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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(19): 3327-3338, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504550

RESUMO

Although hundreds of genome-wide association studies-implicated loci have been reported for adult obesity-related traits, less is known about the genetics specific for early-onset obesity and with only a few studies conducted in non-European populations to date. Searching for additional genetic variants associated with childhood obesity, we performed a trans-ancestral meta-analysis of 30 studies consisting of up to 13 005 cases (≥95th percentile of body mass index (BMI) achieved 2-18 years old) and 15 599 controls (consistently <50th percentile of BMI) of European, African, North/South American and East Asian ancestry. Suggestive loci were taken forward for replication in a sample of 1888 cases and 4689 controls from seven cohorts of European and North/South American ancestry. In addition to observing 18 previously implicated BMI or obesity loci, for both early and late onset, we uncovered one completely novel locus in this trans-ancestral analysis (nearest gene, METTL15). The variant was nominally associated with only the European subgroup analysis but had a consistent direction of effect in other ethnicities. We then utilized trans-ancestral Bayesian analysis to narrow down the location of the probable causal variant at each genome-wide significant signal. Of all the fine-mapped loci, we were able to narrow down the causative variant at four known loci to fewer than 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (FAIM2, GNPDA2, MC4R and SEC16B loci). In conclusion, an ethnically diverse setting has enabled us to both identify an additional pediatric obesity locus and further fine-map existing loci.

2.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 49(11): 1475-1486, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic diseases (eczema, wheeze and rhinitis) in children often present as heterogeneous phenotypes. Understanding genetic associations of specific patterns of symptoms might facilitate understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between allergic disease-related variants identified in a recent genome-wide association study and latent classes of allergic diseases (LCADs) in two population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: Eight previously defined LCADs between birth and 11 years: "No disease," "Atopic march," "Persistent eczema and wheeze," "Persistent eczema with later-onset rhinitis," "Persistent wheeze with later-onset rhinitis," "Transient wheeze," "Eczema only" and "Rhinitis only" were used as the study outcome. Weighted multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate associations between 135 SNPs (and a polygenic risk score, PRS) and LCADs among 6345 individuals from The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Heterogeneity across LCADs was assessed before and after Bonferroni correction. Results were replicated in Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study (MAAS) (n = 896) and pooled in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: We found strong evidence for differential genetic associations across the LCADs; pooled PRS heterogeneity P-value = 3.3 × 10-14 , excluding "no disease" class. The associations between the PRS and LCADs in MAAS were remarkably similar to ALSPAC. Two SNPs (a protein-truncating variant in FLG and a SNP within an intron of GSDMB) had evidence for differential association (pooled P-values ≤ 0.006). The FLG locus was differentially associated across LCADs that included eczema, with stronger associations for LCADs with comorbid wheeze and rhinitis. The GSDMB locus in contrast was equally associated across LCADs that included wheeze. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We have shown complex, but distinct patterns of genetic associations with LCADs, suggesting that heterogeneous mechanisms underlie individual disease trajectories. Establishing the combination of allergic diseases with which each genetic variant is associated may inform therapeutic development and/or predictive modelling.

3.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 54(6): 847-857, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuropeptide S Receptor 1 ( NPSR1) and Retinoid Acid Receptor-Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA ) interact biologically, are both known candidate genes for asthma, and are involved in controlling circadian rhythm. Thus, we assessed (1) whether interactions between RORA and NPSR1 specifically affect the nocturnal asthma phenotype and (2) how this may differ from other asthma phenotypes. METHODS: Interaction effects between 24 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RORA and 35 SNPs in NPSR1 on asthma and nocturnal asthma symptoms were determined in 1432 subjects (763 asthmatics [192 with nocturnal asthma symptoms]; 669 controls) from the Multicenter Asthma Genetic in Childhood/International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood studies. The results were validated and extended in children from the Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study (N = 723) and the Children Allergy Milieu Stockholm and Epidemiological cohort (N = 1646). RESULTS: RORA* NPSR1 interactions seemed to affect both asthma and nocturnal asthma. In stratified analyses, however, interactions mainly affected nocturnal asthma and less so asthma without nocturnal symptoms or asthma severity. Results were replicated in two independent cohorts and seemed to remain constant over time throughout youth. CONCLUSION: RORA* NPSR1 interactions appear to be involved in mechanisms specific for nocturnal asthma. In contrast to previous studies focusing on the role of beta 2 receptor polymorphisms in nocturnal asthma as a feature of asthma control or severity in general, our data suggest that changes in circadian rhythm control are associated with nighttime asthma symptoms.

