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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary antibody deficiencies (PAD) are the most prevalent primary immunodeficiencies. More severe forms of PAD, common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), require immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IRT) and may have serious complications. Differentiating severe PAD from milder hypogammaglobulinemia not requiring IRT can involve prolonged evaluations and treatment discontinuation. Severe PAD is defined by plasma cell deficiency, but this requires a biopsy to establish. Serum B cell maturation antigen (sBCMA) is elevated in multiple myeloma, but levels are reduced among myeloma patients in remission who have hypogammaglobulinemia. OBJECTIVE: We measured sBCMA levels in 165 subjects to determine whether it differentiates the severe PAD, CVID and XLA, from less severe forms not requiring IRT and those without PAD. METHODS: sBCMA, B-cells, and tissue plasma cells were measured among subjects with and without PAD, and correlated to clinical and laboratory data. RESULTS: Subjects with IgG < 600 mg/dL had reduced sBCMA levels compared with PAD with IgG ≥ 600 and non-PAD controls. sBCMA was lower in CVID and XLA compared to IgA or IgG deficiency and controls. sBCMA correlated with gastrointestinal plasma cells. sBCMA < 15 ng/mL had 97% positive predictive value for CVID or XLA, while 25 ng/mL or more had an 88% negative predictive value. CONCLUSION: sBCMA is profoundly reduced in severe PAD, including CVID, XLA and subjects with IgG < 600 mg/dL. sBCMA measurement has potential to augment clinical evaluation of PAD. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate sBCMA for new PAD diagnosis and determining necessity of IRT.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency that is clinically heterogeneous, characterized by both infectious and noninfectious complications. Although the hallmark of disease presentation is commonly a history of recurrent sinopulmonary infections, autoimmunity and noninfectious inflammatory conditions are increasingly associated with CVID. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive literature search using PubMed of basic science and clinical articles was performed. STUDY SELECTIONS: Articles discussing the association of autoimmunity with primary immunodeficiency, specifically CVID, were selected. RESULTS: The most common autoimmune conditions are cytopenias, including immune thrombocytopenia purpura and hemolytic anemia, but organ-specific autoimmune/inflammatory complications involving the gastrointestinal, skin, joints, connective tissue, and respiratory tract. In most cases, immunoglobulin replacement therapy does not ameliorate or treat these inflammatory complications, and additional immunomodulatory treatments are needed. CONCLUSION: Mechanisms producing these conditions are poorly understood but include cytokine and cellular inflammatory pathways, and loss of tolerance to self-antigens through the multiple signaling molecules and pathways common to tolerance and immune deficiency.

3.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(6): 569-576, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250334

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chronic lung disease is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). While biomarkers exist to predict non-infectious complications, the unique features that define CVID patients with chronic lung disease are not well understood. METHODS: We analyzed data from CVID patients from the retrospective USIDNET (United States Immunodeficiency Network) patient database. Patients were categorized into 3 phenotypes for comparison: (1) CVID without chronic lung disease, (2) CVID with bronchiectasis only, and (3) CVID with interstitial lung disease (ILD) with or without bronchiectasis. Among these groups, differences were assessed in demographics, comorbidities, infections, treatments, and peripheral blood immune measures. We analyzed 1518 CVID patients which included 1233 (81.2%) without chronic lung disease, 147 (9.7%) with bronchiectasis only, and 138 (9.1%) with interstitial lung disease. RESULTS: Patients with ILD had lower CD3+ cell counts (P = .001), CD4+ cell counts (P < .05), and CD8+ cell counts (P < .001) compared with patients without lung disease. Additionally, there was significantly more CVID patients with ILD with pneumonia (P < .001), herpes viruses (P = .01) and fungal infections (P < .001) compared with patients with CVID without chronic lung disease. CONCLUSION: This analysis suggests that patients with chronic lung disease may be more likely to have lower peripheral T cell counts and complications of those defects compared with CVID patients without chronic lung disease.

