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2.
Cardiovasc Diagn Ther ; 8(2): 173-175, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29850408

RESUMO

A 63 years old male with a history of arterial hypertension presented with a current onset of chest pain and discrete headaches accompanied with dizziness. His blood pressure, 210/110 mmHg, had worsened and showed a reversed circadian rhythm with an average of 150/90 mmHg during night time. A CT angiography of the aorta demonstrated a type B dissection involving the right renal artery causing reduced perfusion of the right kidney. Subsequent invasive aortic angiography showed a continuously moving aortic dissection flap resulting in a dynamic stenosis proven by varying pressure gradients of between 5 and 35 mmHg. Stent placement of the renal artery ostium kept the vessel open and fixed the reno-aortic dissection flap in order to prevent it from progressing into the right kidney. Follow-up examinations revealed improved blood pressure control allowing for physiologic drop of blood pressure during night-time.

3.
Circulation ; 138(10): 989-999, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combining 2 signals of cardiomyocyte injury, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT), might overcome some individual pathophysiological and analytical limitations and thereby increase diagnostic accuracy for acute myocardial infarction with a single blood draw. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of combinations of high-sensitivity (hs) cTnI and hs-cTnT for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: The diagnostic performance of combining hs-cTnI (Architect, Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Elecsys, Roche) concentrations (sum, product, ratio, and a combination algorithm) obtained at the time of presentation was evaluated in a large multicenter diagnostic study of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. The optimal rule-out and rule-in thresholds were externally validated in a second large multicenter diagnostic study. The proportion of patients eligible for early rule-out was compared with the European Society of Cardiology 0/1 and 0/3 hour algorithms. RESULTS: Combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations did not consistently increase overall diagnostic accuracy as compared with the individual isoforms. However, the combination improved the proportion of patients meeting criteria for very early rule-out. With the European Society of Cardiology 2015 guideline recommended algorithms and cut-offs, the proportion meeting rule-out criteria after the baseline blood sampling was limited (6% to 24%) and assay dependent. Application of optimized cut-off values using the sum (9 ng/L) and product (18 ng2/L2) of hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations led to an increase in the proportion ruled-out after a single blood draw to 34% to 41% in the original (sum: negative predictive value [NPV] 100% [95% confidence interval (CI), 99.5% to 100%]; product: NPV 100% [95% CI, 99.5% to 100%]) and in the validation cohort (sum: NPV 99.6% [95% CI, 99.0-99.9%]; product: NPV 99.4% [95% CI, 98.8-99.8%]). The use of a combination algorithm (hs-cTnI <4 ng/L and hs-cTnT <9 ng/L) showed comparable results for rule-out (40% to 43% ruled out; NPV original cohort 99.9% [95% CI, 99.2-100%]; NPV validation cohort 99.5% [95% CI, 98.9-99.8%]) and rule-in (positive predictive value [PPV] original cohort 74.4% [95% Cl, 69.6-78.8%]; PPV validation cohort 84.0% [95% Cl, 79.7-87.6%]). CONCLUSIONS: New strategies combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations may significantly increase the number of patients eligible for very early and safe rule-out, but do not seem helpful for the rule-in of acute myocardial infarction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL (APACE): https://www.clinicaltrial.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00470587. URL (ADAPT): www.anzctr.org.au . Unique identifier: ACTRN12611001069943.

4.
Cardiol J ; 25(5): 601-610, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While prolongation of QRS duration and QTc interval during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been reported in animals, limited data is available for these readily available electrocardiography (ECG) markers in humans. METHODS: Diagnostic and prognostic value of QRS duration and QTc interval in patients with suspected AMI in a prospective diagnostic multicentre study were prospectively assessed. Digital 12-lead ECGs were recorded at presentation. QRS duration and QTc interval were automatically calculated in a blinded fashion. Final diagnosis was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. The prognostic endpoint was all-cause mortality during 24 months of follow-up. RESULTS: Among 4042 patients, AMI was the final diagnosis in 19% of patients. Median QRS duration and median QTc interval were significantly greater in patients with AMI compared to those with other final diagnoses (98 ms [IQR 88-108] vs. 94 ms [IQR 86-102] and 436 ms [IQR 414-462] vs. 425 ms [IQR 407-445], p < 0.001 for both comparisons). The diagnostic value of both ECG signatures however was only modest (AUC 0.56 and 0.60). Cumulative mortality rates after 2 years were 15.9% vs. 5.6% in patients with a QRS > 120 ms compared to a QRS duration ≤ 120 ms (p < 0.001), and 11.4% vs. 4.3% in patients with a QTc > 440 ms compared to a QRS duration ≤ 440 ms (p < 0.001). After adjustment for age and important ECG and clinical parameters, the QTc interval but not QRS duration remained an independent predictor of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Prolongation of QRS duration > 120 ms and QTc interval > 440 ms predict mortality in patients with suspected AMI, but do not add diagnostic value.

