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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14276, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253798

RESUMO

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causal agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To date, viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2 have been reported in four bat species: Rhinolophus acuminatus, Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus malayanus, and Rhinolophus shameli. Here, we analysed 343 sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (CO1) from georeferenced bats of the four Rhinolophus species identified as reservoirs of viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2. Haplotype networks were constructed in order to investigate patterns of genetic diversity among bat populations of Southeast Asia and China. No strong geographic structure was found for the four Rhinolophus species, suggesting high dispersal capacity. The ecological niche of bat viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2 was predicted using the four localities in which bat viruses were recently discovered and the localities where bats showed the same CO1 haplotypes than virus-positive bats. The ecological niche of bat viruses related to SARS-CoV was deduced from the localities where bat viruses were previously detected. The results show that the ecological niche of bat viruses related to SARS-CoV2 includes several regions of mainland Southeast Asia whereas the ecological niche of bat viruses related to SARS-CoV is mainly restricted to China. In agreement with these results, human populations in Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand appear to be much less affected by the COVID-19 pandemic than other countries of Southeast Asia. In the climatic transitional zone between the two ecological niches (southern Yunnan, northern Laos, northern Vietnam), genomic recombination between highly divergent viruses is more likely to occur. Considering the limited data and the risk of recombinant bat-CoVs emergence as the source of new pandemics in humans, the bat populations in these regions should be under surveillance.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Filogeografia , Vírus/genética , Animais , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Vírus/patogenicidade
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13085, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158533

RESUMO

Monkeypox is an emerging infectious disease, which has a clinical presentation similar to smallpox. In the two past decades, Central Africa has seen an increase in the frequency of cases, with many monkeypox virus (MPXV) isolates detected in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the Central African Republic (CAR). To date, no complete MPXV viral genome has been published from the human cases identified in the CAR. The objective of this study was to sequence the full genome of 10 MPXV isolates collected during the CAR epidemics between 2001 and 2018 in order to determine their phylogenetic relationships among MPXV lineages previously described in Central Africa and West Africa. Our phylogenetic results indicate that the 10 CAR isolates belong to three lineages closely related to those found in DRC. The phylogenetic pattern shows that all of them emerged in the rainforest block of the Congo Basin. Since most human index cases in CAR occurred at the northern edge of western and eastern rainforests, transmissions from wild animals living in the rainforest is the most probable hypothesis. In addition, molecular dating estimates suggest that periods of intense political instability resulting in population movements within the country often associated also with increased poverty may have led to more frequent contact with host wild animals. The CAR socio-economic situation, armed conflicts and ecological disturbances will likely incite populations to interact more and more with wild animals and thus increase the risk of zoonotic spillover.


Assuntos
Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/genética , Varíola dos Macacos/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , República Centro-Africana/epidemiologia , Evolução Molecular , Genômica , Humanos , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Zoonoses/genética
3.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 161: 107170, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798669

RESUMO

Two types of domestic water buffalo are currently recognized: the river buffalo from the Indian subcontinent and Mediterranean countries and the swamp buffalo from China and Southeast Asia. To test the hypothesis of two separate species of water buffalo, we sequenced the genome of the lowland anoa, Bubalus depressicornis, which is a dwarf wild buffalo endemic to Sulawesi, and two genomes of swamp buffalo, and made comparisons with 12 additional genomes. Three genomic data sets were constructed to infer phylogenetic relationships: the mitochondrial genome (15,468 bp; maternal transmission), two concatenated Y-chromosomal genes, AMELY and DDX3Y (20,036 bp; paternal transmission), and a selection of 30 nuclear genes representing all cattle chromosomes (364,887 bp; biparental transmission). The comparisons between our 30 nuclear gene sequences obtained by read mapping and those directly extracted from Bos taurus and Bubalus bubalis genome assemblies show that the mapping approach revealed higher levels of heterozygosity at both nucleotide sites and indels (insertions and deletions) (0.09-0.15%), as well as several sequence errors (0.07%). Our phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses provide strong evidence that the lowland anoa, river buffalo, and swamp buffalo are three distinct taxa which separated rapidly from each other during the Pleistocene epoch. We therefore conclude that two species of domestic water buffalo should be distinguished: Bubalus bubalis for the river buffalo and Bubalus kerabau for the swamp buffalo. The new classification can have deep implications for understanding the evolution and selection of domesticated forms and for the conservation and management of wild buffalo populations in South and Southeast Asia.


Assuntos
Búfalos/genética , Genoma , Filogenia , Rios , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Búfalos/classificação , Bovinos , Feminino , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(1): 145-147, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537423

RESUMO

Here, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of 29 Egyptian river buffaloes collected in two breeding stations of Egypt. The genome is 16,357-16,359 base pairs in length and contains the 37 genes found in a typical mammalian genome. The overall base composition is A: 33.1%, C: 26.6%, G: 13.9%, and T: 26.4%. Our analyses confirm that the mitochondrial genomes of swamp and river buffaloes are divergent (mean nucleotide distance = 2.3%), and show that Indian river buffalo haplotypes cluster into three haplogroups, named RB1, RB2, and RB3 (mean distance = 0.25-0.26%) and that the 24 Egyptian buffalo haplotypes fall into RB1 (with the Bangladeshi, Chinese and Italian buffalo haplotypes) and RB2.

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