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1.
Evol Appl ; 15(4): 663-678, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505892

RESUMO

The contribution of domestic cattle in human societies is enormous, making cattle, along with other essential benefits, the economically most important domestic animal in the world today. To expand existing knowledge on cattle domestication and mitogenome diversity, we performed a comprehensive complete mitogenome analysis of the species (802 sequences, 114 breeds). A large sample was collected in South-east Europe, an important agricultural gateway to Europe during Neolithization and a region rich in cattle biodiversity. We found 1725 polymorphic sites (810 singletons, 853 parsimony-informative sites and 57 indels), 701 unique haplotypes, a haplotype diversity of 0.9995 and a nucleotide diversity of 0.0015. In addition to the dominant T3 and several rare haplogroups (Q, T5, T4, T2 and T1), we have identified maternal line in Austrian Murbodner cattle that possess surviving aurochs' mitochondria haplotype P1 that diverged prior to the Neolithization process. This is convincing evidence for rare female-mediated adaptive introgression of wild aurochs into domesticated cattle in Europe. We revalidated the existing haplogroup classification and provided Bayesian phylogenetic inference with a more precise estimated divergence time than previously available. Occasionally, classification based on partial mitogenomes was not reliable; for example, some individuals with haplogroups P and T5 were not recognized based on D-loop information. Bayesian skyline plot estimates (median) show that the earliest population growth began before domestication in cattle with haplogroup T2, followed by Q (~10.0-9.5 kyBP), whereas cattle with T3 (~7.5 kyBP) and T1 (~3.0-2.5 kyBP) expanded later. Overall, our results support the existence of interactions between aurochs and cattle during domestication and dispersal of cattle in the past, contribute to the conservation of maternal cattle diversity and enable functional analyses of the surviving aurochs P1 mitogenome.

2.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(2)2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893856

RESUMO

Domestic sheep and their wild relatives harbor substantial genetic variants that can form the backbone of molecular breeding, but their genome landscapes remain understudied. Here, we present a comprehensive genome resource for wild ovine species, landraces and improved breeds of domestic sheep, comprising high-coverage (∼16.10×) whole genomes of 810 samples from 7 wild species and 158 diverse domestic populations. We detected, in total, ∼121.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, ∼61 million of which are novel. Some display significant (P < 0.001) differences in frequency between wild and domestic species, or are private to continent-wide or individual sheep populations. Retained or introgressed wild gene variants in domestic populations have contributed to local adaptation, such as the variation in the HBB associated with plateau adaptation. We identified novel and previously reported targets of selection on morphological and agronomic traits such as stature, horn, tail configuration, and wool fineness. We explored the genetic basis of wool fineness and unveiled a novel mutation (chr25: T7,068,586C) in the 3'-UTR of IRF2BP2 as plausible causal variant for fleece fiber diameter. We reconstructed prehistorical migrations from the Near Eastern domestication center to South-and-Southeast Asia and found two main waves of migrations across the Eurasian Steppe and the Iranian Plateau in the Early and Late Bronze Ages. Our findings refine our understanding of genome variation as shaped by continental migrations, introgression, adaptation, and selection of sheep.


Assuntos
Genoma , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética
3.
Curr Biol ; 30(20): 4085-4095.e6, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822607

