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1.
Head Neck Pathol ; 2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840043

RESUMO

To evaluate molecular epithelial changes, we investigated whether a profile of survivin, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), polo like kinase 1 (PLK1), p63, p40 (Δnp63 isoform), cyclin D1 (CCND1) and BCL2 apoptosis regulator (BCL2) proteins could predict malignant transformation. Different tissue segments (tumor adjacent epithelium; dysplasia and tumor) from a total of 109 patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. An increased expression of survivin (p < 0.001), PLK1 (p = 0.001), and p63 (p < 0.001) in parallel to reduced immunostaining of p40 (p < 0.001) and BCL2 (p = 0.029) was observed among the tissue segments analyzed. Our study revealed that survivin, PLK1, p63, p40 and BCL2 play a role in oral tumorigenesis and represent promising biomarkers able to recognize mesenchymal phenotype induction in the transition from nonmalignant cells to tumor cells. These results reveals critical interaction between survivin, PLK1, p63, p40 promising proteins during invasive carcinoma development.

2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210011, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a linkage algorithm to match anonymous death records of cancer of the larynx (ICD-10 C32X), retrieved from the Mortality Information System (SIM) and the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SIH-SUS) in Brazil. METHODOLOGY: Death records containing ICD-10 C32X codes were retrieved from SIM and SIH-SUS, limited to individuals aged 30 years and over, between 2002 and 2012, in the state of São Paulo. The databases were linked using a unique key identifier developed with sociodemographic data shared by both systems. Linkage performance was ascertained by applying the same procedure to similar non-anonymous databases. True pairs were those having the same identification variables. RESULTS: A total of 14,311 eligible death records were found. Most records, 10,674 (74.6%), were exclusive to SIM. Only 1,853 (12.9%) deaths were registered in both systems, representing true pairs. A total of 1,784 (12.5%) cases of laryngeal cancer in the SIH-SUS database were tracked in SIM with different causes of death. The linkage failed to match 167 (9.4%) records due to inconsistencies in the key identifier. CONCLUSION: The authors found that linking anonymous data from mortality and hospital records is a feasible measure to track missing records and may improve cancer statistics.


Assuntos
Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Neoplasias Laríngeas , Adulto , Algoritmos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Atestado de Óbito , Estudos de Viabilidade , Sistemas de Informação Hospitalar , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Sistemas de Informação , Neoplasias Laríngeas/mortalidade
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6346, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737639

RESUMO

Little is known about the features and outcomes of Brazilian patients with pancreatic cancer. We sought to describe the socio-economic characteristics, patterns of health care access, and survival of patients diagnosed with malignant pancreatic tumors from 2000 to 2014 in São Paulo, Brazil. We included patients with malignant exocrine and non-classified pancreatic tumors according to the International Classifications of Disease (ICD)-O-2 and -O-3, diagnosed from 2000 to 2014, who were registered in the FOSP database. Prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in the subgroup of patients with ductal or non-specified (adeno)carcinoma were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard model. The study population consists of 6855 patients. Median time from the first visit to diagnosis and treatment were 13 (Interquartile range [IQR] 4-30) and 24 (IQR 8-55) days, respectively. Both intervals were longer for patients treated in the public setting. Median OS was 4.9 months (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 4.7-5.2). Increasing age, male gender, lower educational level, treatment in the public setting, absence of treatment, advanced stage, and treatment from 2000 to 2004 were associated with inferior OS. From 2000-2004 to 2010-2014, no improvement in OS was seen for patients treated in the public setting. Survival of patients with malignant pancreatic tumors remains dismal. Socioeconomical variables, especially health care funding, are major determinants of survival. Further work is necessary to decrease inequalities in access to medical care for patients with pancreatic cancer in Brazil.