4.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(4): 440-447, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089938

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pulmonary complications occur frequently in primary antibody deficiency (PAD). While the impact of antibody deficiency may appear implicit for certain respiratory infections, immunoglobulin replacement therapy does not completely ameliorate pulmonary complications in PAD. Thus, there may be antibody-independent factors influencing susceptibility to respiratory disease in PAD, but these remain incompletely defined. METHODS: We harnessed the multicenter US Immunodeficiency Network primary immunodeficiency registry to compare prevalence of asthma, bronchiectasis, interstitial lung disease (ILD), and respiratory infections between two forms of PAD: common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and x-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). We also defined the clinical and immunological characteristics associated with ILD and asthma in CVID. RESULTS: Asthma, bronchiectasis, ILD, pneumonia, and upper respiratory infections were more prevalent in CVID than XLA. ILD was associated with autoimmunity, bronchiectasis, and pneumonia as well as fewer B and T cells in CVID. Asthma was the most common chronic pulmonary complication and associated with lower IgA and IgM in CVID. Age of symptom onset or CVID diagnosis was unrelated with ILD or asthma. CONCLUSION: Despite having less severe immunoglobulin deficiency than XLA, respiratory infections, ILD, and asthma were more common in CVID. Among CVID patients, ILD was associated with autoimmunity and reduced lymphocytes and asthma with lower immunoglobulins. Though our results are tempered by registry limitations, they provide evidence that factors beyond lack of antibody promote pulmonary complications in PAD. Efforts to understand how genetic etiology, nature of concurrent T cell deficiency, and propensity for autoimmunity shape pulmonary disease may improve treatment of PAD.

5.
Sci Immunol ; 4(34)2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979797

RESUMO

Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) mutations result in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) syndrome characterized by defective central T cell tolerance and the production of many autoantibodies targeting tissue-specific antigens and cytokines. By studying CD3- and AIRE-deficient patients, we found that lack of either T cells or AIRE function resulted in the peripheral accumulation of autoreactive mature naïve B cells. Proteomic arrays and Biacore affinity measurements revealed that unmutated antibodies expressed by these autoreactive naïve B cells recognized soluble molecules and cytokines including insulin, IL-17A, and IL-17F, which are AIRE-dependent thymic peripheral tissue antigens targeted by autoimmune responses in APECED. AIRE-deficient patients also displayed decreased frequencies of regulatory T cells (Tregs) that lacked common TCRß clones found instead in their conventional T cell compartment, thereby suggesting holes in the Treg TCR repertoire of these patients. Hence, AIRE-mediated T cell/Treg selection normally prevents the expansion of autoreactive naïve B cells recognizing peripheral self-antigens.

6.
JCI Insight ; 4(5)2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency and is frequently complicated by interstitial lung disease (ILD) for which etiology is unknown and therapy inadequate. METHODS: Medical record review implicated B cell dysregulation in CVID ILD progression. This was further studied in blood and lung samples using culture, cytometry, ELISA, and histology. Eleven CVID ILD patients were treated with rituximab and followed for 18 months. RESULTS: Serum IgM increased in conjunction with ILD progression, a finding that reflected the extent of IgM production within B cell follicles in lung parenchyma. Targeting these pulmonary B cell follicles with rituximab ameliorated CVID ILD, but disease recurred in association with IgM elevation. Searching for a stimulus of this pulmonary B cell hyperplasia, we found B cell-activating factor (BAFF) increased in blood and lungs of progressive and post-rituximab CVID ILD patients and detected elevation of BAFF-producing monocytes in progressive ILD. This elevated BAFF interacts with naive B cells, as they are the predominant subset in progressive CVID ILD, expressing BAFF receptor (BAFF-R) within pulmonary B cell follicles and blood to promote Bcl-2 expression. Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 was linked with exclusion of apoptosis from B cell follicles in CVID ILD and increased survival of naive CVID B cells cultured with BAFF. CONCLUSION: CVID ILD is driven by pulmonary B cell hyperplasia that is reflected by serum IgM elevation, ameliorated by rituximab, and bolstered by elevated BAFF-mediated apoptosis resistance via BAFF-R. FUNDING: NIH, Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium, and Rare Disease Foundation.

