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2.
AIDS Behav ; 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900813

RESUMO

Many people living with HIV (PLWHIV) state that they would be willing to take significant risks to be "cured" of the virus. However, how they interpret the word "cure" in this context is not clear. We used a randomized survey to examine whether PLWHIV had a different willingness to take a hypothetical HIV medication if it causes flu-like symptoms, but provides: (a) cure, (b) remission that was labeled "cure", or (c) remission. PLWHIV (n = 454) were more willing to take a medication that provided a "cure" versus a "remission" if the side effects lasted less than 1 year. PLWHIV were more willing to take a medication that provided a remission that was labeled "cure" versus a "remission" (p = 0.01) if the side effects lasted 2 weeks. Clinicians and researchers should be aware of the impact of the word "cure" and ensure that PLWHIV fully understand the possible outcomes of their treatment options.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228003, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given well documented challenges faced by pregnant women living with HIV taking lifetime ART, it is critical to understand the impact of short-term ART exposure followed by treatment interruption on maternal health outcomes. METHODS: HIV+ breastfeeding (BF) and Formula Feeding (FF) women with CD4 counts > 350 cells/mm3, enrolled in the 1077BF/1077FF PROMISE trial were followed to assess the effect of ART during pregnancy and breastfeeding respectively. The first analysis compared ART use limited to the antepartum period (AP-only) relative to women randomized to Zidovudine. The second analysis included women with no pregnancy combination ART exposure; and compared women randomized to either ART or no ART during postpartum (PP-only). Both analyses included follow-up time beyond breastfeeding period. The primary outcome was progression to AIDS and/or death. Secondary outcomes included adverse events and HIV-related events. RESULTS: 3490 and 1137 HIV+ women were enrolled from 14 sites in Africa and India from April 2011 through September 2014 in cohort AP-only and PP-only, respectively. Most were Black African (96%); median age was 27 years; 97% were WHO Clinical Stage I; and most had a screening CD4 count ≥500 cells/mm3 (78%). The rate of progression to AIDS and/or death was similar and low across all comparison arms (AP comparison, HR = 1.14, 95%CI (0.44, 2.96), p-value = 0.79). In the PP-only cohort, the rate of WHO stage 2-3 events was lower for women randomized to ART(HR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.42, 1.01, p-value = 0.05). CONCLUSION: The incidence of AIDS and/or death was low in pregnant/postpartum HIV+ women with highCD4 cell counts for all comparison arms. This provides some reassurance that there were limited consequences for short term ART interruption in this group of asymptomatic HIV+ women during up to 4 years of follow up; and underscores that even short term ART exposure postpartum may reduce the risk of WHO grade 2-3 disease progression.

4.
AIDS ; 34(2): 311-315, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensified viral load monitoring for pregnant and breastfeeding women has been proposed to help address concerns around antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, viraemia and transmission risk, but there have been no systematic evaluations of existing policies. METHODS: We used an individual Monte Carlo simulation to describe longitudinal ART adherence and viral load from conception until 2 years' postpartum. We applied national and international guidelines for viral load monitoring to the simulated data. We compared guidelines on the percentage of women receiving viral load monitoring and the percentage of women monitored at the time of elevated viral load. RESULTS: Coverage of viral load monitoring in pregnancy and breastfeeding varied markedly, with between 14% and 100% of women monitored antenatally and 38-98% monitored during breastfeeding. Specific recommendations for testing at either a fixed gestation or a short, fixed period after ART initiation achieved more than 95% testing in pregnancy but this was much lower (14-83%) among guidelines with no special stipulations. By the end of breastfeeding, only a small proportion of simulated episodes of elevated viral load more than 1000 copies/ml were successfully detected by monitoring (range, 20-50%). DISCUSSION: Although further research is needed to understand optimal viral load frequency and timing in this population, these results suggest that current policies yield suboptimal detection of elevated viral load in pregnant and breastfeeding women.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(2): 319-322, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125395

RESUMO

Studies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals suggest excess weight gain with integrase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy. The HIV Prevention Trials Network Study 077 evaluated changes in weight and fasting metabolic parameters in HIV-uninfected individuals randomized to cabotegravir or a placebo. No differences between arms were found for change in weight or fasting metabolic parameters overall or for subgroups.