RESUMO

The domestication and subsequent global dispersal of livestock are crucial events in human history, but the migratory episodes during the history of livestock remain poorly documented [1-3]. Here, we first developed a set of 493 novel ovine SNPs of the male-specific region of Y chromosome (MSY) by genome mapping. We then conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, and whole-genome sequence variations in a large number of 595 rams representing 118 domestic populations across the world. We detected four different paternal lineages of domestic sheep and resolved, at the global level, their paternal origins and differentiation. In Northern European breeds, several of which have retained primitive traits (e.g., a small body size and short or thin tails), and fat-tailed sheep, we found an overrepresentation of MSY lineages y-HC and y-HB, respectively. Using an approximate Bayesian computation approach, we reconstruct the demographic expansions associated with the segregation of primitive and fat-tailed phenotypes. These results together with archaeological evidence and historical data suggested the first expansion of early domestic hair sheep and the later expansion of fat-tailed sheep occurred ∼11,800-9,000 years BP and ∼5,300-1,700 years BP, respectively. These findings provide important insights into the history of migration and pastoralism of sheep across the Old World, which was associated with different breeding goals during the Neolithic agricultural revolution.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Variação Genética/genética , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico/classificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
Genet Sel Evol ; 52(1): 39, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulation of detrimental mutations in small populations leads to inbreeding depression of fitness traits and a higher frequency of genetic defects, thus increasing risk of extinction. Our objective was to quantify the magnitude of inbreeding depression for survival at birth, in a closed rabbit population under long-term selection. METHODS: We used an information theory-based approach and multi-model inference to estimate inbreeding depression and its purging with respect to the trait 'kit survival at birth' over a 25-year period in a closed population of Pannon White rabbits, by analysing 22,718 kindling records. Generalised linear mixed models based on the logit link function were applied, which take polygenic random effects into account. RESULTS: Our results indicated that inbreeding depression occurred during the period 1992-1997, based on significant estimates of the z-standardised classical inbreeding coefficient z.FL (CI95% - 0.12 to - 0.03) and of the new inbreeding coefficient of the litter z.FNEWL (CI95% - 0.13 to - 0.04) as well as a 59.2% reduction in contributing founders. Inbreeding depression disappeared during the periods 1997-2007 and 2007-2017. For the period 1992-1997, the best model resulted in a significantly negative standardised estimate of the new inbreeding coefficient of the litter and a significantly positive standardised estimate of Kalinowski's ancestral inbreeding coefficient of the litter (CI95% 0.01 to 0.17), which indicated purging of detrimental load. Kindling season and parity had effects on survival at birth that differed across the three periods of 1992-1997, 1997-2007 and 2007-2017. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the existence of inbreeding depression and its purging with respect to kit survival at birth in this Pannon White rabbit population. However, we were unable to exclude possible confounding from the effects of parity and potentially other environmental factors during the study period, thus our results need to be extended and confirmed in other populations.


Assuntos
Endogamia , Coelhos/genética , Seleção Genética , Animais , Biomassa , Aptidão Genética , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Acúmulo de Mutações , Coelhos/fisiologia
5.
Genet Sel Evol ; 52(1): 25, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Neolithic, domestic sheep migrated into Europe and subsequently spread in westerly and northwesterly directions. Reconstruction of these migrations and subsequent genetic events requires a more detailed characterization of the current phylogeographic differentiation. RESULTS: We collected 50 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profiles of Balkan sheep that are currently found near the major Neolithic point of entry into Europe, and combined these data with published genotypes from southwest-Asian, Mediterranean, central-European and north-European sheep and from Asian and European mouflons. We detected clines, ancestral components and admixture by using variants of common analysis tools: geography-informative supervised principal component analysis (PCA), breed-specific admixture analysis, across-breed [Formula: see text] profiles and phylogenetic analysis of regional pools of breeds. The regional Balkan sheep populations exhibit considerable genetic overlap, but are clearly distinct from the breeds in surrounding regions. The Asian mouflon did not influence the differentiation of the European domestic sheep and is only distantly related to present-day sheep, including those from Iran where the mouflons were sampled. We demonstrate the occurrence, from southeast to northwest Europe, of a continuously increasing ancestral component of up to 20% contributed by the European mouflon, which is assumed to descend from the original Neolithic domesticates. The overall patterns indicate that the Balkan region and Italy served as post-domestication migration hubs, from which wool sheep reached Spain and north Italy with subsequent migrations northwards. The documented dispersal of Tarentine wool sheep during the Roman period may have been part of this process. Our results also reproduce the documented 18th century admixture of Spanish Merino sheep into several central-European breeds. CONCLUSIONS: Our results contribute to a better understanding of the events that have created the present diversity pattern, which is relevant for the management of the genetic resources represented by the European sheep population.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Península Balcânica , Cruzamento/métodos , Domesticação , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Filogenia , Filogeografia/métodos
6.
Front Genet ; 11: 261, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296459