4.
Trends Biotechnol ; 37(3): 227-230, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606459

RESUMO

Biomedical research faces a scarcity of scientists able to work effectively at the interface of diverse scientific disciplines; we reflect on our experience over ten years of interdisciplinary training through our Masters of Research in Translational Medicine, preparing a new generation of researchers for postgenomic interdisciplinary medical research.

6.
Br J Nutr ; 120(8): 891-900, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132432

RESUMO

SNP in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene is associated with risk of lower respiratory infections. The influence of genetic variation in the vitamin D pathway resulting in susceptibility to upper respiratory infections (URI) has not been investigated. We evaluated the influence of thirty-three SNP in eleven vitamin D pathway genes (DBP, DHCR7, RXRA, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP3A4, CYP27A1, LRP2, CUBN and VDR) resulting in URI risk in 725 adults in London, UK, using an additive model with adjustment for potential confounders and correction for multiple comparisons. Significant associations in this cohort were investigated in a validation cohort of 737 children in Manchester, UK. In all, three SNP in VDR (rs4334089, rs11568820 and rs7970314) and one SNP in CYP3A4 (rs2740574) were associated with risk of URI in the discovery cohort after adjusting for potential confounders and correcting for multiple comparisons (adjusted incidence rate ratio per additional minor allele ≥1·15, P for trend ≤0·030). This association was replicated for rs4334089 in the validation cohort (P for trend=0·048) but not for rs11568820, rs7970314 or rs2740574. Carriage of the minor allele of the rs4334089 SNP in VDR was associated with increased susceptibility to URI in children and adult cohorts in the United Kingdom.

7.
Nat Genet ; 50(8): 1072-1080, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013184

RESUMO

Allergic rhinitis is the most common clinical presentation of allergy, affecting 400 million people worldwide, with increasing incidence in westernized countries1,2. To elucidate the genetic architecture and understand the underlying disease mechanisms, we carried out a meta-analysis of allergic rhinitis in 59,762 cases and 152,358 controls of European ancestry and identified a total of 41 risk loci for allergic rhinitis, including 20 loci not previously associated with allergic rhinitis, which were confirmed in a replication phase of 60,720 cases and 618,527 controls. Functional annotation implicated genes involved in various immune pathways, and fine mapping of the HLA region suggested amino acid variants important for antigen binding. We further performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses of allergic sensitization against inhalant allergens and nonallergic rhinitis, which suggested shared genetic mechanisms across rhinitis-related traits. Future studies of the identified loci and genes might identify novel targets for treatment and prevention of allergic rhinitis.