6.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 83(1): 72-80, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-infected, postpartum women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) have high rates of viremia. We examined predictors of postpartum viremia in the PROMISE study. METHODS: Women with pre-ART CD4 T-cell counts ≥400 cells/mm who started ART during pregnancy were randomized postpartum to continue ART (CTART) or discontinue ART (DCART). Viral load and self-reported adherence were collected every 12 weeks, up to 144 weeks. Women in DCART reinitiated therapy when clinically indicated. Viremia was defined as 2 consecutive viral loads >1000 copies/mL after 24 weeks on ART. Adherence was dichotomized as missing versus not missing ART doses in the past 4 weeks. Predictors of viremia were examined using Cox proportional hazards regression with adherence as a time-varying covariate. RESULTS: Among 802 women in the CTART arm, median age at entry was 27 years and median CD4 T-cell count 696 cells/mm. Of 175 women in CTART with viremia (22%), 141 had resistance data, and 12% had resistance to their current regimen. There was an estimated 0.12 probability of viremia by week 48 and 0.25 by week 144. Predictors of viremia included missed ART doses within the past 4 weeks, younger age, shorter duration of pre-entry ART, and being from the South American/Caribbean region. Of 137 women in DCART who reinitiated therapy, probability of viremia was similar to CTART (0.24 by week 96; 0.27 by week 144). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of postpartum viremia are high and viremia is more likely in younger postpartum women who start ART later in pregnancy. Interventions should target these higher-risk women.

7.
JCI Insight ; 4(19)2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487271

RESUMO

We hypothesized that HIV-1 with dual-class but not single-class drug resistance mutations linked on the same viral genome, present in the virus population before initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), would be associated with failure of ART to suppress viremia. To test this hypothesis, we utilized an ultrasensitive single-genome sequencing assay that detects rare HIV-1 variants with linked drug resistance mutations (DRMs). A case (ART failure) control (nonfailure) study was designed to assess whether linkage of DRMs in pre-ART plasma samples was associated with treatment outcome in the nevirapine/tenofovir/emtricitabine arm of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5208/Optimal Combined Therapy After Nevirapine Exposure (OCTANE) Trial 1 among women who had received prior single-dose nevirapine. Ultrasensitive single-genome sequencing revealed a significant association between pre-ART HIV variants with DRMs to 2 drug classes linked on the same genome (dual class) and failure of combination ART with 3 drugs to suppress viremia. In contrast, linked, single-class DRMs were not associated with ART failure. We conclude that linked dual-class DRMs present before the initiation of ART are associated with ART failure, whereas linked single-class DRMs are not.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414117

RESUMO

A retrospective case control analysis determined that following adjustment for hsCRP, presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and CD4/CD8 T cell ratio, higher lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) was associated with future myocardial infarction in HIV. LBP may be a novel marker of cardiovascular risk with specific utility in HIV.

9.
AIDS ; 33(14): 2149-2156, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE(S): The short-term safety of treatment interruptions, a necessary part of cure studies, is not well established, particularly in women. We explored viral rebound kinetics and safety in a group of postpartum women discontinuing ART and compared results to men in historical interruption trials. DESIGN: Prospective evaluation of time to virologic rebound. METHODS: One thousand and seventy-six asymptomatic, virally suppressed, postpartum women living with HIV enrolled in the PROMISE trial with baseline CD4 cell counts at least 350 cells/µl underwent antiretroviral treatment (ART) discontinuation. Proportion with virologic suppression at weeks 4 and 12 were compared with participants in ACTG treatment interruption trials (91% male population). RESULTS: In PROMISE, using interval censored methods, the estimated median time to HIV viral rebound was 2 weeks. An estimated 6% of women would remain virally suppressed at 30 weeks. Of those who had viral rebound by 30 weeks (N = 993), less than 4% experienced grade 3 or higher laboratory events, and 1% experienced WHO stage 2 or higher clinical events. Overall, less than 1% of participants progressed from WHO Stage 1 to Stage 2 or higher after discontinuation of ART, and 3.9% experienced a decline in CD4 cell count to less than 350 cells/µl or local treatment guidelines. A significantly higher proportion of women in PROMISE (25.4%) were virologically suppressed (<400 copies/ml) at 12 weeks compared with ACTG NWCS 371 participants (6.4%). CONCLUSION: Temporary treatment interruptions in healthy, HIV-infected women with high CD4 cell counts can be well tolerated. Potential sex differences need to be considered in cure studies examining time to virologic rebound.