5.
Circulation ; 136(16): 1495-1508, 2017 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28972002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyC) is a cardiac-restricted protein that is more abundant than cardiac troponins (cTn) and is released more rapidly after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We evaluated cMyC as an adjunct or alternative to cTn in the early diagnosis of AMI. METHODS: Unselected patients (N=1954) presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of AMI, concentrations of cMyC, and high-sensitivity (hs) and standard-sensitivity cTn were measured at presentation. The final diagnosis of AMI was independently adjudicated using all available clinical and biochemical information without knowledge of cMyC. The prognostic end point was long-term mortality. RESULTS: Final diagnosis was AMI in 340 patients (17%). Concentrations of cMyC at presentation were significantly higher in those with versus without AMI (median, 237 ng/L versus 13 ng/L, P<0.001). Discriminatory power for AMI, as quantified by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), was comparable for cMyC (AUC, 0.924), hs-cTnT (AUC, 0.927), and hs-cTnI (AUC, 0.922) and superior to cTnI measured by a contemporary sensitivity assay (AUC, 0.909). The combination of cMyC with hs-cTnT or standard-sensitivity cTnI (but not hs-cTnI) led to an increase in AUC to 0.931 (P<0.0001) and 0.926 (P=0.003), respectively. Use of cMyC more accurately classified patients with a single blood test into rule-out or rule-in categories: Net Reclassification Improvement +0.149 versus hs-cTnT, +0.235 versus hs-cTnI (P<0.001). In early presenters (chest pain <3 h), the improvement in rule-in/rule-out classification with cMyC was larger compared with hs-cTnT (Net Reclassification Improvement +0.256) and hs-cTnI (Net Reclassification Improvement +0.308; both P<0.001). Comparing the C statistics, cMyC was superior to hs-cTnI and standard sensitivity cTnI (P<0.05 for both) and similar to hs-cTnT at predicting death at 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: cMyC at presentation provides discriminatory power comparable to hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI in the diagnosis of AMI and may perform favorably in patients presenting early after symptom onset. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00470587.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Precoce , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Triagem , Regulação para Cima
6.
Clin Chem ; 63(7): 1227-1236, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28515106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared 2 high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn)-based 2-h strategies in patients presenting with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to the emergency department (ED): the 2-h accelerated diagnostic protocol (2h-ADP) combining hs-cTn, electrocardiogram, and a risk score, and the 2-h algorithm exclusively based on hs-cTn concentrations and their absolute changes. METHODS: Analyses were performed in 2 independent diagnostic cohorts [European Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndrome Evaluation (APACE) study, Australian-New Zealand 2-h Accelerated Diagnostic Protocol to Assess patients with chest Pain symptoms using contemporary Troponins as the only biomarker (ADAPT) study] employing hs-cTnT (Elecsys) and hs-cTnI (Architect). The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. RESULTS: AMI was the final diagnosis in 16.5% (95% CI, 14.6%-18.6%) of the 1372 patients in APACE, and 12.6% (95% CI, 10.7%-14.7%) of 1153 patients in ADAPT. The negative predictive value (NPV) and sensitivity for AMI were very high and comparable with both strategies using either hs-cTnT or hs-cTnI in both cohorts (all statistical comparisons nonsignificant). The percentage of patients triaged toward rule-out was significantly lower with the 2h-ADP (36%-43%) vs the 2-h algorithm (55%-68%) with both assays and in both cohorts (P < 0.001). The sensitivity of the 2h-ADP was higher for 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events. CONCLUSIONS: Both algorithms provided very high and comparable safety as quantified by the NPV and sensitivity for AMI and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 30 days in patients triaged toward rule-out, although sensitivity for MACE at 30 days was lower with both algorithms in cohort 2. Although the 2-h algorithm was more efficacious, not all patients ruled out for AMI by this algorithm were appropriate candidates for early discharge. The 2h-ADP seems superior in the selection of patients for early discharge from the ED. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: APACE: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00470587ADAPT: Australia-New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611001069943.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Cardiovascular/normas , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue
7.
Int J Cardiol ; 238: 166-172, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28320607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise ECG stress testing is the most widely available method for evaluation of patients with suspected myocardial ischemia. Its major limitation is the relatively poor accuracy of ST-segment changes regarding ischemia detection. Little is known about the optimal method to assess ST-deviations. METHODS: A total of 1558 consecutive patients undergoing bicycle exercise stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) were enrolled. Presence of inducible myocardial ischemia was adjudicated using MPI results. The diagnostic value of ST-deviations for detection of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia was systematically analyzed 1) for each individual lead, 2) at three different intervals after the J-point (J+40ms, J+60ms, J+80ms), and 3) at different time points during the test (baseline, maximal workload, 2min into recovery). RESULTS: Exercise-induced ischemia was detected in 481 (31%) patients. The diagnostic accuracy of ST-deviations was highest at +80ms after the J-point, and at 2min into recovery. At this point, ST-amplitude showed an AUC of 0.63 (95% CI 0.59-0.66) for the best-performing lead I. The combination of ST-amplitude and ST-slope in lead I did not increase the AUC. Lead I reached a sensitivity of 37% and a specificity of 83%, with similar sensitivity to manual ECG analysis (34%, p=0.31) but lower specificity (90%, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: When using ECG stress testing for evaluation of patients with suspected myocardial ischemia, the diagnostic accuracy of ST-deviations is highest when evaluated at +80ms after the J-point, and at 2min into recovery.