RESUMO

The majority of the nearly 400 existing local pig breeds are adapted to specific environments and human needs. The demand for large production quantities and the industrialized pig production have caused a rapid decline of many local pig breeds in recent decades. Black Slavonian pig and Turopolje pig, the latter highly threatened, are the two Croatian local indigenous breeds typically grown in extensive or semi-intensive systems. In order to guide a long-term breeding program to prevent the disappearance of these breeds, we analyzed their genetic diversity, inbreeding level and relationship with other local breeds across the world, as well as modern breeds and several wild populations, using high throughput genomic data obtained using the Illumina Infinium PorcineSNP60 v2 BeadChip. Multidimensional scaling analysis positioned Black Slavonian pigs close to the UK/North American breeds, while the Turopolje pig clustered within the Mediterranean breeds. Turopolje pig showed a very high inbreeding level (FROH > 4 Mb = 0.400 and FROH > 8 Mb = 0.332) that considerably exceeded the level of full-sib mating, while Black Slavonian pig showed much lower inbreeding (FROH > 4 Mb = 0.098 and FROH > 8 Mb = 0.074), indicating a planned mating strategy. In Croatian local breeds we identified several genome regions showing adaptive selection signals that were not present in commercial breeds. The results obtained in this study reflect the current genetic status and breeding management of the two Croatian indigenous local breeds. Given the small populations of both breeds, a controlled management activity has been implemented in Black Slavonian pigs since their commercial value has been recognized. In contrast, the extremely high inbreeding level observed in Turopolje pig argues for an urgent conservation plan with a long-term, diversity-oriented breeding program.

7.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 79, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tibetan Terrier is a popular medium-sized companion dog breed. According to the history of the breed, the western population of Tibetan Terriers includes two lineages, Lamleh and Luneville. These two lineages derive from a small number of founder animals from the native Tibetan Terrier population, which were brought to Europe in the 1920s. For almost a century, the western population of Tibetan Terriers and the native population in Tibet were reproductively isolated. In this study, we analysed the structure of the western population of Tibetan Terriers, the original native population from Tibet and of different crosses between these two populations. We also examined the genetic relationships of Tibetan Terriers with other dog breeds, especially terriers and some Asian breeds, and the within-breed structure of both Tibetan Terrier populations. RESULTS: Our analyses were based on high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array (Illumina HD Canine 170 K) and microsatellite (18 loci) genotypes of 64 Tibetan Terriers belonging to different populations and lineages. For the comparative analysis, we used 348 publicly available SNP array genotypes of dogs from other breeds. We found that the western population of Tibetan Terriers and the native Tibetan Terriers clustered together with other Asian dog breeds, whereas all other terrier breeds were grouped into a separate group. We were also able to differentiate the western Tibetan Terrier lineages (Lamleh and Luneville) from the native Tibetan Terrier population. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal the relationships between the western and native populations of Tibetan Terriers and support the hypothesis that Tibetan Terrier belongs to the group of ancient dog breeds of Asian origin, which are close to the ancestors of the modern dog that were involved in the early domestication process. Thus, we were able to reject the initial hypothesis that Tibetan Terriers belong to the group of terrier breeds. The existence of this native population of Tibetan Terriers at its original location represents an exceptional and valuable genetic resource.


Assuntos
Cães/genética , Genética Populacional , Animais , Cruzamento , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tibet
8.
Front Genet ; 10: 537, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214253

RESUMO

Genetic characterization of African goats is one of the current priorities in the improvement of goats in the continent. This study contributes to the characterization effort by determining the levels and number of generations to common ancestors ("age") associated with inbreeding in African goat breeds and identifies regions that contain copy number variation mistyped as being homozygous. Illumina 50k single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data for 608 goats from 31 breeds were used to compute the level and age of inbreeding at both local (marker) and global levels (FG) using a model-based approach based on a hidden Markov model. Runs of homozygosity (ROH) segments detected using the Viterbi algorithm led to ROH-based inbreeding coefficients for all ROH (FROH) and for ROH longer than 2 Mb (FROH > 2Mb). Some of the genomic regions identified as having ROH are likely to be hemizygous regions (copy number deletions) mistyped as homozygous regions. Although the proportion of these miscalled ROH is small and does not substantially affect estimates of levels of inbreeding for individual animals, the inbreeding metrics were adjusted by removing these regions from the ROH. All the inbreeding metrics varied widely across breeds, with overall means of 0.0408, 0.0370, and 0.0691 and medians of 0.0125, 0.0098, and 0.0366 for FROH, FROH > 2Mb, and FG, respectively. Several breeds (including Menabe and Sofia from Madagascar) had high proportions of recent inbreeding, while Small East African, Ethiopian, and most of the West African breeds (including West African Dwarf) had more ancient inbreeding.