10.
Circulation ; 140(2): e98-e124, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154814

RESUMO

As early and effective antiretroviral therapy has become more widespread, HIV has transitioned from a progressive, fatal disease to a chronic, manageable disease marked by elevated risk of chronic comorbid diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Rates of myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and other CVD manifestations, including pulmonary hypertension and sudden cardiac death, are significantly higher for people living with HIV than for uninfected control subjects, even in the setting of HIV viral suppression with effective antiretroviral therapy. These elevated risks generally persist after demographic and clinical risk factors are accounted for and may be partly attributed to chronic inflammation and immune dysregulation. Data on long-term CVD outcomes in HIV are limited by the relatively recent epidemiological transition of HIV to a chronic disease. Therefore, our understanding of CVD pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment in HIV relies on large observational studies, randomized controlled trials of HIV therapies that are underpowered to detect CVD end points, and small interventional studies examining surrogate CVD end points. The purpose of this document is to provide a thorough review of the existing evidence on HIV-associated CVD, in particular atherosclerotic CVD (including myocardial infarction and stroke) and heart failure, as well as pragmatic recommendations on how to approach CVD prevention and treatment in HIV in the absence of large-scale randomized controlled trial data. This statement is intended for clinicians caring for people with HIV, individuals living with HIV, and clinical and translational researchers interested in HIV-associated CVD.

12.
Top Antivir Med ; 27(1): 34-40, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137001

RESUMO

The 2019 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections provided a considerable amount of new information on the progress in implementation of strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality from complications and coinfections that occur in people with HIV infection, and on the clinical management of these important problems. This review will address new insights into the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis, fungal infections, sexually transmitted infections, malignancies, and a range of metabolic complications and noncommunicable diseases.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
13.
Am Heart J ; 212: 23-35, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more frequent among people with HIV (PWH) and may relate to traditional and nontraditional factors, including inflammation and immune activation. A critical need exists to develop effective strategies to prevent CVD in this population. METHODS: The Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV (REPRIEVE) (A5332) is a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a statin strategy for the primary prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in PWH with low to moderate traditional risk. At least 7,500 PWH, 40-75 years of age, on stable antiretroviral therapy, will be randomized to pitavastatin calcium (4 mg/d) or identical placebo and followed for up to 8 years. Participants are enrolled based on the 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level with a goal to identify a low- to moderate-risk population who might benefit from a pharmacologic CVD prevention strategy. Potential participants with a risk score ≤ 15% were eligible based on decreasing LDL-C thresholds for increasing risk score >7.5% (LDL-C <190 mg/dL for risk score <7.5%, LDL-C <160 mg/dL for risk score 7.6%-10%, and LDL-C<130 mg/dL for risk score 10.1%-15%). The primary objective is to determine effects on a composite end point of MACE. Formal and independent adjudication of clinical events will occur using standardized criteria. Key secondary end points include effects on MACE components, all-cause mortality, specified non-CVD events, AIDS and non-AIDS events, and safety. RESULTS: To date, REPRIEVE has enrolled >7,500 participants at approximately 120 sites across 11 countries, generating a diverse and representative population of PWH to investigate the primary objective of the trial. CONCLUSIONS: REPRIEVE is the first trial investigating a primary CVD prevention strategy in PWH. REPRIEVE will inform the field of the efficacy and safety of a statin strategy among HIV-infected participants on antiretroviral therapy and provide critical information on CVD mechanisms and non-CVD events in PWH.