8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(7): 526-534, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29628377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maximal lung function in early adulthood is an important determinant of mortality and COPD. We investigated whether distinct trajectories of lung function are present during childhood and whether these extend to adulthood and infancy. METHODS: To ascertain trajectories of FEV1, we studied two population-based birth cohorts (MAAS and ALSPAC) with repeat spirometry from childhood into early adulthood (1046 participants from 5-16 years and 1390 participants from 8-24 years). We used a third cohort (PIAF) with repeat lung function measures in infancy (V'maxFRC) and childhood (FEV1; 196 participants from 1 month to 18 years of age) to investigate whether these childhood trajectories extend from early life. We identified trajectories using latent profile modelling. We created an allele score to investigate genetic associations of trajectories, and constructed a multivariable model to identify their early-life predictors. FINDINGS: We identified four childhood FEV1 trajectories: persistently high, normal, below average, and persistently low. The persistently low trajectory (129 [5%] of 2436 participants) was associated with persistent wheezing and asthma throughout follow-up. In genetic analysis, compared with the normal trajectory, the pooled relative risk ratio per allele was 0·96 (95% CI 0·92-1·01; p=0·13) for persistently high, 1·01 (0·99-1·02; p=0·49) for below average, and 1·05 (0·98-1·13; p=0·13) for persistently low. Most children in the low V'maxFRC trajectory in infancy did not progress to the low FEV1 trajectory in childhood. Early-life factors associated with the persistently low trajectory included recurrent wheeze with severe wheezing exacerbations, early allergic sensitisation, and tobacco smoke exposure. INTERPRETATION: Reduction of childhood smoke exposure and minimisation of the risk of early-life sensitisation and wheezing exacerbations might reduce the risk of diminished lung function in early adulthood. FUNDING: None.

9.
Nat Genet ; 50(1): 42-53, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273806

RESUMO

We examined common variation in asthma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of worldwide asthma genome-wide association studies (23,948 asthma cases, 118,538 controls) of individuals from ethnically diverse populations. We identified five new asthma loci, found two new associations at two known asthma loci, established asthma associations at two loci previously implicated in the comorbidity of asthma plus hay fever, and confirmed nine known loci. Investigation of pleiotropy showed large overlaps in genetic variants with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The enrichment in enhancer marks at asthma risk loci, especially in immune cells, suggested a major role of these loci in the regulation of immunologically related mechanisms.

10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 140(2): 534-542, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28011059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The timing and mechanisms of asthma inception remain imprecisely defined. Although epigenetic mechanisms likely contribute to asthma pathogenesis, little is known about their role in asthma inception. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess whether the trajectory to asthma begins already at birth and whether epigenetic mechanisms, specifically DNA methylation, contribute to asthma inception. METHODS: We used the Methylated CpG Island Recovery Assay chip to survey DNA methylation in cord blood mononuclear cells from 36 children (18 nonasthmatic and 18 asthmatic subjects by age 9 years) from the Infant Immune Study (IIS), an unselected birth cohort closely monitored for asthma for a decade. SMAD3 methylation in IIS (n = 60) and in 2 replication cohorts (the Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study [n = 30] and the Childhood Origins of Asthma Study [n = 28]) was analyzed by using bisulfite sequencing or Illumina 450K arrays. Cord blood mononuclear cell-derived IL-1ß levels were measured by means of ELISA. RESULTS: Neonatal immune cells harbored 589 differentially methylated regions that distinguished IIS children who did and did not have asthma by age 9 years. In all 3 cohorts methylation in SMAD3, the most connected node within the network of asthma-associated, differentially methylated regions, was selectively increased in asthmatic children of asthmatic mothers and was associated with childhood asthma risk. Moreover, SMAD3 methylation in IIS neonates with maternal asthma was strongly and positively associated with neonatal production of IL-1ß, an innate inflammatory mediator. CONCLUSIONS: The trajectory to childhood asthma begins at birth and involves epigenetic modifications in immunoregulatory and proinflammatory pathways. Maternal asthma influences epigenetic mechanisms that contribute to the inception of this trajectory.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Proteína Smad3/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Mães , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(2): 389-403, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26604143

