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1.
Biodivers Data J ; 7: e38492, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636503

RESUMO

Background: Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) are widespread in subterranean ecosystems worldwide and represent an important component of subterranean trophic webs. Yet, global-scale diversity patterns of subterranean spiders are still mostly unknown. In the frame of the CAWEB project, a European joint network of cave arachnologists, we collected data on cave-dwelling spider communities across Europe in order to explore their continental diversity patterns. Two main datasets were compiled: one listing all subterranean spider species recorded in numerous subterranean localities across Europe and another with high resolution data about the subterranean habitat in which they were collected. From these two datasets, we further generated a third dataset with individual geo-referenced occurrence records for all these species. New information: Data from 475 geo-referenced subterranean localities (caves, mines and other artificial subterranean sites, interstitial habitats) are herein made available. For each subterranean locality, information about the composition of the spider community is provided, along with local geomorphological and habitat features. Altogether, these communities account for > 300 unique taxonomic entities and 2,091 unique geo-referenced occurrence records, that are made available via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (Mammola and Cardoso 2019). This dataset is unique in that it covers both a large geographic extent (from 35° south to 67° north) and contains high-resolution local data on geomorphological and habitat features. Given that this kind of high-resolution data are rarely associated with broad-scale datasets used in macroecology, this dataset has high potential for helping researchers in tackling a range of biogeographical and macroecological questions, not necessarily uniquely related to arachnology or subterranean biology.

2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1914): 20191579, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662080

RESUMO

Macroecologists seek to identify drivers of community turnover (ß-diversity) through broad spatial scales. However, the influence of local habitat features in driving broad-scale ß-diversity patterns remains largely untested, owing to the objective challenges of associating local-scale variables to continental-framed datasets. We examined the relative contribution of local- versus broad-scale drivers of continental ß-diversity patterns, using a uniquely suited dataset of cave-dwelling spider communities across Europe (35-70° latitude). Generalized dissimilarity modelling showed that geographical distance, mean annual temperature and size of the karst area in which caves occurred drove most of ß-diversity, with differential contributions of each factor according to the level of subterranean specialization. Highly specialized communities were mostly influenced by geographical distance, while less specialized communities were mostly driven by mean annual temperature. Conversely, local-scale habitat features turned out to be meaningless predictors of community change, which emphasizes the idea of caves as the human accessible fraction of the extended network of fissures that more properly represents the elective habitat of the subterranean fauna. To the extent that the effect of local features turned to be inconspicuous, caves emerge as experimental model systems in which to study broad biological patterns without the confounding effect of local habitat features.

3.
J Biophotonics ; 12(12): e201900218, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452335

RESUMO

Modern document protection relies on the simultaneous combination of many optical features with micron and submicron structures, whose complexity is the main obstacle for unauthorized copying. In that sense, documents are best protected by the diffractive optical elements generated lithographically and mass-produced by embossing. The problem is that the resulting security elements are identical, facilitating mass-production of both original and counterfeited documents. Here, we prove that each butterfly wing-scale is structurally and optically unique and can be used as an inimitable optical memory tag and applied for document security. Wing-scales, exhibiting angular variability of their color, were laser-cut and bleached to imprint cryptographic information of an authorized issuer. The resulting optical memory tag is extremely durable, as verified by several century-old insect specimens still retaining their coloration. The described technique is simple, amenable to mass-production, low cost and easy to integrate within the existing security infrastructure.

4.
Arthropod Struct Dev ; 49: 1-9, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710632

RESUMO

We investigated morphometric variation in size and shape of the head, pronotum, and abdomen between the taxa and sexes of two ground beetles, Carabus coriaceus cerisyi Dejean, 1826 and C. kollari praecellens Palliardi, 1825. These two taxa differ in overall size, and both of them are characterized by significant sexual size dimorphism. In many taxa, allometry, the relationship between changes in shape and changes in size, can be a major component of intra- and interspecific variation in body shape. In the present study, we applied landmark-based geometric morphometrics to explore allometric and non-allometric components of shape variation between the taxa and more importantly between sexes within the taxa. We were able to show that the differences of shape between the taxa cannot be explained by allometric changes, as allometry explains only a small amount of total shape variation between the taxa, which was expected due to the fact that the taxa belong to separate subgenera. Between the sexes, on the other hand, allometry contributes largely to the variation, particularly in abdomen shape. However, the differences of head and pronotum shape between the sexes cannot be entirely explained in terms of allometric scaling. Our results indicate that allometry contributes largely to differences of body shape between the sexes, while differences between the taxa are influenced by other factors and processes.