9.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 167, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide prediction has become the method of choice in animal and plant breeding. Prediction of breeding values and phenotypes are routinely performed using large genomic data sets with number of markers on the order of several thousands to millions. The number of evaluated individuals is usually smaller which results in problems where model sparsity is of major concern. The LASSO technique has proven to be very well-suited for sparse problems often providing excellent prediction accuracy. Several computationally efficient LASSO algorithms have been developed, but optimization of hyper-parameters can be demanding. RESULTS: We have developed a novel automatic adaptive LASSO (AUTALASSO) based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) optimization algorithm. The two major hyper-parameters of ADMM are the learning rate and the regularization factor. The learning rate is automatically tuned with line search and the regularization factor optimized using Golden section search. Results show that AUTALASSO provides superior prediction accuracy when evaluated on simulated and real bull data compared to the adaptive LASSO, LASSO and ridge regression implemented in the popular glmnet software. CONCLUSIONS: The AUTALASSO provides a very flexible and computationally efficient approach to GWP, especially when it is important to obtain high prediction accuracy and genetic gain. The AUTALASSO also has the capability to perform GWAS of both additive and dominance effects with smaller prediction error than the ordinary LASSO.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Genômica/métodos , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Genoma , Software
10.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 65(3): 421-424, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148506

RESUMO

The Slovak Pinzgau breed faces the bottleneck effect and the loss of diversity due to unequal use of founders and a significant population decline. Further population size reduction can lead to serious problems. Information obtained here and in other studies from high-throughput genotyping of 179 individuals was used to characterise genetic diversity and differentiation of Slovak Pinzgau, Austrian Pinzgau, Cika and Piedmontese cattle by Bayesian clustering algorithm. A gene flow network for the clusters estimated from admixture results was produced. The low estimate of genetic differentiation (FST) in Pinzgau cattle populations indicated that differentiation among these populations is low, particularly owing to a common historical origin and high gene flow. Changes in the log marginal likelihood indicated Austrian Pinzgau as the most similar breed to Slovak Pinzgau. All populations except the Piedmontese one displayed two ways of gene flow among populations, indicating that Piedmontese cattle was involved in producing of the analysed breeds while these breeds were not involved in creation of Piedmontese. Genetic evaluation represents an important tool in breeding and cattle selection. It is more strategically important than ever to preserve as much of the livestock diversity as possible, to ensure a prompt and proper response to the needs of future generations. Information provided by the fine-scale genetic characterization of this study clearly shows that there is a difference in genetic composition of Slovak and Austrian populations, as well as the Cika and Piedmontese cattle. Despite its population size, the Slovak Pinzgau cattle have a potential to serve as a basic gene reserve of this breed, with European and world-wide importance.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Variação Genética , Algoritmos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Fluxo Gênico , Genótipo
11.
Genet Sel Evol ; 50(1): 43, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Runs of homozygosity (ROH) islands are stretches of homozygous sequence in the genome of a large proportion of individuals in a population. Algorithms for the detection of ROH depend on the similarity of haplotypes. Coverage gaps and copy number variants (CNV) may result in incorrect identification of such similarity, leading to the detection of ROH islands where none exists. Misidentified hemizygous regions will also appear as homozygous based on sequence variation alone. Our aim was to identify ROH islands influenced by marker coverage gaps or CNV, using Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (777 K) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for Austrian Brown Swiss, Tyrol Grey and Pinzgauer cattle. METHODS: ROH were detected using clustering, and ROH islands were determined from population inbreeding levels for each marker. CNV were detected using a multivariate copy number analysis method and a hidden Markov model. SNP coverage gaps were defined as genomic regions with intermarker distances on average longer than 9.24 kb. ROH islands that overlapped CNV regions (CNVR) or SNP coverage gaps were considered as potential artefacts. Permutation tests were used to determine if overlaps between CNVR with copy losses and ROH islands were due to chance. Diversity of the haplotypes in the ROH islands was assessed by haplotype analyses. RESULTS: In Brown Swiss, Tyrol Grey and Pinzgauer, we identified 13, 22, and 24 ROH islands covering 26.6, 389.0 and 35.8 Mb, respectively, and we detected 30, 50 and 71 CNVR derived from CNV by using both algorithms, respectively. Overlaps between ROH islands, CNVR or coverage gaps occurred for 7, 14 and 16 ROH islands, respectively. About 37, 44 and 52% of the ROH islands coverage in Brown Swiss, Tyrol Grey and Pinzgauer, respectively, were affected by copy loss. Intersections between ROH islands and CNVR were small, but significantly larger compared to ROH islands at random locations across the genome, implying an association between ROH islands and CNVR. Haplotype diversity for reliable ROH islands was lower than for ROH islands that intersected with copy loss CNVR. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that a significant proportion of the ROH islands in the bovine genome are artefacts due to CNV or SNP coverage gaps.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Técnicas de Genotipagem/normas , Homozigoto , Animais , Haplótipos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 100(6): 4721-4730, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28434751

