Miocárdio/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Sístole/fisiologia , Sobrevivência de Tecidos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
10.
Crit Care ; 22(1): 68, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exosomes isolated from plasma of patients with sepsis may induce vascular apoptosis and myocardial dysfunction by mechanisms related to inflammation and oxidative stress. Despite previous studies demonstrating that these vesicles contain genetic material related to cellular communication, their molecular cargo during sepsis is relatively unknown. In this study, we evaluated the presence of microRNAs (miRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) related to inflammatory response and redox metabolism in exosomes of patients with septic shock. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 24 patients with septic shock at ICU admission and after 7 days of treatment. Twelve healthy volunteers were used as control subjects. Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation, and their miRNA and mRNA content was evaluated by qRT-PCR array. RESULTS: As compared with healthy volunteers, exosomes from patients with sepsis had significant changes in 65 exosomal miRNAs. Twenty-eight miRNAs were differentially expressed, both at enrollment and after 7 days, with similar kinetics (18 miRNAs upregulated and 10 downregulated). At enrollment, 35 differentially expressed miRNAs clustered patients with sepsis according to survival. The pathways enriched by the miRNAs of patients with sepsis compared with control subjects were related mostly to inflammatory response. The comparison of miRNAs from patients with sepsis according to hospital survival demonstrated pathways related mostly to cell cycle regulation. At enrollment, sepsis was associated with significant increases in the expression of mRNAs related to redox metabolism (myeloperoxidase, 64-fold; PRDX3, 2.6-fold; SOD2, 2.2-fold) and redox-responsive genes (FOXM1, 21-fold; SELS, 16-fold; GLRX2, 3.4-fold). The expression of myeloperoxidase mRNA remained elevated after 7 days (65-fold). CONCLUSIONS: Exosomes from patients with septic shock convey miRNAs and mRNAs related to pathogenic pathways, including inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and cell cycle regulation. Exosomes may represent a novel mechanism for intercellular communication during sepsis.


Assuntos
Exossomos/química , MicroRNAs/análise , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/patologia , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/análise , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/sangue , Glutarredoxinas/análise , Glutarredoxinas/sangue , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/análise , Proteínas de Membrana/sangue , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Peroxidase/análise , Peroxidase/sangue , Peroxirredoxina III/análise , Peroxirredoxina III/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Selenoproteínas/análise , Selenoproteínas/sangue , Choque Séptico/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue
11.
Microrna ; 7(2): 115-119, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29564990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating cell-free miRNAs hold great promise as a new class of biomarkers due to their high stability in body fluids and association with disease stages. However, even using sensitive and specific methods, technical challenges are associated with miRNA analysis in body fluids. A major source of variation in plasma and serum is the potential cell-derived miRNA contamination from hemolysis. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of the delayed whole blood processing time on the concentrations of miR-1 and -423-5p. METHODS: Ten blood samples were incubated for 0, 3 and 24 hours at room temperature prior to processing into plasma. For each time point, hemolysis was assessed in plasma by UV spectrophotometry at 414nm wavelength (λ414). Circulating levels of miR-1 and -423-5p were measured by RT-qPCR; miR-23a and -451 were also analyzed as controls. RESULTS: A significant hemolysis was observed only after 24h (λ414 0.3 ± 0.02, p < 0.001). However, only small changes in miR-1 and -423-5p levels were observed up to 24h of storage at room temperature (Ct 31.5 ± 0.5 to 31.8 ± 0.6for miR-1, p = 0.989; and 29.01 ± 0.3 to 29.04 ± 0.3, p = 0.614 for - 423-5p). No correlation was observed between hemolysis and the levels of miR-1 and -423-5p. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the storage of whole blood samples at room temperature for up to 24h prior to their processing into plasma does not appear to have a significant impact on miR-1 and - 423-5p concentrations.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue , Cardiotoxicidade/sangue , MicroRNAs/sangue , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Hemólise , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estabilidade de RNA , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1114, 2018 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535311