4.
Semin Oncol ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573780

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To analyze COVID-19 mortality in cancer patients and associated factors such as age, sex, type of insurance, situation at COVID-19 diagnosis, and cancer histology during the pandemic at a cancer center in Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out from April 02, 2020 to August 31, 2020 at A.C. Camargo Cancer Center (ACCCC), in São Paulo, Brazil. Cases were extracted from the Hospital Cancer Registry. COVID-19 lethality rates by histology were calculated; multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with COVID-19 mortality. The log-rank test was applied to compare the survival curves for each variable. RESULTS: Of the 411 patients analyzed, 51 (12.4%) died due to COVID-19. Death occurred at an average age of 63 years. The fatality rate was higher for lung (0.333) and hematological (0.213) cancers and was associated with age over 60 years. The greatest chances of death from COVID-19 were in cases of lung (odds ratio, OR, 4.05, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.33-12.34) and hematological (OR 2.17, 95% CI 0.96-4.90) cancers, and in patients currently undergoing cancer treatment (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.25-6.13). There were no statistical differences in survival by sex, age group, type of insurance, situation at the diagnosis of COVID-19, and histology of cancer for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality due to COVID-19 in cancer patients is heterogeneous. These findings reinforce the need for individualized strategies for the management of different types of cancer that reduce the risk of death from COVID-19.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246475, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596233

RESUMO

The efficiency of public policies includes the measurement of the health resources used and their associated costs. There is a lack of studies evaluating the economic impact of oral cancer (OC). This study aims to estimate the healthcare costs of OC in Brazil from 2008 to 2016. This is a partial economic evaluation using the gross costing top-down method, considering the direct healthcare costs related to outpatients, inpatients, intensive care units, and the number of procedures, from the perspective of the public health sector. The data were extracted from the Outpatient and Inpatient Information System of the National Health System, by diagnosis according to the 10th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases, according to sites of interest: C00 to C06, C09 and C10. The values were adjusted for annual accumulated inflation and expressed in 2018 I$ (1 I$ = R$2,044). Expenditure on OC healthcare in Brazil was I$495.6 million, which was composed of 50.8% (I$251.6 million) outpatient and 49.2% (I$244.0 million) inpatient healthcare. About 177,317 admissions and 6,224,236 outpatient procedures were registered. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy comprised the largest number of procedures (88.8%) and costs (94.9%). Most of the costs were spent on people over 50 years old (72.9%) and on males (75.6%). Direct healthcare costs in Brazil for OC are substantial. Outpatient procedures were responsible for the highest total cost; however, inpatient procedures had a higher cost per procedure. Men over 50 years old consumed most of the cost and procedures for OC. The oropharynx and tongue were the sites with the highest expenditure. Further studies are needed to investigate the cost per individual, as well as direct non-medical and indirect costs of OC.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between socioeconomic disadvantage (low education and/or income) and head and neck cancer is well established, with smoking and alcohol consumption explaining up to three-quarters of the risk. We aimed to investigate the nature of and explanations for head and neck cancer risk associated with occupational socioeconomic prestige (a perceptual measure of psychosocial status), occupational socioeconomic position and manual-work experience, and to assess the potential explanatory role of occupational exposures. METHODS: Pooled analysis included 5818 patients with head and neck cancer (and 7326 control participants) from five studies in Europe and South America. Lifetime job histories were coded to: (1) occupational social prestige-Treiman's Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale (SIOPS); (2) occupational socioeconomic position-International Socio-Economic Index (ISEI); and (3) manual/non-manual jobs. RESULTS: For the longest held job, adjusting for smoking, alcohol and nature of occupation, increased head and neck cancer risk estimates were observed for low SIOPS OR=1.88 (95% CI: 1.64 to 2.17), low ISEI OR=1.74 (95% CI: 1.51 to 1.99) and manual occupations OR=1.49 (95% CI: 1.35 to 1.64). Following mutual adjustment by socioeconomic exposures, risk associated with low SIOPS remained OR=1.59 (95% CI: 1.30 to 1.94). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that low occupational socioeconomic prestige, position and manual work are associated with head and neck cancer, and such risks are only partly explained by smoking, alcohol and occupational exposures. Perceptual occupational psychosocial status (SIOPS) appears to be the strongest socioeconomic factor, relative to socioeconomic position and manual/non-manual work.

7.
Mastology (Online) ; 31: 1-5, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150671

RESUMO

Objective: To discuss the practical difficulties associated with breast cancer staging, especially in the context of populationbased cancer registries (PBCR). Methods: This is a short communication that discusses the importance and temporal evolution of breast cancer staging, as well as the limitations and new challenges associated with this process. Results: This study discusses the importance and temporal evolution of breast cancer staging, as well as the limitations and new challenges associated with this process. Minimal divergences in physical examination and disagreements in imaging tests can classify the patient in a higher or lower stage of the disease. In some population-based registries, up to 20% of the information regarding the clinical stage of breast cancer may be mistaken. Conclusion: We highlight the necessity for continuing education and constant training for all professionals involved in the breast cancer epidemiological context. The utilization of new technologies can help standardize the information and reduce the divergences related to cancer staging registry.