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Eletrocardiografia/instrumentação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Circulation ; 135(17): 1597-1611, 2017 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28283497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Four strategies for very early rule-out of acute myocardial infarction using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) have been identified. It remains unclear which strategy is most attractive for clinical application. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled unselected patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. Hs-cTnI levels were measured at presentation and after 1 hour in a blinded fashion. We directly compared all 4 hs-cTnI-based rule-out strategies: limit of detection (LOD, hs-cTnI<2 ng/L), single cutoff (hs-cTnI<5 ng/L), 1-hour algorithm (hs-cTnI<5 ng/L and 1-hour change<2 ng/L), and the 0/1-hour algorithm recommended in the European Society of Cardiology guideline combining LOD and 1-hour algorithm. RESULTS: Among 2828 enrolled patients, acute myocardial infarction was the final diagnosis in 451 (16%) patients. The LOD approach ruled out 453 patients (16%) with a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 99.2%-100%), the single cutoff 1516 patients (54%) with a sensitivity of 97.1% (95% CI, 95.1%-98.3%), the 1-hour algorithm 1459 patients (52%) with a sensitivity of 98.4% (95% CI, 96.8%-99.2%), and the 0/1-hour algorithm 1463 patients (52%) with a sensitivity of 98.4% (95% CI, 96.8%-99.2%). Predefined subgroup analysis in early presenters (≤2 hours) revealed significantly lower sensitivity (94.2%, interaction P=0.03) of the single cutoff, but not the other strategies. Two-year survival was 100% with LOD and 98.1% with the other strategies (P<0.01 for LOD versus each of the other strategies). CONCLUSIONS: All 4 rule-out strategies balance effectiveness and safety equally well. The single cutoff should not be applied in early presenters, whereas the 3 other strategies seem to perform well in this challenging subgroup. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00470587.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Eletrocardiografia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
9.
Int J Cardiol ; 236: 23-29, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28236543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The V-index is an ECG marker quantifying spatial heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization. We prospectively assessed the diagnostic and prognostic values of the V-index in patients with suspected non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 497 patients presenting with suspected NSTEMI to the emergency department (ED). Digital 12-lead ECGs of five-minute duration were recorded at presentation. The V-index was automatically calculated in a blinded fashion. Patients with a QRS duration >120ms were ruled out from analysis. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. The prognostic endpoint was all-cause mortality during 24months of follow-up. RESULTS: NSTEMI was the final diagnosis in 14% of patients. V-index levels were higher in patients with AMI compared to other causes of chest pain (median 23ms vs. 18ms, p<0.001). The use of the V-index in addition to conventional ECG-criteria improved the diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of NSTEMI as quantified by area under the ROC curve from 0.66 to 0.73 (p=0.001) and the sensitivity of the ECG for AMI from 41% to 86% (p<0.001). Cumulative 24-month mortality rates were 99.4%, 98.4% and 88.3% according to tertiles of the V-index (p<0.001). After adjustment for age and important ECG and clinical parameters, the V-index remained an independent predictor of death. CONCLUSIONS: The V-index, an ECG marker quantifying spatial heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization, significantly improves the accuracy and sensitivity of the ECG for the diagnosis of NSTEMI and independently predicts mortality during follow-up.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise Espacial
10.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 106(6): 457-467, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28150185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with mild elevations of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) is a challenge. It is unclear whether copeptin, a marker of endogenous stress, or 1h-hs-cTn changes are better suited to address this important unmet clinical need. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of AMI to the emergency department (ED). Two independent cardiologists adjudicated the final diagnosis. Mild hs-cTn elevations were defined as 26.2 ng/L (99th percentile) to 75 ng/L for hs-cTnI, and 14 ng/L (99th percentile) to 50 ng/L (biological-equivalent to 75 ng/L for hs-cTnI) for hs-cTnT. RESULTS: Among 1356 patients, 80 (6%) had mild hs-cTnI elevations at presentation. Within this group, AMI was the final diagnosis in 39 patients (49%). The diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of AMI as quantified by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.51 (95% CI 0.39-0.64) for hs-cTnI at presentation, 0.58 (95% CI 0.45-0.71) for copeptin at presentation, and 0.78 (95% CI 0.68-0.88) for 1h-hs-cTnI changes, which was significantly higher as compared to copeptin (p = 0.02) or hs-cTnI alone (p < 0.001). The additional use of 1h-hs-cTnI changes, but not of copeptin, improved diagnostic accuracy of hs-cTnI at presentation (AUC 0.80, 95% CI 0.70-0.90; p = 0.002 for comparison). Similar findings regarding copeptin and 1h-hs-cTnT/I changes were obtained for mild hs-cTnT elevations. CONCLUSIONS: About 6-22% of patients presenting with suggestive AMI to the ED have mild hs-cTnT/I elevations at presentation. In contrast to copeptin, the addition of 1h-hs-cTn changes substantially improves the early diagnosis of AMI.