14.
AIDS ; 33(10): 1657-1662, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence is often suboptimal in the perinatal period. We measured hair tenofovir (TFV) concentrations as a metric of adherence in postpartum women to understand patterns and predictors of adherence throughout this critical period. In addition, we examined the association between hair TFV concentrations and virologic outcomes. METHODS: Between 12/2012 and 09/2016, hair samples were collected longitudinally from delivery through breastfeeding from women on ART in the Promoting Maternal and Infant Survival Everywhere study (NCT01061151) in sub-Saharan Africa. Hair TFV levels were measured using validated methods. Using generalized estimating equations, we estimated the association between hair TFV levels and virologic suppression (<400 copies/ml) over time and assessed predictors of hair TFV levels. RESULTS: Hair TFV levels were measured at 370 visits in 71 women from delivery through a median of 14 months (interquartile range 12-15) of breastfeeding. Levels ranged from below detection (0.002) to 1.067 ng/mg (geometric mean: 0.047). After at least 90 days on ART, 69 women had at least one viral load measured (median 5 measures, range 1-9); 18 (26%) experienced viremia at least once. Each doubling of TFV level more than doubled odds of concurrent virologic suppression [odds ratio 2.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-3.84, P = 0.0006] and was associated with 1.43 times the odds of future suppression (95% CI: 0.75-2.73, P = 0.28). Relative to the first 3 months after delivery, hair levels were highest in months 6-12 (1.42-fold higher, 95% CI: 1.09-1.85, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Hair TFV levels strongly predicted concurrent virologic suppression among breastfeeding women. Objective adherence metrics can supplement virologic monitoring to optimize treatment outcomes in this important transition period.

15.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(3): ofz069, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895207

RESUMO

We surveyed awardees of the Minority HIV Investigator Mentoring Program (MHIMP) of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Most reported clinical specialization in infectious diseases or HIV medicine (86%), and all but 1 (95%) are engaged in medical/health sciences research. The MHIMP helped retain early-career minority investigators in HIV/AIDS-related research.

16.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(2): ofz022, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793009

RESUMO

Background: Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV outcomes have persisted despite effective antiretroviral therapy. In a study of initial regimens, we found viral suppression varied by race/ethnicity. In this exploratory analysis, we use clinical and socioeconomic data to assess factors associated with virologic failure and adverse events within racial/ethnic groups. Methods: Data were from AIDS Clinical Trial Group A5257, a randomized trial of initial regimens with either atazanavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir, or raltegravir (each combined with tenofovir DF and emtricitabine). We grouped participants by race/ethnicity and then used Cox-proportional hazards regression to examine the impact of demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic factors on the time to virologic suppression and time to adverse event reporting within each racial/ethnic group. Results: We analyzed data from 1762 participants: 757 self-reported as non-Hispanic black (NHB), 615 as non-Hispanic white (NHW), and 390 as Hispanic. The proportion with virologic failure was higher for NHB (22%) and Hispanic (17%) participants compared with NHWs (9%). Factors associated with virologic failure were poor adherence and higher baseline HIV RNA level. Prior clinical AIDS diagnosis was associated with virologic failure for NHBs only, and unstable housing and illicit drug use for NHWs only. Factors associated with adverse events were female sex in all groups and concurrent use of medications for comorbidities in NHB and Hispanic participants only. Conclusions: Clinical and socioeconomic factors that are associated with virologic failure and tolerability of antiretroviral therapy vary between and within racial and ethnic groups. Further research may shed light into mechanisms leading to disparities and targeted strategies to eliminate those disparities.

17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 68(6): 1044-1047, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184104

RESUMO

Concentrations of antiretrovirals in hair are associated with virologic outcomes in cohorts of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals but have never been examined in a clinical trial. We show for the first time the predictive utility of hair antiretroviral concentrations in a large HIV treatment-naive trial (AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol A5257).