8.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24: e210011, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156024

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Objective: To develop a linkage algorithm to match anonymous death records of cancer of the larynx (ICD-10 C32X), retrieved from the Mortality Information System (SIM) and the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SIH-SUS) in Brazil. Methodology: Death records containing ICD-10 C32X codes were retrieved from SIM and SIH-SUS, limited to individuals aged 30 years and over, between 2002 and 2012, in the state of São Paulo. The databases were linked using a unique key identifier developed with sociodemographic data shared by both systems. Linkage performance was ascertained by applying the same procedure to similar non-anonymous databases. True pairs were those having the same identification variables. Results: A total of 14,311 eligible death records were found. Most records, 10,674 (74.6%), were exclusive to SIM. Only 1,853 (12.9%) deaths were registered in both systems, representing true pairs. A total of 1,784 (12.5%) cases of laryngeal cancer in the SIH-SUS database were tracked in SIM with different causes of death. The linkage failed to match 167 (9.4%) records due to inconsistencies in the key identifier. Conclusion: The authors found that linking anonymous data from mortality and hospital records is a feasible measure to track missing records and may improve cancer statistics.


RESUMO: Objetivo: Desenvolver um algoritmo de vinculação de registros para parear registros de óbito por câncer de laringe (CID-10 C32X), recuperados do Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade (SIM) e do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde (SIH-SUS) do Brasil. Métodos: Foram filtrados registros de óbitos contendo códigos CID-10 C32X do SIM e do SIH-SUS, de indivíduos de mais de 30 anos, entre 2002 e 2012, no Estado de São Paulo. As bases de dados foram vinculadas por meio de um identificador único e de variáveis sociodemográficas comuns a ambos os sistemas. O desempenho da vinculação de dados foi aferido aplicando-se o mesmo procedimento em bancos de dados nominais. Os pares verdadeiros apresentavam os mesmos valores nas variáveis de identificação. Resultados: Ao todo, 14.311 registros elegíveis de óbito foram encontrados. A maioria dos registros, 10.674 (74.6%), era exclusiva do SIM. Apenas 1.853 (12.9%) óbitos foram registrados em ambos os sistemas, representando pares verdadeiros. Um total de 1.784 (12.5%) casos de câncer de laringe presentes no SIH-SUS constavam com diferentes causas de óbito no SIM. Houve falha na vinculação em 167 (9.4%) registros, devido a inconsistências na chave de identificação. Conclusão: Constatou-se que a vinculação de dados anônimos de registros hospitalares e registros de óbito é viável e pode auxiliar na melhoria de estatísticas de câncer.

9.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 57(2): 172-177, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital-based studies recently have shown increases in colorectal cancer survival, and better survival for women, young people, and patients diagnosed at an early disease stage. OBJECTIVE: To describe the overall survival and analyze the prognostic factors of patients treated for colorectal cancer at an oncology center. METHODS: The analysis included patients diagnosed with colon and rectal adenocarcinoma between 2000 and 2013 and identified in the Hospital Cancer Registry at A.C.Camargo Cancer Center. Overall 5-year survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and prognostic factors were evaluated in a Cox regression model. Hazard ratios (HR) are reported with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Of 2,279 colorectal cancer cases analyzed, 58.4% were in the colon. The 5-year overall survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was 63.5% (65.6% and 60.6% for colonic and rectal malignancies, respectively). The risk of death was elevated for patients in the 50-74-year (HR=1.24, 95%CI =1.02-1.51) and ≥75-year (HR=3.02, 95%CI =2.42-3.78) age groups, for patients with rectal cancer (HR=1.37, 95%CI =1.11-1.69) and for those whose treatment was started >60 days after diagnosis (HR=1.22, 95%CI =1.04-1.43). The risk decreased for patients diagnosed in recent time periods (2005-2009 HR=0.76, 95%CI =0.63-0.91; 2010-2013 HR=0.69, 95%CI =0.57-0.83). CONCLUSION: Better survival of patients with colorectal cancer improves with early stage and started treatment within 60 days of diagnosis. Age over 70 years old was an independent factor predictive of a poor prognosis. The overall survival increased to all patients treated in the period 2000-2004 to 2010-2013.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Retais/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sobrevida , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092262