RESUMO

Inbreeding depression is known to affect quantitative traits such as male fertility and sperm quality, but the genetic basis for these associations is poorly understood. Most studies have been limited to examining how pedigree- or marker-derived genome-wide autozygosity is associated with quantitative phenotypes. In this study, we analyzed possible associations of genetic features of inbreeding depression with percentage of live spermatozoa and total number of spermatozoa in 19,720 ejaculates obtained from 554 Austrian Fleckvieh bulls during routine artificial insemination programs. Genome-wide inbreeding depression was estimated and genomic regions contributing to inbreeding depression were mapped. Inbreeding depression did affect total number of spermatozoa, and such depression was predicted by pedigree-based inbreeding levels and genome-wide inbreeding levels based on runs of homozygosity (ROH). Genome-wide inbreeding depression did not seem to affect percentage of live spermatozoa. A model incorporating genetic effects of the bull, environmental factors, and additive genetic and ROH status effects of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms revealed genomic regions significantly associated with ROH status for total number of spermatozoa (4 regions) or percentage of live spermatozoa (5 regions). All but one region contains genes related to spermatogenesis and sperm morphology. These genomic regions contain genes affecting sperm morphogenesis and efficacy. The results highlight that next-generation sequencing may help explain some of the genetic factors contributing to inbreeding depression of sperm quality traits in Fleckvieh bulls.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/veterinária , Depressão por Endogamia/genética , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Áustria , Bovinos , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Homozigoto , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise do Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Espermatogênese/genética
13.
Genet Sel Evol ; 48(1): 65, 2016 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27613390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of genes or even nucleotides that are responsible for quantitative and adaptive trait variation is a difficult task due to the complex interdependence between a large number of genetic and environmental factors. The polymorphism of the mitogenome is one of the factors that can contribute to quantitative trait variation. However, the effects of the mitogenome have not been comprehensively studied, since large numbers of mitogenome sequences and recorded phenotypes are required to reach the adequate power of analysis. Current research in our group focuses on acquiring the necessary mitochondria sequence information and analysing its influence on the phenotype of a quantitative trait. To facilitate these tasks we have produced software for processing pedigrees that is optimised for maternal lineage analysis. RESULTS: We present MaGelLAn 1.0 (maternal genealogy lineage analyser), a suite of four Python scripts (modules) that is designed to facilitate the analysis of the impact of mitogenome polymorphism on quantitative trait variation by combining molecular and pedigree information. MaGelLAn 1.0 is primarily used to: (1) optimise the sampling strategy for molecular analyses; (2) identify and correct pedigree inconsistencies; and (3) identify maternal lineages and assign the corresponding mitogenome sequences to all individuals in the pedigree, this information being used as input to any of the standard software for quantitative genetic (association) analysis. In addition, MaGelLAn 1.0 allows computing the mitogenome (maternal) effective population sizes and probability of mitogenome (maternal) identity that are useful for conservation management of small populations. CONCLUSIONS: MaGelLAn is the first tool for pedigree analysis that focuses on quantitative genetic analyses of mitogenome data. It is conceived with the purpose to significantly reduce the effort in handling and preparing large pedigrees for processing the information linked to maternal lines. The software source code, along with the manual and the example files can be downloaded at http://lissp.irb.hr/software/magellan-1-0/ and https://github.com/sristov/magellan .