Assuntos
Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
5.
J Therm Biol ; 76: 126-138, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143287

RESUMO

The insect cuticle serves a multitude of purposes, including: mechanical and thermal protection, water-repelling, acoustic signal absorption and coloration. The influence of cuticular structures on infrared radiation exchange and thermal balance is still largely unexplored. Here we report on the micro- and nanostructured setae covering the elytra of the longicorn beetle Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) that help the insect to survive in hot, summer environments. In the visible part of the spectrum, scale-like setae, covering the black patches of the elytra, efficiently absorb light due to the radiation trap effect. In the infrared part of the spectrum, setae of the whole elytra significantly contribute to the radiative heat exchange. From the biological point of view, insect elytra facilitate camouflage, enable rapid heating to the optimum body temperature and prevent overheating by emitting excess thermal energy.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto/química , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Temperatura Alta , Luz , Modelos Biológicos , Termografia
6.
Naturwissenschaften ; 104(5-6): 52, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28584964

RESUMO

The antifungal potential of the pygidial gland secretion of the troglophilic ground beetle Laemostenus punctatus from a cave in Southeastern Serbia against cave-dwelling micromycetes, isolated from the same habitat, has been investigated. Eleven collected samples were analyzed and 32 isolates of cave-dwelling fungi were documented. A total of 14 fungal species were identified as members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Arthrinium, Aureobasidium, Epicoccum, Talaromyces, and Fusarium. Five isolates were selected for testing the antifungal activity of the pygidial gland secretion: Talaromyces duclauxi, Aspergillus brunneouniseriatus, Penicillium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, and Trichoderma viride. The microdilution method has been applied to detect minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). The most sensitive isolate was Penicillium sp., while the other isolates demonstrated a high level of resistance to the tested agent. L. punctatus has developed a special mechanism of producing specific compounds that act synergistically within the secretion mixture, which are responsible for the antifungal action against pathogens from the cave. The results open opportunities for further research in the field of ground beetle defense against pathogens, which could have an important application in human medicine, in addition to the environmental impact, primarily.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Besouros/química , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Secreções Corporais/química , Secreções Corporais/microbiologia , Cavernas , Besouros/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sérvia
7.
Phys Rev E ; 95(3-1): 032405, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28415223

RESUMO

Here we report how interference and scattering-enhanced absorption act together to produce the golden wing patches of the burnished brass moth. The key mechanism is scattering on rough internal surfaces of the wing scales, accompanied by a large increase of absorption in the UV-blue spectral range. Unscattered light interferes and efficiently reflects from the multilayer composed of the scales and the wing membranes. The resulting spectrum is remarkably similar to the spectrum of metallic gold. Subwavelength morphology and spectral and absorptive properties of the wings are described. Theories of subwavelength surface scattering and local intensity enhancement are used to quantitatively explain the observed reflectance spectrum.


Assuntos
Cor , Mariposas , Asas de Animais , Animais , Microscopia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Modelos Biológicos , Mariposas/anatomia & histologia , Mariposas/efeitos da radiação , Espalhamento de Radiação , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/efeitos da radiação
8.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 101(3): 977-985, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28070663