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds may exert a favorable effect on the risk of several cancer types, including gastric cancer (GC). However, selected polyphenol classes have not been adequately investigated in relation to GC. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between the intake of polyphenols in relation to GC risk. We used data from the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project, including 10 studies from six countries (3471 GC cases and 8344 controls). We carried out an individual participant data pooled analysis using a two-stage approach. The summary odds ratios (ORs) of GC for each compound, and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), were computed by pooling study specific ORs obtained through multivariate logistic regression, using random effect models. Inverse associations with GC emerged for total polyphenols (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.54-0.81, for the highest versus lowest quartile of intake), total flavonoids (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.55-0.90), anthocyanidins (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.56-0.92), flavanols (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66-0.88), flavanones (OR = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.44-0.69), total phenolic acids (OR = 0.75, 95%CI = 0.55-0.94), and hydroxybenzoic acids (OR = 0.73, 95%CI = 0.57-0.89). Results were consistent across strata of age, sex, social class, and smoking habit. Suggestive inverse associations were also found for flavonols (OR = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.51-1.01) and hydroxycinnamic acids (OR = 0.82, 95%CI = 0.58-1.06). Further investigations from longitudinal data are needed to confirm this association.

11.
Popul Health Metr ; 18(Suppl 1): 8, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among females worldwide. In recent decades, breast cancer death rates have been stable or decreasing in more developed regions; however, this has not been observed in less developed regions. This study aims to evaluate inequalities in the burden of female breast cancer in Brazil including an analysis of interregional and interstate patterns in incidence, mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) rates from 1990 to 2017, and mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR), and their association with the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). METHODS: Using estimates from the global burden of disease (GBD) study, we applied a spatial exploratory analysis technique to obtain measurements of global and local spatial correlation. Percentage changes of breast cancer incidence, mortality, and DALYs rates between 1990 and 2017 were calculated, and maps were developed to show the spatial distribution of the variables. Spatial panel models were adjusted to investigate the association between rates and SDI in Brazilian states. RESULTS: In Brazil, while breast cancer mortality rate have had modest reduction (-4.45%; 95% UI: -6.97; -1.76) between 1990 and 2017, the incidence rate increased substantially (+39.99%; 95% UI: 34.90; 45.39). Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates in 1990 and 2017 were higher in regions with higher SDI, i.e., the most developed ones. While SDI increased in all Brazilian states between 1990 and 2017, notably in less developed regions, MIR decreased, more notably in more developed regions. The SDI had a positive association with incidence rate and a negative association with MIR. CONCLUSION: Such findings suggest an improvement in breast cancer survival in the period, which may be related to a broader access to diagnostic methods and treatment. This study also revealed the inequality in breast cancer outcomes among Brazilian states and may guide public policy priorities for disease control in the country.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 68: 101795, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify time trends in incidence, mortality and 5-year relative survival in children and adolescents with cancer in Goiania-Goias, Brazil, during the years of 1996-2012. METHODS: Incidence and mortality age-standardized rates (ASR) were calculated, and trends were identified by determining the Average Annual Percentage Change (AAPC). Five-year relative survival were estimated. RESULTS: The overall incidence ASR (1996-2012) was 164.2/1,000,000 in both genders. In boys was 176.6/1,000,000, in girls it was 151.8/1,000,000. Overall mortality ASR for both gender were 69.3/1,000,000. Incidence rates (AAPC: -0.5; 95 %CI: -2.4;1.4) and mortality rates (AAPC: 0.0; 95 %CI: -2.6;2;7) were stable in the period. Five-year relative survival for all cancers were 63.9 %, with the highest survival rates for retinobastoma (83.5 %), germ cell tumors (79.8 %), and lymphomas (72.7 %). It was observed an increase in survival in the period from de 62.8 % (1996 a 2003) to 65.0 % from 2004 to 2012. CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescent cancer incidence and mortality rates were higher in Goiania, but both are stable overall. The relative survival slighly improved in the period but remained lower mainly for leukemias.