RESUMO

A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We included 35 668 children from 20 studies in the discovery phase and 11 873 children from 13 studies in the replication phase. In total, 15 loci reached genome-wide significance (P-value < 5 × 10(-8)) in the joint discovery and replication analysis, of which 12 are previously identified loci in or close to ADCY3, GNPDA2, TMEM18, SEC16B, FAIM2, FTO, TFAP2B, TNNI3K, MC4R, GPR61, LMX1B and OLFM4 associated with adult body mass index or childhood obesity. We identified three novel loci: rs13253111 near ELP3, rs8092503 near RAB27B and rs13387838 near ADAM23. Per additional risk allele, body mass index increased 0.04 Standard Deviation Score (SDS) [Standard Error (SE) 0.007], 0.05 SDS (SE 0.008) and 0.14 SDS (SE 0.025), for rs13253111, rs8092503 and rs13387838, respectively. A genetic risk score combining all 15 SNPs showed that each additional average risk allele was associated with a 0.073 SDS (SE 0.011, P-value = 3.12 × 10(-10)) increase in childhood body mass index in a population of 1955 children. This risk score explained 2% of the variance in childhood body mass index. This study highlights the shared genetic background between childhood and adult body mass index and adds three novel loci. These loci likely represent age-related differences in strength of the associations with body mass index.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Genet ; 47(12): 1449-1456, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26482879

RESUMO

Genetic association studies have identified 21 loci associated with atopic dermatitis risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify further susceptibility loci for this common, complex skin disease, we performed a meta-analysis of >15 million genetic variants in 21,399 cases and 95,464 controls from populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry, followed by replication in 32,059 cases and 228,628 controls from 18 studies. We identified ten new risk loci, bringing the total number of known atopic dermatitis risk loci to 31 (with new secondary signals at four of these loci). Notably, the new loci include candidate genes with roles in the regulation of innate host defenses and T cell function, underscoring the important contribution of (auto)immune mechanisms to atopic dermatitis pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/etnologia , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Loci Gênicos , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Fatores de Risco , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
13.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(4): 1155-68, 2015 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25281659

RESUMO

Common genetic variants have been identified for adult height, but not much is known about the genetics of skeletal growth in early life. To identify common genetic variants that influence fetal skeletal growth, we meta-analyzed 22 genome-wide association studies (Stage 1; N = 28 459). We identified seven independent top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (P < 1 × 10(-6)) for birth length, of which three were novel and four were in or near loci known to be associated with adult height (LCORL, PTCH1, GPR126 and HMGA2). The three novel SNPs were followed-up in nine replication studies (Stage 2; N = 11 995), with rs905938 in DC-STAMP domain containing 2 (DCST2) genome-wide significantly associated with birth length in a joint analysis (Stages 1 + 2; ß = 0.046, SE = 0.008, P = 2.46 × 10(-8), explained variance = 0.05%). Rs905938 was also associated with infant length (N = 28 228; P = 5.54 × 10(-4)) and adult height (N = 127 513; P = 1.45 × 10(-5)). DCST2 is a DC-STAMP-like protein family member and DC-STAMP is an osteoclast cell-fusion regulator. Polygenic scores based on 180 SNPs previously associated with human adult stature explained 0.13% of variance in birth length. The same SNPs explained 2.95% of the variance of infant length. Of the 180 known adult height loci, 11 were genome-wide significantly associated with infant length (SF3B4, LCORL, SPAG17, C6orf173, PTCH1, GDF5, ZNFX1, HHIP, ACAN, HLA locus and HMGA2). This study highlights that common variation in DCST2 influences variation in early growth and adult height.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Estatura/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Alelos , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 25(6): 552-7, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24902762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the interaction between genetic variants in endotoxin signalling pathway and domestic endotoxin exposure in relation to asthma presence, and amongst children with asthma, we explored the association of these genetic variants and endotoxin exposure with hospital admissions due to asthma exacerbations. METHODS: In a case-control study, we analysed data from 824 children (417 asthmatics, 407 controls; age 5-18 yr). Amongst asthmatics, we extracted data on hospitalization for asthma exacerbation from medical records. Endotoxin exposure was measured in dust samples collected from homes. We included 26 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the final analysis (5 CD14, 7LY96 and 14 TLR4). RESULTS: Two variants remained significantly associated with hospital admissions with asthma exacerbations after correction for multiple testing: for CD14 SNP rs5744455, carriers of T allele had decreased risk of repeated hospital admissions compared with homozygotes for C allele [OR (95% CI), 0.42 (0.25-0.88), p = 0.01, False Discovery Rate (FDR) p = 0.02]; for LY96 SNP rs17226566, C-allele carriers were at a lower risk of hospital admissions compared with T-allele homozygotes [0.59 (0.38-0.90), p = 0.01, FDR p = 0.04]. We observed two interactions between SNPs in CD14 and LY96 with environmental endotoxin exposure in relation to hospital admissions due to asthma exacerbation which remained significant after correction for multiple testing (CD14 SNPs rs2915863 and LY96 SNP rs17226566). CONCLUSION: Amongst children with asthma, genetic variants in CD14 and LY96 may increase the risk of hospital admissions with acute exacerbations. Polymorphisms in endotoxin pathway interact with domestic endotoxin exposure in further modification of the risk of hospitalization.