RESUMO

Recently, various insect secretions have been tested as possible antimicrobial agents. In beetles, these secretions are essentially products of various exocrine glands, of which particular emphasis is on pygidial glands that are common for the suborder Adephaga. The antimicrobial potential of the pygidial gland secretion isolated from the adults of Calosoma sycophanta against human pathogens has been tested and compared with the potential of other carabid species, particularly within the tribe Carabini. The antimicrobial assay includes a microdilution method which was applied in order to determine the minimal inhibitory, minimal fungicidal and minimal bactericidal concentrations. It has been tested the effect of the secretion against eight strains of fungal and eight strains of bacterial species. The secretion sample of the tested carabid species has shown statistically significant antifungal effect against all strains of treated micromycetes, the highest in comparison with previously tested carabids (Carabus spp., Laemostenus punctatus and Abax parallelepipedus). Aspergillus versicolor proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while the remaining seven fungal strains have shown the same level of sensibility. In comparison with commercial mycotics ketoconazole and bifonazole, applied as positive controls, the tested secretion showed much higher antifungal activity for all fungal strains. Antibacterial effect has been manifested only against one bacterial strain (Escherichia coli), contrary to other previously studied carabid species. These observations might have a significant impact on the ecological domain and possible purpose in biomedical studies and applications in the future. Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands of C. sycophanta is investigated and discussed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Besouros/metabolismo , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Exócrinas/metabolismo , Glândulas Exócrinas/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
9.
Naturwissenschaften ; 103(3-4): 34, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27000261

RESUMO

The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens--eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Besouros/fisiologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Besouros/química , Glândulas Exócrinas/metabolismo
10.
Zootaxa ; 4026: 1-97, 2015 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26624164

RESUMO

A checklist of all taxa of the family Cerambycidae (longhorn beetles) from Serbia is presented. The checklist is based on compilation of data gathered both from authors and available literature published up to now. A total of 265 species and 92 subspecies belonging to 109 genera, 48 tribes, and six subfamilies are recorded for Serbia. However, the presence of 28 species listed in Serbia may be questionable. Known distribution and biology of Serbian taxa are provided. The diversity of the fauna of longhorn beetles in Serbia is compared with the surrounding areas in the Balkan Peninsula.


Assuntos
Besouros/classificação , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Lista de Checagem , Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Sérvia
11.
Zootaxa ; 4034(1): 197-200, 2015 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26624439

RESUMO

The genus Tapinopterus Schaum, 1858 currently comprises around 60 species belonging to eight subgenera, inhabiting mostly the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor (Schatzmayr 1942, 1943; Bousquet 2003; Curcic et al. 2008; Arndt et al. 2011; Lohaj et al. 2012). The taxa live in limited geographic areas and are mostly montane (Trautner & Geigenmüller 1987; Guéorguiev & Guéorguiev 1998). The territory of Serbia is inhabited by two species of Tapinopterus, T. (T.) cognatus (Dejean, 1831) (recorded in Bulgaria and Romania as well) and T. (T.) miridita (Apfelbeck, 1904) (recorded in Albania and the Republic of Macedonia as well), as well as by the three subspecies, T. (T.) cognatus cognatus (Dejean, 1831) (known from Mt. Suva Planina in Serbia and from Bulgaria), T. (T.) cognatus winkleri Mandl, 1936 (known from the Svrljiske Planine Mts. and Mt. Stara Planina in both Serbia and Bulgaria), and T. (T.) miridita miridita (Apfelbeck, 1904) (known from Mt. Sar Planina in both Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia), respectively (Mandl 1936; Schatzmayr 1942, 1943; Guéorguiev & Guéorguiev 1995; Drovenik & Peks 1999; Bousquet 2003; Curcic et al. 2007; Guéorguiev & Giachino 2008). In our opinion, T. (T.) cognatus cognatus does not live in Bulgaria (as was previously reported) (Bousquet 2003), while the older Schatzmayr's (1943) record "Klisura" should refer to the Iron Gate Gorge in SW Romania and NE Serbia, not to any Bulgarian place. The other mentioned locality, i.e., Mt. Suva Planina in Serbia, is situated far from the type locality (Iron Gate). Since nearly all Tapinopterus taxa are regional or local endemics, this southernmost record in SE Serbia for T. cognatus cognatus seems unlikely. In view of the high diversity of Tapinopterus on the Balkan Peninsula, it is expected that new taxa exist in border areas of the distribution in Serbia. During the last years, the first (SC), second (NI) and fourth author (DA) of the paper investigated a number of epigean montane habitats in SE and C Serbia in order to confirm such an assumption, by collecting a series of ground beetles at high altitude sites. After careful examination of the samples, we identified two Tapinopterus subspecies new to science.