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 68(8): 1394-1401, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fat accumulation and insulin resistance remain a threat to the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The role of gut dysfunction in metabolic complications associated with ART initiation is unclear. METHODS: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected ART-naive participants were randomized to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine plus atazanavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir, or raltegravir (RAL). Changes in the gut integrity markers zonulin, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), and intestinal fatty acid and ileal bile acid binding proteins (I-FABP and I-BABP) were assessed over 96 weeks. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare changes between groups and linear regression models to quantify associations between gut markers, insulin resistance, body mass index (BMI), and visceral, subcutaneous, and total adipose tissue (VAT, SAT, and TAT). RESULTS: : 90% were male and 48% were White non-Hispanic. The median age was 36 years, HIV-1 ribonucleic acid was 4.56 log10 copies/mL, and CD4 count was 338 cells/µL. An overall 1.7-fold increase in I-FABP was observed throughout 96 weeks, with no difference between arms. Zonulin levels increased with RAL compared to protease inhibitor-based regimens (week 96, P = .02); minimal changes in I-BABP or LBP levels were observed. Higher baseline I-FABP levels were associated with increases in VAT, TAT, and BMI (16%, 9%, and 2.5%, respectively; P < .04) over 96 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: While ART induces changes in the markers of gut barrier dysfunction, the extent to which they improve or worsen the gut barrier function remains unclear. Nevertheless, markers of gut barrier dysfunction in ART-naive individuals predict increases in total and visceral abdominal fat with treatment initiation.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 68(2): 273-279, 2019 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29868833

RESUMO

Background: Adverse pregnancy outcomes for women who conceive on antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be increased, but data are conflicting. Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus-infected, nonbreastfeeding women with pre-ART CD4 counts ≥400 cells/µL who started ART during pregnancy were randomized after delivery to continue ART (CTART) or discontinue ART (DCART). Women randomized to DCART were recommended to restart if a subsequent pregnancy occurred or for clinical indications. Using both intent-to-treat and as-treated approaches, we performed Fisher exact tests to compare subsequent pregnancy outcomes by randomized arm. Results: Subsequent pregnancies occurred in 277 of 1652 (17%) women (CTART: 144/827; DCART: 133/825). A pregnancy outcome was recorded for 266 (96%) women with a median age of 27 years (interquartile range [IQR], 24-31 years) and median CD4+ T-cell count 638 cells/µL (IQR, 492-833 cells/µL). When spontaneous abortions and stillbirths were combined, there was a significant difference in events, with 33 of 140 (23.6%) in the CTART arm and 15 of 126 (11.9%) in the DCART arm (relative risk [RR], 2.0 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.1-3.5]; P = .02). In the as-treated analysis, the RR was reduced and no longer statistically significant (RR, 1.4 [95% CI, .8-2.4]). Conclusions: Women randomized to continue ART who subsequently conceived were more likely to have spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, compared with women randomized to stop ART; however, the findings did not remain significant in the as-treated analysis. More data are needed on pregnancy outcomes among women conceiving on ART, particularly with newer regimens.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/induzido quimicamente , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Natimorto , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 68(11): 1877-1886, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation in treated HIV infection is associated with mortality and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We evaluated the safety and potential efficacy of low-dose methotrexate (LDMTX) in treated HIV. METHODS: This was a phase 2 randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial in adults ≥40 years old with treated HIV, with CD4+ T-cell count ≥400 cells/µL and with/at increased risk for ASCVD. Participants received LDMTX (5-15 mg/week) or placebo (plus folic acid) for 24 weeks and were followed for an additional 12 weeks. Primary endpoints were safety and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). RESULTS: The 176 participants (90% male) had a median (Q1, Q3) age of 54 (49, 59) years. LDMTX was associated with decreases in CD4+ T cells at week 24 and CD8+ T cells at weeks 8, 12, and 24. Eleven participants (12.8%) experienced safety events in the LDMTX group vs 5 (5.6%) in placebo (Δ = 7.2%, upper 1-sided 90% CI, 13.4%; Pnoninferiority = .037). Week 24 change in FMD was 0.47% with LDMTX and 0.09% with placebo (P = .55). No inflammatory markers changed differentially with LDMTX compared to placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with HIV and increased ASCVD risk treated with LDMTX had more safety events than with placebo, but the prespecified noninferiority margin of 15% was not exceeded. LDMTX had no significant effect on endothelial function or inflammatory biomarkers but was associated with a significant decrease in CD8+ T cells. The balance of risks and potential benefits of LDMTX in this population will require additional investigation. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT01949116.

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