Assuntos
Genética Populacional/métodos , Herança Materna/genética , Software , Animais , Simulação por Computador , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Ligação Genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
14.
Front Genet ; 6: 314, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26539210

RESUMO

Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that "…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity." However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are societal in origin and are predicated on the value (e.g., socio-economic and cultural) of these resources to farmers, rural communities and society as a whole. The overall conclusion is that despite the fact that the livestock sector has been relatively well-organized in the application of genetic methodologies to date, there is still a large gap between the current state-of-the-art in the use of tools to characterize genomic resources and its application to many non-commercial and local breeds, hampering the consistent utilization of genetic and genomic data as indicators of genetic erosion and diversity. The livestock genomic sector therefore needs to make a concerted effort in the coming decade to enable to the democratization of the powerful tools that are now at its disposal, and to ensure that they are applied in the context of breed conservation as well as development.

15.
Front Genet ; 6: 173, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26074948

RESUMO

Analysis of genomic data is increasingly becoming part of the livestock industry. Therefore, the routine collection of genomic information would be an invaluable resource for effective management of breeding programs in small, endangered populations. The objective of the paper was to demonstrate how genomic data could be used to analyse (1) linkage disequlibrium (LD), LD decay and the effective population size (NeLD); (2) Inbreeding level and effective population size (NeROH) based on runs of homozygosity (ROH); (3) Prediction of genomic breeding values (GEBV) using small within-breed and genomic information from other breeds. The Tyrol Grey population was used as an example, with the goal to highlight the potential of genomic analyses for small breeds. In addition to our own results we discuss additional use of genomics to assess relatedness, admixture proportions, and inheritance of harmful variants. The example data set consisted of 218 Tyrol Grey bull genotypes, which were all available AI bulls in the population. After standard quality control restrictions 34,581 SNPs remained for the analysis. A separate quality control was applied to determine ROH levels based on Illumina GenCall and Illumina GenTrain scores, resulting into 211 bulls and 33,604 SNPs. LD was computed as the squared correlation coefficient between SNPs within a 10 mega base pair (Mb) region. ROHs were derived based on regions covering at least 4, 8, and 16 Mb, suggesting that animals had common ancestors approximately 12, 6, and 3 generations ago, respectively. The corresponding mean inbreeding coefficients (F ROH) were 4.0% for 4 Mb, 2.9% for 8 Mb and 1.6% for 16 Mb runs. With an average generation interval of 5.66 years, estimated NeROH was 125 (NeROH>16 Mb), 186 (NeROH>8 Mb) and 370 (NeROH>4 Mb) indicating strict avoidance of close inbreeding in the population. The LD was used as an alternative method to infer the population history and the Ne. The results show a continuous decrease in NeLD, to 780, 120, and 80 for 100, 10, and 5 generations ago, respectively. Genomic selection was developed for and is working well in large breeds. The same methodology was applied in Tyrol Grey cattle, using different reference populations. Contrary to the expectations, the accuracy of GEBVs with very small within breed reference populations were very high, between 0.13-0.91 and 0.12-0.63, when estimated breeding values and deregressed breeding values were used as pseudo-phenotypes, respectively. Subsequent analyses confirmed the high accuracies being a consequence of low reliabilities of pseudo-phenotypes in the validation set, thus being heavily influenced by parent averages. Multi-breed and across breed reference sets gave inconsistent and lower accuracies. Genomic information may have a crucial role in management of small breeds, even if its primary usage differs from that of large breeds. It allows to assess relatedness between individuals, trends in inbreeding and to take decisions accordingly. These decisions would be based on the real genome architecture, rather than conventional pedigree information, which can be missing or incomplete. We strongly suggest the routine genotyping of all individuals that belong to a small breed in order to facilitate the effective management of endangered livestock populations.