13.
Br J Cancer ; 123(9): 1456-1463, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). This study aims to explore the effect of alcohol intensity and duration, as joint continuous exposures, on HNC risk. METHODS: Data from 26 case-control studies in the INHANCE Consortium were used, including never and current drinkers who drunk ≤10 drinks/day for ≤54 years (24234 controls, 4085 oral cavity, 3359 oropharyngeal, 983 hypopharyngeal and 3340 laryngeal cancers). The dose-response relationship between the risk and the joint exposure to drinking intensity and duration was investigated through bivariate regression spline models, adjusting for potential confounders, including tobacco smoking. RESULTS: For all subsites, cancer risk steeply increased with increasing drinks/day, with no appreciable threshold effect at lower intensities. For each intensity level, the risk of oral cavity, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers did not vary according to years of drinking, suggesting no effect of duration. For oropharyngeal cancer, the risk increased with durations up to 28 years, flattening thereafter. The risk peaked at the higher levels of intensity and duration for all subsites (odds ratio = 7.95 for oral cavity, 12.86 for oropharynx, 24.96 for hypopharynx and 6.60 for larynx). CONCLUSIONS: Present results further encourage the reduction of alcohol intensity to mitigate HNC risk.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 147(11): 3090-3101, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525569

RESUMO

A low intake of fruits and vegetables is a risk factor for gastric cancer, although there is uncertainty regarding the magnitude of the associations. In our study, the relationship between fruits and vegetables intake and gastric cancer was assessed, complementing a previous work on the association betweenconsumption of citrus fruits and gastric cancer. Data from 25 studies (8456 cases and 21 133 controls) with information on fruits and/or vegetables intake were used. A two-stage approach based on random-effects models was used to pool study-specific adjusted (sex, age and the main known risk factors for gastric cancer) odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Exposure-response relations, including linear and nonlinear associations, were modeled using one- and two-order fractional polynomials. Gastric cancer risk was lower for a higher intake of fruits (OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64-0.90), noncitrus fruits (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.73-1.02), vegetables (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.56-0.84), and fruits and vegetables (OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.49-0.75); results were consistent across sociodemographic and lifestyles categories, as well as study characteristics. Exposure-response analyses showed an increasingly protective effect of portions/day of fruits (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.57-0.73 for six portions), noncitrus fruits (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.61-0.83 for six portions) and vegetables (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.43-0.60 for 10 portions). A protective effect of all fruits, noncitrus fruits and vegetables was confirmed, supporting further dietary recommendations to decrease the burden of gastric cancer.

15.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(2): 172-177, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131660