7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(4): 1277-1284, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and IgG deficiency are 2 of the more prevalent primary humoral immune defects. The former is defined by consensus with criteria for quantitative and qualitative antibody defects, whereas the latter is used to describe patients with reduced IgG, who commonly have recurrent sinopulmonary infections but do not fulfill CVID criteria. However, these patients are often given this diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To compare immunologic findings and clinical manifestations of 2 large cohorts of patients with CVID or IgG deficiency to better delineate differences between these syndromes. METHODS: We extracted clinical and laboratory data from electronic medical records of patients at our institution who had received International Classification of Disease codes for either CVID, or IgG deficiency. We gathered immunoglobulin levels, lymphocyte subpopulation counts, and serological vaccine responses. In some patients, we performed flow cytometry to determine percentages of memory and switched-memory B cells. We compiled and statistically compared clinical data related to infectious manifestations, bronchiectasis, autoimmune diseases, infiltrative inflammatory processes, and lymphoid malignancies. RESULTS: In contrast to IgG-deficient patients, we found that patients with CVID had lower IgG levels, greater unresponsiveness to most vaccines, lower percentages of memory and isotype switched-memory B cells, and lower CD4 T-cell counts. Clinically, patients with CVID presented similar rates of sinusitis and pneumonias, but a significantly higher prevalence of bronchiectasis and especially noninfectious complications. CONCLUSIONS: CVID and IgG deficiency do not share the same disease spectrum, the former being associated with immunodysregulative manifestations and markers of a more severe immune defect. These data may allow clinicians to distinguish these conditions and the management differences that these patients pose.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(3): 950-959, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591557

RESUMO

Computational analyses of human patient exomes aim to filter out as many nonpathogenic genetic variants (NPVs) as possible, without removing the true disease-causing mutations. This involves comparing the patient's exome with public databases to remove reported variants inconsistent with disease prevalence, mode of inheritance, or clinical penetrance. However, variants frequent in a given exome cohort, but absent or rare in public databases, have also been reported and treated as NPVs, without rigorous exploration. We report the generation of a blacklist of variants frequent within an in-house cohort of 3,104 exomes. This blacklist did not remove known pathogenic mutations from the exomes of 129 patients and decreased the number of NPVs remaining in the 3,104 individual exomes by a median of 62%. We validated this approach by testing three other independent cohorts of 400, 902, and 3,869 exomes. The blacklist generated from any given cohort removed a substantial proportion of NPVs (11-65%). We analyzed the blacklisted variants computationally and experimentally. Most of the blacklisted variants corresponded to false signals generated by incomplete reference genome assembly, location in low-complexity regions, bioinformatic misprocessing, or limitations inherent to cohort-specific private alleles (e.g., due to sequencing kits, and genetic ancestries). Finally, we provide our precalculated blacklists, together with ReFiNE, a program for generating customized blacklists from any medium-sized or large in-house cohort of exome (or other next-generation sequencing) data via a user-friendly public web server. This work demonstrates the power of extracting variant blacklists from private databases as a specific in-house but broadly applicable tool for optimizing exome analysis.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Exoma , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Software , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Immunol Rev ; 287(1): 145-161, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565247

RESUMO

Starting about 60 years ago, a number of reports appeared that outlined the severe clinical course of a few adult subjects with profound hypogammaglobinemia. Puzzled by the lack of family history and adult onset of symptoms in most, the name "acquired" hypogammaglobinemia was given, but later altered to the current name common variable immune deficiency. Pathology reports remarked on the loss of lymph node architecture and paucity of plasma cells in lymphoid tissues in these subjects. While characterized by reduced serum IgG and IgA and often IgM, and thus classified among the B-cell defects, an increasing number of cellular defects in these patients have been recognized over time. In the early years, severe respiratory tract infections commonly led to a shortened life span, but the wide spread availability of immune globulin concentrates for the last 25 years has improved survival. However, chronic non-infectious inflammatory and autoimmune conditions have now emerged as challenging clinical problems; these require further immunologic understanding and additional therapeutic measures. Recent study of this phenotypic syndrome have provided an increasingly fertile ground for the identification of autosomal recessive and now more commonly, autosomal dominant gene defects which lead to the loss of B-cell development in this syndrome.

10.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am ; 39(1): 81-94, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466774

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement can be the presenting disease manifestation in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). Infections and noninfectious diarrhea are frequent manifestations; however, malignancy and inflammatory and autoimmune-related GI diseases are also described. GI symptoms and disease seen in association with PIDs can mimic other diseases but are often resistant to conventional treatments owing to alternate disease mechanisms. Despite the advances in treatments for these conditions, therapy for immunodeficiency-related GI disease is often empiric.