16.
Front Genet ; 6: 137, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25964796

RESUMO

Trypanosomosis is a serious cause of reduction in productivity of cattle in tsetse-fly infested areas. Baoule and other local Taurine cattle breeds in Burkina Faso are trypanotolerant. Zebuine cattle, which are also kept there are susceptible to trypanosomosis but bigger in body size. Farmers have continuously been intercrossing Baoule and Zebu animals to increase production and disease tolerance. The aim of this study was to compare levels of zebuine and taurine admixture in genomic regions potentially involved in trypanotolerance with background admixture of composites to identify differences in allelic frequencies of tolerant and non-tolerant animals. The study was conducted on 214 animals (90 Baoule, 90 Zebu, and 34 composites), genotyped with 25 microsatellites across the genome and with 155 SNPs in 23 candidate regions. Degrees of admixture of composites were analyzed for microsatellite and SNP data separately. Average Baoule admixture based on microsatellites across the genomes of the Baoule- Zebu composites was 0.31, which was smaller than the average Baoule admixture in the trypanosomosis candidate regions of 0.37 (P = 0.15). Fixation index F ST measured in the overall genome based on microsatellites or with SNPs from candidate regions indicates strong differentiation between breeds. Nine out of 23 regions had F ST ≥ 0.20 calculated from haplotypes or individual SNPs. The levels of admixture were significantly different from background admixture, as revealed by microsatellite data, for six out of the nine regions. Five out of the six regions showed an excess of Baoule ancestry. Information about best levels of breed composition would be useful for future breeding ctivities, aiming at trypanotolerant animals with higher productive capacity.

17.
Front Genet ; 6: 5, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25688258

RESUMO

The use of relatively low numbers of sires in cattle breeding programs, particularly on those for carcass and weight traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil, has always raised concerns about inbreeding, which affects conservation of genetic resources and sustainability of this breed. Here, we investigated the distribution of autozygosity levels based on runs of homozygosity (ROH) in a sample of 1,278 Nellore cows, genotyped for over 777,000 SNPs. We found ROH segments larger than 10 Mb in over 70% of the samples, representing signatures most likely related to the recent massive use of few sires. However, the average genome coverage by ROH (>1 Mb) was lower than previously reported for other cattle breeds (4.58%). In spite of 99.98% of the SNPs being included within a ROH in at least one individual, only 19.37% of the markers were encompassed by common ROH, suggesting that the ongoing selection for weight, carcass and reproductive traits in this population is too recent to have produced selection signatures in the form of ROH. Three short-range highly prevalent ROH autosomal hotspots (occurring in over 50% of the samples) were observed, indicating candidate regions most likely under selection since before the foundation of Brazilian Nellore cattle. The putative signatures of selection on chromosomes 4, 7, and 12 may be involved in resistance to infectious diseases and fertility, and should be subject of future investigation.

18.
Genet Sel Evol ; 45: 42, 2013 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24168655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Runs of homozygosity are long, uninterrupted stretches of homozygous genotypes that enable reliable estimation of levels of inbreeding (i.e., autozygosity) based on high-throughput, chip-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes. While the theoretical definition of runs of homozygosity is straightforward, their empirical identification depends on the type of SNP chip used to obtain the data and on a number of factors, including the number of heterozygous calls allowed to account for genotyping errors. We analyzed how SNP chip density and genotyping errors affect estimates of autozygosity based on runs of homozygosity in three cattle populations, using genotype data from an SNP chip with 777,972 SNPs and a 50 k chip. RESULTS: Data from the 50 k chip led to overestimation of the number of runs of homozygosity that are shorter than 4 Mb, since the analysis could not identify heterozygous SNPs that were present on the denser chip. Conversely, data from the denser chip led to underestimation of the number of runs of homozygosity that were longer than 8 Mb, unless the presence of a small number of heterozygous SNP genotypes was allowed within a run of homozygosity. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that SNP chip density and genotyping errors introduce patterns of bias in the estimation of autozygosity based on runs of homozygosity. SNP chips with 50,000 to 60,000 markers are frequently available for livestock species and their information leads to a conservative prediction of autozygosity from runs of homozygosity longer than 4 Mb. Not allowing heterozygous SNP genotypes to be present in a homozygosity run, as has been advocated for human populations, is not adequate for livestock populations because they have much higher levels of autozygosity and therefore longer runs of homozygosity. When allowing a small number of heterozygous calls, current software does not differentiate between situations where these calls are adjacent and therefore indicative of an actual break of the run versus those where they are scattered across the length of the homozygous segment. Simple graphical tests that are used in this paper are a current, yet tedious solution.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Homozigoto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Cromossomos , Variação Genética , Genoma , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Endogamia , Masculino , Análise de Regressão
19.
Anim Genet ; 44(6): 711-6, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23621397