RESUMO

The original PDF version of this Article contained errors in the spelling of Luiz Carlos Caires-Júnior, Uirá Souto Melo, Bruno Henrique Silva Araujo, Alessandra Soares-Schanoski, Murilo Sena Amaral, Kayque Alves Telles-Silva, Vanessa van der Linden, Helio van der Linden, João Ricardo Mendes de Oliveira, Nivia Maria Rodrigues Arrais, Joanna Goes Castro Meira, Ana Jovina Barreto Bispo, Esper Abrão Cavalheiro, and Robert Andreata-Santos, which were incorrectly given as Luiz Carlos de Caires Jr., UiráSouto Melo, Bruno Silva Henrique Araujo, Alessandra Soares Schanoski, MuriloSena Amaral, Kayque Telles Alves Silva, Vanessa Van der Linden, Helio Van der Linden, João Mendes Ricardo de Oliveira, Nivia Rodrigues Maria Arrais, Joanna Castro Goes Meira, Ana JovinaBarreto Bispo, EsperAbrão Cavalheiro, and Robert Andreata Santos. Furthermore, in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article, the top panel of Fig. 3e was incorrectly labeled '10608-1' and should have been '10608-4', and financial support from CAPES and DECIT-MS was inadvertently omitted from the Acknowledgements section. These errors have now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 475, 2018 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396410

RESUMO

Congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) causes early brain development impairment by affecting neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Here, we analyze NPCs from three pairs of dizygotic twins discordant for CZS. We compare by RNA-Seq the NPCs derived from CZS-affected and CZS-unaffected twins. Prior to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection the NPCs from CZS babies show a significantly different gene expression signature of mTOR and Wnt pathway regulators, key to a neurodevelopmental program. Following ZIKV in vitro infection, cells from affected individuals have significantly higher ZIKV replication and reduced cell growth. Whole-exome analysis in 18 affected CZS babies as compared to 5 unaffected twins and 609 controls excludes a monogenic model to explain resistance or increased susceptibility to CZS development. Overall, our results indicate that CZS is not a stochastic event and depends on NPC intrinsic susceptibility, possibly related to oligogenic and/or epigenetic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/embriologia , Expressão Gênica , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/virologia , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Células-Tronco Neurais/virologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
14.
Front Immunol ; 9: 177, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29467764

RESUMO

Immunization of BALB/c mice with HIVBr18, a DNA vaccine containing 18 CD4+ T cell epitopes from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), induced specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in a broad, polyfunctional and persistent manner. With the aim of increasing the immunogenicity of this vaccine, the effect of Propionibacterium acnes as an adjuvant was evaluated. The adjuvant effects of this bacterium have been extensively demonstrated in both experimental and clinical settings. Herein, administration of two doses of HIVBr18, in the presence of P. acnes, increased the proliferation of HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, the polyfunctional profile of CD4+ T cells, the production of IFN-γ, and the number of recognized vaccine-encoded peptides. One of the bacterial components responsible for most of the adjuvant effects observed was a soluble polysaccharide extracted from the P. acnes cell wall. Furthermore, within 10 weeks after immunization, the proliferation of specific T cells and production of IFN-γ were maintained when the whole bacterium was administered, demonstrating a greater effect on the longevity of the immune response by P. acnes. Even with fewer immunization doses, P. acnes was found to be a potent adjuvant capable of potentiating the effects of the HIVBr18 vaccine. Therefore, P. acnes may be a potential adjuvant to aid this vaccine in inducing immunity or for therapeutic use.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Coinfecção , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Propionibacterium acnes/imunologia , Vacinas contra a AIDS/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Camundongos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia
15.
Nat. Commun. ; 9: 475, 2018.
Artigo | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib14938