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hospital-based studies recently have shown increases in colorectal cancer survival, and better survival for women, young people, and patients diagnosed at an early disease stage. OBJECTIVE: To describe the overall survival and analyze the prognostic factors of patients treated for colorectal cancer at an oncology center. METHODS: The analysis included patients diagnosed with colon and rectal adenocarcinoma between 2000 and 2013 and identified in the Hospital Cancer Registry at A.C.Camargo Cancer Center. Overall 5-year survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and prognostic factors were evaluated in a Cox regression model. Hazard ratios (HR) are reported with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Of 2,279 colorectal cancer cases analyzed, 58.4% were in the colon. The 5-year overall survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was 63.5% (65.6% and 60.6% for colonic and rectal malignancies, respectively). The risk of death was elevated for patients in the 50-74-year (HR=1.24, 95%CI =1.02-1.51) and ≥75-year (HR=3.02, 95%CI =2.42-3.78) age groups, for patients with rectal cancer (HR=1.37, 95%CI =1.11-1.69) and for those whose treatment was started >60 days after diagnosis (HR=1.22, 95%CI =1.04-1.43). The risk decreased for patients diagnosed in recent time periods (2005-2009 HR=0.76, 95%CI =0.63-0.91; 2010-2013 HR=0.69, 95%CI =0.57-0.83). CONCLUSION: Better survival of patients with colorectal cancer improves with early stage and started treatment within 60 days of diagnosis. Age over 70 years old was an independent factor predictive of a poor prognosis. The overall survival increased to all patients treated in the period 2000-2004 to 2010-2013.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Estudos hospitalares recentes têm demonstrado aumento da sobrevida do câncer colorretal e melhor sobrevida para mulheres, jovens e pacientes diagnosticados em estágio precoce da doença. OBJETIVO: Descrever a sobrevida global e analisar os fatores prognósticos de pacientes tratados para câncer colorretal em um centro de oncologia. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos pacientes com diagnóstico de adenocarcinoma de cólon e reto entre 2000 e 2013, identificados no Registro Hospitalar de Câncer do A.C.Camargo Cancer Center. A sobrevida global aos 5 anos foi estimada pelo método de Kaplan-Meier e os fatores prognósticos foram avaliados pelo modelo de Cox. As razões de risco (HR) são relatadas com intervalos de confiança (IC) de 95%. RESULTADOS: Dos 2.279 casos de câncer colorretal analisados, 58,4% eram de cólon. A taxa de sobrevida global aos 5 anos para pacientes com câncer colorretal foi de 63,5% (65,6% e 60,6% para câncer de cólon e retal, respectivamente). O risco de óbito foi elevado para pacientes na faixa etária de 50-74 anos (HR=1,24; IC95% =1,02-1,51) e ≥75 anos (HR=3,02; IC95% =2,42-3,78), para pacientes com câncer retal (HR=1,37; IC95% =1,11-1,69) e para aqueles cujo tratamento foi iniciado >60 dias após o diagnóstico (HR=1,22; IC95% =1,04-1,43). O risco diminuiu para pacientes diagnosticados em períodos recentes (2005-2009 HR=0,76; IC95% =0,63-0,91; 2010-2013 HR=0,69; IC95% =0,57-0,83). CONCLUSÃO: A sobrevida dos pacientes com câncer colorretal é maior naqueles em estágio inicial e com início do tratamento antes dos 60 dias.. Idade acima de 70 anos foi fator independente preditivo de mau prognóstico. A sobrevida global aumentou para todos os pacientes tratados no período de 2000-2004 a 2010-2013.

16.
Arch Oral Biol ; 116: 104746, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of in situ hybridization using E6/E7 mRNA probes to identify the frequency of high-risk HPV transcriptionally active and the use of HPV status as a prognostic biomarker in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). METHODS: Ninety-nine OCSCC samples were evaluated from Hospital Santa Rita de Cassia, Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio de Moraes and University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust. After tissue microarray construction, the slides were submitted to an in situ hybridization detection method for HPV E6/E7 mRNA. HPV status was designated a binary classification. Multiple logistic regression examined the association of HPV with clinical features and other risk factors, using SPSS® software. For all hypothesis tests, a significance level of p ≤ 0.05 was considered. RESULTS: HPV frequency in oral squamous cell carcinoma was 8%. There was no association between HPV and clinical variables and between the main prognostic features and known risk factors. There was no difference in the prevalence of HPV for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma by geography (Brazil vs UK). CONCLUSIONS: A low frequency of E6/E7 mRNA by RNA in situ hybridization was found in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, which supports the evidence that HPV-driven cancer of the oral cavity is uncommon.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus , RNA Mensageiro , Brasil , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Humanos , Hibridização In Situ , Papillomaviridae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , RNA Viral
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232871, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407339