RESUMO

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contains genes important for immune response in mammals, and these genes exhibit high polymorphism and diversity. The DRA gene, a member of the MHC class II family, is highly conserved across a large number of mammalian species, but it displays exceptionally rich sequence variations in Equidae members. We analyzed allelic polymorphism of the DRA locus in 248 donkeys sampled across the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Greece and Montenegro). Five known alleles and two new alleles were identified. The new allele Eqas-DRA*0601 was found to carry a synonymous mutation, and new allele Eqas-DRA*0701, a non-synonymous mutation. We further analyzed the historical selection and allele genealogy at the DRA locus in equids. Signals of positive selection obtained by various tests were ambiguous. A conservative conclusion is that DRA polymorphism occurred relatively recently and that positive selection has been acting on the DRA locus for a relatively brief period.


Assuntos
Alelos , Antiportadores de Cloreto-Bicarbonato/genética , Equidae/genética , Genes MHC da Classe II/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Animais , Península Balcânica , Sequência de Bases , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genética Populacional , Funções Verossimilhança , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Seleção Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
20.
PLoS Genet ; 9(2): e1003248, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23408897

RESUMO

The dominant phenotype of greying with age in horses, caused by a 4.6-kb duplication in intron 6 of STX17, is associated with a high incidence of melanoma and vitiligo-like skin depigmentation. However, the progressive greying and the incidence of melanoma, vitiligo-like depigmentation, and amount of speckling in these horses do not follow a simple inheritance pattern. To understand their inheritance, we analysed the melanoma grade, grey level, vitiligo grade, and speckling grade of 1,119 Grey horses (7,146 measurements) measured in six countries over a 9-year period. We estimated narrow sense heritability (h(2)), and we decomposed this parameter into polygenic heritability (h(2) (POLY)), heritability due to the Grey (STX17) mutation (h(2) (STX17)), and heritability due to agouti (ASIP) locus (h(2) (ASIP)). A high heritability was found for greying (h(2) = 0.79), vitiligo (h(2) = 0.63), and speckling (h(2) = 0.66), while a moderate heritability was estimated for melanoma (h(2) = 0.37). The additive component of ASIP was significantly different from zero only for melanoma (h(2) (ASIP) = 0.02). STX17 controlled large proportions of phenotypic variance (h(2) (STX17) = 0.18-0.55) and overall heritability (h(2) (STX17)/h(2) = 0.28-0.83) for all traits. Genetic correlations among traits were estimated as moderate to high, primarily due to the effects of the STX17 locus. Nevertheless, the correlation between progressive greying and vitiligo-like depigmentation remained large even after taking into account the effects of STX17. We presented a model where four traits with complex inheritance patterns are strongly influenced by a single mutation. This is in line with evidence of recent studies in domestic animals indicating that some complex traits are, in addition to the large number of genes with small additive effects, influenced by genes of moderate-to-large effect. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the STX17 mutation explains to a large extent the moderate to high genetic correlations among traits, providing an example of strong pleiotropic effects caused by a single gene.


Assuntos
Cavalos/genética , Melanoma , Pigmentação/genética , Proteínas Qa-SNARE , Animais , Duplicação Gênica , Pleiotropia Genética , Íntrons/genética , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/veterinária , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Proteínas Qa-SNARE/genética , Proteínas Qa-SNARE/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
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