RESUMO

Congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) causes early brain development impairment by affecting neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Here, we analyze NPCs from three pairs of dizygotic twins discordant for CZS. We compare by RNA-Seq the NPCs derived from CZS-affected and CZS-unaffected twins. Prior to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection the NPCs from CZS babies show a significantly different gene expression signature of mTOR and Wnt pathway regulators, key to a neurodevelopmental program. Following ZIKV in vitro infection, cells from affected individuals have significantly higher ZIKV replication and reduced cell growth. Whole-exome analysis in 18 affected CZS babies as compared to 5 unaffected twins and 609 controls excludes a monogenic model to explain resistance or increased susceptibility to CZS development. Overall, our results indicate that CZS is not a stochastic event and depends on NPC intrinsic susceptibility, possibly related to oligogenic and/or epigenetic mechanisms.

16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 17990, 2017 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29269773

RESUMO

Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in Latin America. Its acute phase is associated with high parasitism, myocarditis and profound myocardial gene expression changes. A chronic phase ensues where 30% develop severe heart lesions. Mouse models of T. cruzi infection have been used to study heart damage in Chagas disease. The aim of this study was to provide an interactome between miRNAs and their targetome in Chagas heart disease by integrating gene and microRNA expression profiling data from hearts of T. cruzi infected mice. Gene expression profiling revealed enrichment in biological processes and pathways associated with immune response and metabolism. Pathways, functional and upstream regulator analysis of the intersections between predicted targets of differentially expressed microRNAs and differentially expressed mRNAs revealed enrichment in biological processes and pathways such as IFNγ, TNFα, NF-kB signaling signatures, CTL-mediated apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and Nrf2-modulated antioxidative responses. We also observed enrichment in other key heart disease-related processes like myocarditis, fibrosis, hypertrophy and arrhythmia. Our correlation study suggests that miRNAs may be implicated in the pathophysiological processes taking place the hearts of acutely T. cruzi-infected mice.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo , Animais , Doença de Chagas/imunologia , Doença de Chagas/patologia , Feminino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
17.
Front Immunol ; 8: 1213, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29033934

RESUMO

The identification of anti-inflammatory mediators can reveal important targetable molecules capable of counterbalancing Trypanosoma cruzi-induced myocarditis. Composed of Ebi3 and IL-27p28 subunits, IL-27 is produced by myeloid cells and is able to suppress inflammation by inducing IL-10-producing Tr1 cells, thus emerging as a potential candidate to ameliorate cardiac inflammation induced by T. cruzi. Although IL-27 has been extensively characterized as a suppressive cytokine that prevents liver immunopathogenesis after T. cruzi infection, the mechanisms underlying its effects on T. cruzi-induced myocarditis remain largely unknown. Here, wild-type (WT) and Ebi3-deficient animals were intraperitoneally infected with trypomastigotes of T. cruzi Y strain and used to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory properties of Ebi3 during T. cruzi infection. The survival rates of mice were daily recorded, the frequency of inflammatory cells was analyzed by flow cytometry and inflammatory mediators were measured by ELISA, real-time PCR and PCR array. We reported that T. cruzi-induced myocarditis was prevented by Ebi3. Stressors mainly recognized by TLR2 and TLR4 receptors on myeloid cells were essential to trigger IL-27p28 production. In addition, Ebi3 regulated IFN-γ-mediated myocarditis by promoting an anti-inflammatory environment through IL-10, which was most likely produced by Tr1 cells rather than classical regulatory T cells (Tregs), in the heart tissue of T. cruzi-infected animals. Furthermore, in vivo IFN-γ blockade ameliorated the host survival without compromising the parasite control in the bloodstream. In humans, IL-27p28 was correlated with cardiac protection during Chagas disease. Patients with mild clinical forms of the disease produced high levels of IL-27p28, whereas lower levels were found in those with severe forms. In addition, polymorphic sites at Ebi3 gene were associated with severe cardiomyopathy in patients with Chagas disease. Collectively, we describe a novel regulatory mechanism where Ebi3 dampens cardiac inflammation by modulating the overproduction of IFN-γ, the bona fide culprit of Chagas disease cardiomyopathy.