Assuntos
Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Precoce , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC
11.
JAMA Cardiol ; 1(8): 912-920, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27653005

RESUMO

Importance: It is currently unknown whether the uniform (universal clinical practice for more than 2 decades) or 2 sex-specific cutoff levels are preferable when using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) levels in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Objective: To improve the management of suspected AMI in women by exploring sex-specific vs uniform cutoff levels for hs-cTnT. Design, Setting, and Participants: In an ongoing prospective, diagnostic, multicenter study conducted at 9 emergency departments, the present study evaluated patients enrolled from April 21, 2006, through June 5, 2013. The participants included 2734 adults presenting with suspected AMI. Duration of follow-up was 2 years, and data analysis occurred from June 5 to December 21, 2015. Interventions: The final diagnosis was centrally adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists using all available information, including measurements of serial hs-cTnT blood concentrations twice: once using the uniform 99th percentile cutoff value level of 14 ng/L and once using sex-specific 99th percentile levels of hs-cTnT (women, 9 ng/L; men, 15.5 ng/L). Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnostic reclassification in women and men using sex-specific vs the uniform cutoff level in the diagnosis of AMI. Results: Of the 2734 participants, 876 women (32%) and 1858 men (68%) were included. Median (interquartile range) age was 68 (55-77) and 59 (48-71) years, respectively. With the use of the uniform cutoff value, 127 women (14.5%) and 345 men (18.6%) received a final diagnosis of AMI. Among these, at emergency department presentation, levels of hs-cTnT were already above the uniform cutoff value in 427 patients (sensitivity, 91.3% [95% CI, 85%-95.6%] in women vs 90.7% [95% CI, 87.1%-93.5% in men]; specificity, 79.2% [95% CI, 76.1%-82.1%] in women vs 78.5% [95% CI, 76.4%-80.6%] in men). After readjudication using sex-specific 99th percentile levels, diagnostic reclassification regarding AMI occurred in only 3 patients: 0.11% (95% CI, 0.02-0.32) of all patients and 0.6% (95% CI, 0.13-1.85) of patients with AMI. The diagnosis in 2 women was upgraded from unstable angina to AMI, and the diagnosis in 1 man was downgraded from AMI to unstable angina. These diagnostic results were confirmed when using 2 alternative pairs of uniform and sex-specific cutoff values. Conclusions and Relevance: The uniform 99th percentile should remain the standard of care when using hs-cTnT levels for the diagnosis of AMI.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina T/análise , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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