Assuntos
Besouros/classificação , Altitude , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Sérvia
12.
Zookeys ; (509): 123-39, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26175606

RESUMO

Two new ground beetle subspecies, Omphreus (Omphreus) moriosandelissp. n. (from Mts. Zelengora and Maglic, eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Omphreus (Omphreus) moriodurmitorensisssp. n. (from Mt. Durmitor, northwestern Montenegro) are here described and diagnosed. The male and female genitalia and other taxonomically important characters are illustrated. The new taxa are distinctly different from the nearest relatives and represent both endemics and relicts inhabiting limited high-altitude Dinaric areas in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro. A key to Omphreus taxa from Montenegro and a key to subspecies of Omphreus (Omphreus) morio Dejean, 1828 are presented.

13.
J Chem Ecol ; 41(6): 533-9, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26044390

RESUMO

Three adult cave-dwelling ground beetle species were induced to discharge secretions of their pygidial glands into vials. Dichloromethane extraction was used to obtain the secretions. In total, 42 compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis. Pheggomisetes ninae contained 32 glandular compounds, Laemostenus (Pristonychus) punctatus 13, whereas Duvalius (Paraduvalius) milutini had nine compounds. Caproic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids were present in the samples of all analyzed species. Undecane was predominant in the extract of L. punctatus. Palmitic acid was the major component in the secretion of D. milutini. Finally, the most abundant compounds in P. ninae secretion were heptacosene and nonacosadienes. Herein, we present the first data on the identification of pygidial gland secretion components in both troglophilous and troglobite cave-dwelling ground beetles. Some compounds are reported for the first time in the secretions of ground beetles and other higher or lower taxa. The adaptation to underground life has not led to a reduction or changes in the chemical defense mechanism in the analyzed troglophilous and troglobitic Platyninae and Trechinae taxa.


Assuntos
Besouros/química , Ecossistema , Animais , Cavernas , Glândulas Exócrinas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
14.
Zootaxa ; 3937(2): 393-400, 2015 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25947478

RESUMO

A new leptodirine leiodid beetle species, Pholeuonopsis (Pholeuonopsis) sljivovicensis sp. n., from a cave in western Serbia is described and diagnosed. The views of both male and female genitalia and other taxonomically important characters are imaged. The new species is clearly distinct from the closest relatives. It probably belongs to an old phyletic lineage of Mesogeid origin, like other known Pholeuonopsis taxa from the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. The new species is both an endemic and a relict inhabiting solely western Serbia. Morphological comparisons among the Serbian Pholeuonopsis species are provided, together with a key to the species. The genus Serbopholeuonopsis B. Curcic & Boskova, 2002 is regarded as a junior synonym of the genus Pholeuonopsis Apfelbeck, 1901.


Assuntos
Besouros/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Sérvia
15.
J Biomed Opt ; 20(1): 016010, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25574994

RESUMO

We performed a study of the nonlinear optical properties of chemically purified chitin and insect cuticle using two-photon excited autofluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. Excitation spectrum, fluorescence time, polarization sensitivity, and bleaching speed were measured. We have found that the maximum autofluorescence signal requires an excitation wavelength below 850 nm. At longer wavelengths, we were able to penetrate more than 150-um deep into the sample through the chitinous structures. The excitation power was kept below 10 mW (at the sample) in order to diminish bleaching. The SHG from the purified chitin was confirmed by spectral- and time-resolved measurements. Two cave-dwelling, depigmented, insect species were analyzed and three-dimensional images of the cuticular structures were obtained.