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for the rise in the incidence of cancer in the oropharynx, tonsils, and base of the tongue (i.e., HPV-related subsites). HPV triggered the changes in the epidemiology of oropharyngeal and oral cavity cancer (OPC/OCC) in Asia, Europe, North America, and Oceania. Hence, the incidence of cancer in HPV-related subsites is augmenting, while that in other HPV-unrelated subsites is decreasing. In South America, although the incidence of HPV-positive tumors has gradually increased, there is an atypically low prevalence of HPV in people with OPC/OCC. To clarify whether this dramatic shift in incidence trends also occurred in this population, we estimated the burden of HPV on the incidence trends of OPCs/OCCs in São Paulo city in Brazil. In this population-based study, we categorized OPCs/OCCs by HPV-related and HPV-unrelated subsites. We used Poisson regression to assess the age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) stratified by sex and age groups, as well as to examine the age-period-cohort effects. There were 15,391 cases of OPCs/OCCs diagnosed in HPV-related (n = 5,898; 38.3%) and HPV-unrelated (n = 9,493; 61.7%) subsites. Overall, the ASRs decreased for most subsites, for both sexes and for all age groups, except for HPV-related OPC/OCC in young males and females, which increased by 3.8% and 8.6% per year, respectively. In the birth-cohort-effect analysis, we identified an increasing risk for HPV-related OPC/OCC in both sexes in recent birth cohorts; however, this risk was sharply decreased in HPV-unrelated subsites. Our data demonstrate an emerging risk for HPV-related OPC/OCC in young people, which supports prophylactic HPV vaccination in this group.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/virologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200022, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update findings of observational analytical studies on the association between occupational exposure to organophosphates and hematologic malignancies. METHODOLOGY: Systematic literature review, including cohort and case-control studies, without limitation of publication time, in Portuguese and English. The articles were traced from June 2017 to July 2019 in PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. The qualitative bias risk assessment was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Downs and Black Checklist. Results were presented according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). RESULTS: Seventeen studies evaluated as good/high methodological quality were eligible. Exposure to diazinon (1 cohort), phonophos (1 cohort), dichlorvos, crotoxiphos and famphur (1 case control) was associated with leukemia, while exposure to organophosphate was associated to lymphomas (6 case control); the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was higher in those exposed to diazinon (1 control case) and malathion (3 control case) than non-exposed ones. Multiple myeloma occurred more commonly in organophosphate exposed than in non-exposed individuals (1 case-control). CONCLUSION: Occupational exposure to organophosphates increases the risk of hematologic malignancies, especially among individuals with longer exposure periods. Worker monitoring and exposure control measures are recommended.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/complicações , Praguicidas/envenenamento , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e1507, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the overall survival (OS) and conditional survival (CS) in patients diagnosed with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to determine their survival trends. METHODS: The study included all consecutive patients treated at the A.C. Camargo Cancer Center for oral or oropharyngeal SCC between 2001 and 2012. Data were obtained from the Hospital Cancer Registry. OS and CS were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method to evaluate the probability of survival with Cox predictor models. RESULTS: Data of 505 oral and 380 oropharyngeal SCC patients obtained in 2001-2006 and 2007-2012 were analyzed. Most of the oral SCC (59%) and oropharyngeal SCC (90%) patients had stages III-IV SCC. The 5-year OS for patients with oral SCC was 51.7%, with no significant difference between the first and second periods. The CS rates in 2007-2012 were 65% after the first year and 86% up to the fifth year. For oropharyngeal SCC, the 5-year OS rate was 45.0% in the first period. The survival rate increased to 49.1% from 2007 to 2012, with a reduction in the risk of death (HR=0.69;0.52-09.2). The CS estimates from 2007 to 2012 were 59% after the first year and 75% up to the fifth year. CONCLUSION: Survival across the two time periods remained stable for oral SCC but showed a significant increase for oropharyngeal SCC, possibly because of improvements in the patients' response to radiotherapy, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, and the use of more accurate diagnostic imaging approaches.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Bucais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 486-499, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213095

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) incidence is high in South America, where recent data on survival are sparse. We investigated the main predictors of HNSCC survival in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Colombia. METHODS: Sociodemographic and lifestyle information was obtained from standardized interviews, and clinicopathologic data were extracted from medical records and pathologic reports. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Of 1,463 patients, 378 had a larynx cancer (LC), 78 hypopharynx cancer (HC), 599 oral cavity cancer (OC), and 408 oropharynx cancer (OPC). Most patients (55.5%) were diagnosed with stage IV disease, ranging from 47.6% for LC to 70.8% for OPC. Three-year survival rates were 56.0% for LC, 54.7% for OC, 48.0% for OPC, and 37.8% for HC. In multivariable models, patients with stage IV disease had approximately 7.6 (LC/HC), 11.7 (OC), and 3.5 (OPC) times higher mortality than patients with stage I disease. Current and former drinkers with LC or HC had approximately 2 times higher mortality than never-drinkers. In addition, older age at diagnosis was independently associated with worse survival for all sites. In a subset analysis of 198 patients with OPC with available human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 data, those with HPV-unrelated OPC had a significantly worse 3-year survival compared with those with HPV-related OPC (44.6% v 75.6%, respectively), corresponding to a 3.4 times higher mortality. CONCLUSION: Late stage at diagnosis was the strongest predictor of lower HNSCC survival. Early cancer detection and reduction of harmful alcohol use are fundamental to decrease the high burden of HNSCC in South America.

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