11.
J Clin Invest ; 128(12): 5489-5504, 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395541

RESUMO

We report the molecular, cellular, and clinical features of 5 patients from 3 kindreds with biallelic mutations in the autosomal LIG1 gene encoding DNA ligase 1. The patients exhibited hypogammaglobulinemia, lymphopenia, increased proportions of circulating γδT cells, and erythrocyte macrocytosis. Clinical severity ranged from a mild antibody deficiency to a combined immunodeficiency requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Using engineered LIG1-deficient cell lines, we demonstrated chemical and radiation defects associated with the mutant alleles, which variably impaired the DNA repair pathway. We further showed that these LIG1 mutant alleles are amorphic or hypomorphic, and exhibited variably decreased enzymatic activities, which lead to premature release of unligated adenylated DNA. The variability of the LIG1 genotypes in the patients was consistent with that of their immunological and clinical phenotypes. These data suggest that different forms of autosomal recessive, partial DNA ligase 1 deficiency underlie an immunodeficiency of variable severity.

12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476213

RESUMO

The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO)-a standardized vocabulary of phenotypic abnormalities associated with 7000+ diseases-is used by thousands of researchers, clinicians, informaticians and electronic health record systems around the world. Its detailed descriptions of clinical abnormalities and computable disease definitions have made HPO the de facto standard for deep phenotyping in the field of rare disease. The HPO's interoperability with other ontologies has enabled it to be used to improve diagnostic accuracy by incorporating model organism data. It also plays a key role in the popular Exomiser tool, which identifies potential disease-causing variants from whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing data. Since the HPO was first introduced in 2008, its users have become both more numerous and more diverse. To meet these emerging needs, the project has added new content, language translations, mappings and computational tooling, as well as integrations with external community data. The HPO continues to collaborate with clinical adopters to improve specific areas of the ontology and extend standardized disease descriptions. The newly redesigned HPO website (www.human-phenotype-ontology.org) simplifies browsing terms and exploring clinical features, diseases, and human genes.

13.
Hum Immunol ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359632

RESUMO

Primary B-cell immunodeficiencies refer to diseases resulting from impaired antibody production due to either molecular defects intrinsic to B-cells or a failure of interaction between B-cells and T-cells. Patients typically have recurrent infections and can vary with presentation and complications depending upon where the defect has occurred in B-cell development or the degree of functional impairment. In this review, we describe B-cell specific immune defects categorized by presence or absence of peripheral B-cells, immunoglobulins isotypes and evidence of antibody impairment.

14.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2125, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333819

RESUMO

TACI signals activate B cell proliferation, isotype switch and antibody production in both normal immunity and autoimmune states. In contrast to murine TACI, the human TACI gene undergoes alternative splicing to produce short and long isoforms (TACI-S and TACI-L). In previous studies, we showed that transduction of the short, but not long isoform, into murine B cells or human pre-B cells lacking TACI, caused them to become transcriptional and morphologically identical to plasma cells. These data suggest that the expression of different isoforms in humans provides unique controls on B cell maturation. In these studies we show that TACI-S and TACI-L form complexes in a ligand-independent manner, not dependent on a single extracellular domain. Both TACI isoforms are detectable in the endosomal cellular compartment where they co-localize with MyD88, TRAF6, and the activated 65 kDa form of TLR9, depending on a conserved intracellular TACI sequence. In contrast to TACI-L expressing cells, or cells bearing both isoforms, TACI-S binds ligands BAFF and APRIL with substantially greater affinity and promotes enhanced NF-kB activation. Using isoform-specific monoclonal antibodies, we show that while TACI-L is predominant as a surface receptor surface on human B cells, significantly more TACI-S is noted in the intracellular compartment and also in marginal zone, isotype switched and plasmablast in resting B cells. TACI-S is increased in tonsillar B cells and also in the intracellular compartment of activated peripheral B cells. These data shows that alternative splicing of the human TACI gene leads to two isoforms both of which intersect with MyD88 and TRAF6 and form complexes with TLR9, but the two isoforms have different ligand binding capacities, subcellular locations and activation capabilities.

15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3888, 2018 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250168

RESUMO

Transcription factor (TF) networks determine cell fate in hematopoiesis. However, how TFs cooperate with other regulatory mechanisms to instruct transcription remains poorly understood. Here we show that in small pre-B cells, the lineage restricted epigenetic reader BRWD1 closes early development enhancers and opens the enhancers of late B lymphopoiesis to TF binding. BRWD1 regulates over 7000 genes to repress proliferative and induce differentiation programs. However, BRWD1 does not regulate the expression of TFs required for B lymphopoiesis. Hypogammaglobulinemia patients with BRWD1 mutations have B-cell transcriptional profiles and enhancer landscapes similar to those observed in Brwd1-/- mice. These data indicate that, in both mice and humans, BRWD1 is a master orchestrator of enhancer accessibility that cooperates with TF networks to drive late B-cell development.

