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Avian Pathol ; : 1-25, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787031


ABSTRACTAntimicrobials have been widely used in poultry, promoting antimicrobial resistance (AMR) emergence and spread. Resistant bacteria selected by antimicrobial use (AMU) can contaminate the farm environment and transfer resistance genes to other bacteria, providing opportunities for persistence and (re-)colonization of subsequent flocks and potentially jeopardizing antimicrobial treatments. We investigated the effects of AMU on AMR in poultry in the long-term (due to historical AMU in the farm) and in the short-term (due to current AMU in a flock). Litter samples from 35 broiler and 35 turkey farms in North-East Italy were sampled longitudinally for AMR testing of E. coli indicator bacteria in 2019/2020. Differences in AMR as a function of historical AMU (Defined Daily Doses in 2016-2018), current AMU in the sampled flock, farm size and season were tested using Generalized Estimating Equation regression analysis. In both broilers and turkeys, the highest resistance levels were observed for sulfamethoxazole (>70%), followed by ampicillin (54-60%). Only few positive associations between historical levels of penicillin use and the specific resistance levels to penicillin in broiler farms, and the overall historical AMU and resistance to trimethoprim in turkey flocks, were significant. Current AMU showed significant effects on resistance to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline in turkey flocks. Significant effects of farm size on some AMR levels were also identified. We found a stronger association between current AMU and AMR compared to historical AMU and AMR. AMR persistence in the farm environment in absence of direct AMU pressure needs to be further investigated.

Animals (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993093


According to the Directive 2007/43/EC, broiler farms can house animals up to 39 kg/m2, provided that specific environmental requirements are met. However, limited information is available about the effects of stocking density (SD) on broiler health and welfare, including the need for antimicrobial use. In this study, annual data on mortality, feed conversion rate, and antimicrobial use (AMU) are compared between broiler farms with stocking densities of 39 kg/m2 (N = 257) and 33 kg/m2 (N = 87). These farms were distributed throughout Italy and belonged to the same integrated poultry company. Antimicrobial use data were obtained from each farm and production cycle; AMU was expressed using the defined daily doses (DDD) method proposed by EMA. The annual AMU per farm was calculated as the median AMU over all cycles. Stratified analysis by sex and geographical area (Italy vs Northern Italy) showed no significant effect of stocking density on broiler mortality, feed conversion rate, and AMU. However, a higher AMU variability among farms with 39 kg/m2 stocking density vs. those with 33 kg/m2 was found. This study indicates that AMU does not apparently vary between animals reared at different stocking densities in intensive farms.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322405


Norovirus (NoV) has emerged as one of the major causative agents of non-bacterial, food- and water-borne gastroenteritis in humans, with the main genogroup involved in human outbreaks (GII), which has been detected worldwide in different animal species including swine. A four-month investigation at the slaughterhouse aiming to examine the presence of NoV in the swine in North-Eastern Italy, enabled the detection of two divergent Noroviruses (NoVs) (GII.P11) in two swine farms. This represents the first study in the swine population of North-Eastern Italy, which has paved the way for future integrated virological and epidemiological investigations on swine NoVs.

Animals (Basel) ; 10(3)2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131557


The analysis of antimicrobial use (AMU) data in livestock allows for the identification of risk factors for AMU, thereby favoring the application of responsible AMU policies on-farm. Herewith, AMU in 36 finishing pig farms in northern Italy from 2015-2017 was expressed as defined daily doses for Italian pigs (DDDita) per population correction unit (DDDita/100kg). A retrospective analysis was then conducted to determine the effects of several husbandry practices on AMU. Overall, AMU ranged between 12 DDDita/100kg in 2015 and 8 DDDita/100kg in 2017, showing no significant trends, due to the large variability in AMU between farms. However, a 66% AMU reduction was observed in 19 farms during 2015-2017. Farm size, number of farm workers, air quality, average pig mortality, and presence of undocked pigs on the farm had no significant effects on AMU. Rather, welfare-friendly farms had 38% lower AMU levels (p < 0.05). In conclusion, animal welfare management seems to be relatively more important than farm structure and other managerial characteristics as drivers of AMU in finishing pig farms.