18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 70(12): 1510-1524, 2017 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28911515

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection is endemic in Latin America and is becoming a worldwide health burden. It may lead to heterogeneous phenotypes. Early diagnosis of T. cruzi infection is crucial. Several biomarkers have been reported in Chagas heart disease (ChHD), but most are nonspecific for T. cruzi infection. Prognosis of ChHD patients is worse compared with other etiologies, with sudden cardiac death as an important mode of death. Most ChHD patients display diffuse myocarditis with fibrosis and hypertrophy. The remodeling process seems to be associated with etiopathogenic mechanisms and neurohormonal activation. Pharmacological treatment and antiarrhythmic therapy for ChHD is mostly based on results for other etiologies. Heart transplantation is an established, valuable therapeutic option in refractory ChHD. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators are indicated for prevention of secondary sudden cardiac death. Specific etiological treatments should be revisited and reserved for select patients. Understanding and management of ChHD need improvement, including development of randomized trials.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/terapia , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico , Doença Crônica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Prognóstico
19.
Front Immunol ; 8: 640, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28649242

RESUMO

The threat posed by severe congenital abnormalities related to Zika virus (ZKV) infection during pregnancy has turned development of a ZKV vaccine into an emergency. Recent work suggests that the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to infection is an important defense mechanism in response to ZKV. Here, we develop the rationale and strategy for a new approach to developing cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) vaccines for ZKV flavivirus infection. The proposed approach is based on recent studies using a protein structure computer model for HIV epitope selection designed to select epitopes for CTL attack optimized for viruses that exhibit antigenic drift. Because naturally processed and presented human ZKV T cell epitopes have not yet been described, we identified predicted class I peptide sequences on ZKV matching previously identified DNV (Dengue) class I epitopes and by using a Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) binding prediction tool. A subset of those met the criteria for optimal CD8+ attack based on physical chemistry parameters determined by analysis of the ZKV protein structure encoded in open source Protein Data File (PDB) format files. We also identified candidate ZKV epitopes predicted to bind promiscuously to multiple HLA class II molecules that could provide help to the CTL responses. This work suggests that a CTL vaccine for ZKV may be possible even if ZKV exhibits significant antigenic drift. We have previously described a microsphere-based CTL vaccine platform capable of eliciting an immune response for class I epitopes in mice and are currently working toward in vivo testing of class I and class II epitope delivery directed against ZKV epitopes using the same microsphere-based vaccine.

20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 65(7): 1103-1111, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28575239

RESUMO

Background: Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in Latin America and affects 10 million people worldwide. Approximately 12000 deaths attributable to Chagas disease occur annually due to chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC), an inflammatory cardiomyopathy presenting with heart failure and arrythmia; 30% of infected subjects develop CCC years after infection. Genetic mechanisms play a role in differential progression to CCC, but little is known about the role of epigenetic modifications in pathological gene expression patterns in CCC patients' myocardium. DNA methylation is the most common modification in the mammalian genome. Methods: We investigated the impact of genome-wide cardiac DNA methylation on global gene expression in myocardial samples from end-stage CCC patients, compared to control samples from organ donors. Results: In total, 4720 genes were differentially methylated between CCC patients and controls, of which 399 were also differentially expressed. Several of them were related to heart function or to the immune response and had methylation sites in their promoter region. Reporter gene and in silico transcription factor binding analyses indicated promoter methylation modified expression of key genes. Among those, we found potassium channel genes KCNA4 and KCNIP4, involved in electrical conduction and arrythmia, SMOC2, involved in matrix remodeling, as well as enkephalin and RUNX3, potentially involved in the increased T-helper 1 cytokine-mediated inflammatory damage in heart. Conclusions: Results support that DNA methylation plays a role in the regulation of expression of pathogenically relevant genes in CCC myocardium, and identify novel potential disease pathways and therapeutic targets in CCC.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/genética , Doença de Chagas/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Doença Crônica , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Coração/parasitologia , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade , Adulto Jovem
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