17.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1340, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997612

RESUMO

High-throughput genomic technologies yield about 20,000 variants in the protein-coding exome of each individual. A commonly used approach to select candidate disease-causing variants is to test whether the associated gene has been previously reported to be disease-causing. In the absence of known disease-causing genes, it can be challenging to associate candidate genes with specific genetic diseases. To facilitate the discovery of novel gene-disease associations, we determined the putative biologically closest known genes and their associated diseases for 13,005 human genes not currently reported to be disease-associated. We used these data to construct the closest disease-causing genes (CDG) server, which can be used to infer the closest genes with an associated disease for a user-defined list of genes or diseases. We demonstrate the utility of the CDG server in five immunodeficiency patient exomes across different diseases and modes of inheritance, where CDG dramatically reduced the number of candidate genes to be evaluated. This resource will be a considerable asset for ascertaining the potential relevance of genetic variants found in patient exomes to specific diseases of interest. The CDG database and online server are freely available to non-commercial users at: http://lab.rockefeller.edu/casanova/CDG.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of pathogen-protective, isotype-switched antibodies in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) suggests germinal center (GC) hypoplasia, yet a subset of patients with CVID is paradoxically affected by autoantibody-mediated autoimmune cytopenias (AICs) and lymphadenopathy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare the physical characteristics and immunologic output of GC responses in patients with CVID with AIC (CVID+AIC) and without AIC (CVID-AIC). METHODS: We analyzed GC size and shape in excisional lymph node biopsy specimens from 14 patients with CVID+AIC and 4 patients with CVID-AIC. Using paired peripheral blood samples, we determined how AICs specifically affected B-and T-cell compartments and antibody responses in patients with CVID. RESULTS: We found that patients with CVID+AIC displayed irregularly shaped hyperplastic GCs, whereas GCs were scarce and small in patients with CVID-AIC. GC hyperplasia was also evidenced by an increase in numbers of circulating follicular helper T cells, which correlated with decreased regulatory T-cell frequencies and function. In addition, patients with CVID+AIC had serum endotoxemia associated with a dearth of isotype-switched memory B cells that displayed significantly lower somatic hypermutation frequencies than their counterparts with CVID-AIC. Moreover, IgG+ B cells from patients with CVID+AIC expressed VH4-34-encoded antibodies with unmutated Ala-Val-Tyr and Asn-His-Ser motifs, which recognize both erythrocyte I/i self-antigens and commensal bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CVID+AIC do not contain mucosal microbiota and exhibit hyperplastic yet inefficient GC responses that favor the production of untolerized IgG+ B-cell clones that recognize both commensal bacteria and hematopoietic I/i self-antigens.

20.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(3): 225-233, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453744

RESUMO

Although small prior studies have suggested that IgE can be low in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the workup for patients with recurrent infections and suspected hypogammaglobulinemia does not include the routine measurement of serum IgE. We sought to test the hypothesis that low/undetectable serum IgE is characteristic of CVID by comparing the frequency of low/undetectable serum IgE in healthy controls and patients with CVID. We measured total serum IgE in a large multi-center cohort of patients with CVID (n = 354) and compared this to large population-based cohorts of children and adults. We further compared IgE levels in patients with CVID to those with other forms of humoral immunodeficiency, and in a subset, measured levels of allergen-specific serum IgE and IgG subclasses. Lastly, we evaluated for the presence of IgE in commercially available immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT) products. An undetectable serum IgE (< 2 IU/ml) occurs in only 3.3% (95% CI, 1.9-5.7%) of the general population. In contrast, an undetectable IgE occurs in 75.6% (95% CI, 65.6-85.7%) of patients with CVID. Conversely, a high IgE (> 180 IU/ml) is very uncommon in CVID (0.3% of patients). IgE is > 2 IU/ml in 91.2% of patients with secondary hypogammaglobulinemia, and thus, an IgE < LLOD is suggestive of a primary humoral immunodeficiency. Allergen-specific IgE is not detectable in 96.5% of patients with CVID. Sufficient quantities of IgE to change the total serum IgE are not contained in IgRT. The IgG1/IgG4 ratio is increased in subjects with low IgE, regardless of whether they are controls or have CVID. These findings support the routine measurement of serum IgE in the workup of patients with hypogammaglobulinemia.

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