Assuntos
Quitina/química , Besouros/química , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/instrumentação , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/métodos , Animais , Artrópodes/química , Cavernas , Desenho de Equipamento , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Dinâmica não Linear
16.
Microsc Res Tech ; 75(7): 968-76, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22392855

RESUMO

Apatura ilia (Denis and Schiffermüller, 1775) and A. iris (Linnaeus, 1758) are fascinating butterflies found in the Palaearctic ecozone (excepting the north of Africa). The wings of these insects are covered with a great number of two types of scales positioned like roof tiles. Type I scales are on the surface, while type II scales are situated below them. The structural color of the type I scales is recognized only on the dorsal side of both the fore and hind wings of the males of the aforementioned species. Both types of scales are responsible for pigment color of the wings, but iridescence is observed only in the type I scales. The brilliant structural color is due to a multilayer structure. The features of the scales, their dimensions and fine structure were obtained using scanning electron microscopy. Cross sections of the scales were then analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The scales of the "normal" and clytie forms of A. ilia have a different nanostructure, but are of the same type. A similar type of structure, but with a different morphology, was also noticed in A. iris. The scales of the analyzed species resemble the scales of tropical Morpho butterflies.


Assuntos
Borboletas/ultraestrutura , Asas de Animais/ultraestrutura , África , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura
17.
J Chem Ecol ; 37(12): 1358-64, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22101549

RESUMO

Three European julid species, Cylindroiulus boleti, Leptoiulus trilineatus, and Megaphyllum bosniense, secrete mixtures of up to 12 different quinones. The major components in these species are 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone and 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone. 2-Methoxy-5-methylhydroquinone is detected for the first time in the Class Diplopoda. 2-Hydroxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, 2,3-dimethoxyhydroquinone, 2-methyl-3,4-methylendioxyphenol, and 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methylhydroquinone are registered for the first time in representatives of the family Julidae. The similar chemical composition of defense secretions in all analyzed European julids and Pacific spirobolids supports the idea of the chemical consistency of defensive compounds in juliform millipedes.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/química , Quinonas/química , Animais , Feminino , Ionização de Chama , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Sérvia , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Chem Biodivers ; 8(7): 1284-9, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21766449

RESUMO

The small millipede Callipodella fasciata secretes an earthy smell when disturbed. This secretion was obtained by CH(2) Cl(2) extraction from specimens of both sexes and was identified by GC/MS analyses to be composed of p-cresol (96.5%), phenol (3.5%), and p-ethylphenol (traces). This is the first identification of these compounds in an epigean European callipodidan species and the first report of intergeneric differences in the chemical composition of defensive secretions in callipodidans. These compounds have repellent, antimicrobial, and antifungal properties.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/química , Cresóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Masculino
19.
Opt Express ; 19(7): 5817-26, 2011 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21451606

RESUMO

The iridescent features of the butterfly species Apatura iris (Linnaeus, 1758) and A. ilia (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) were studied. We recognized the structural color of scales only on the dorsal side of both the fore and hind wings of males of both of the aforementioned butterfly species. The scale dimensions and microstructure were analyzed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The optical properties were measured and it was found that the peak reflectivity is around 380 nm, with a spectral width (full width at half maximum) of approximately 50 nm in both species. The angular selectivity is high and a purple iridescent color is observed within the angular range of only 18 degrees in both species.


Assuntos
Borboletas/fisiologia , Borboletas/ultraestrutura , Animais , Refratometria
20.
J Chem Ecol ; 36(9): 978-82, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20809146

RESUMO

Nine compounds were detected in three different millipede species: Polydesmus complanatus (L.), Brachydesmus (Stylobrachydesmus) avalae Curcic & Makarov, and Brachydesmus (Stylobrachydesmus) dadayi Verhoeff. Benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, benzoylnitrile, benzyl methyl ketone, benzoic acid, benzyl ethyl ketone, mandelonitrile, and mandelonitrile benzoate were identified by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. Hydrogen cyanide was detected qualitatively by the picric acid test. Benzyl ethyl ketone, benzyl methyl ketone, and benzyl alcohol were detected for the first time in polydesmidan millipedes. Benzoylnitrile was the major component in all three hexane extracts. These compounds are suspected to be active in the defensive secretions of these millipede species.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos/metabolismo , Animais , Artrópodes/fisiologia , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Masculino , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade da Espécie
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