Assuntos
Asma/imunologia , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/genética , Antígeno 96 de Linfócito/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Poeira/imunologia , Endotoxinas/imunologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transdução de Sinais/genética
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 134(1): 46-55, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24315451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (Feno) value is a biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation and is associated with childhood asthma. Identification of common genetic variants associated with childhood Feno values might help to define biological mechanisms related to specific asthma phenotypes. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify the genetic variants associated with childhood Feno values and their relation with asthma. METHODS: Feno values were measured in children age 5 to 15 years. In 14 genome-wide association studies (N = 8,858), we examined the associations of approximately 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with Feno values. Subsequently, we assessed whether significant SNPs were expression quantitative trait loci in genome-wide expression data sets of lymphoblastoid cell lines (n = 1,830) and were related to asthma in a previously published genome-wide association data set (cases, n = 10,365; control subjects: n = 16,110). RESULTS: We identified 3 SNPs associated with Feno values: rs3751972 in LYR motif containing 9 (LYRM9; P = 1.97 × 10(-10)) and rs944722 in inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2; P = 1.28 × 10(-9)), both of which are located at 17q11.2-q12, and rs8069176 near gasdermin B (GSDMB; P = 1.88 × 10(-8)) at 17q12-q21. We found a cis expression quantitative trait locus for the transcript soluble galactoside-binding lectin 9 (LGALS9) that is in linkage disequilibrium with rs944722. rs8069176 was associated with GSDMB and ORM1-like 3 (ORMDL3) expression. rs8069176 at 17q12-q21, but not rs3751972 and rs944722 at 17q11.2-q12, were associated with physician-diagnosed asthma. CONCLUSION: This study identified 3 variants associated with Feno values, explaining 0.95% of the variance. Identification of functional SNPs and haplotypes in these regions might provide novel insight into the regulation of Feno values. This study highlights that both shared and distinct genetic factors affect Feno values and childhood asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17 , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/patologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Testes Respiratórios , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Expiração , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Risco
16.
Nat Genet ; 45(8): 902-906, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23817571

RESUMO

Allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (present in allergic sensitization) has a central role in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. We performed the first large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) of allergic sensitization in 5,789 affected individuals and 10,056 controls and followed up the top SNP at each of 26 loci in 6,114 affected individuals and 9,920 controls. We increased the number of susceptibility loci with genome-wide significant association with allergic sensitization from three to ten, including SNPs in or near TLR6, C11orf30, STAT6, SLC25A46, HLA-DQB1, IL1RL1, LPP, MYC, IL2 and HLA-B. All the top SNPs were associated with allergic symptoms in an independent study. Risk-associated variants at these ten loci were estimated to account for at least 25% of allergic sensitization and allergic rhinitis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these associations may provide new insights into the etiology of allergic disease.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Alelos , Biologia Computacional , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genômica , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 24(1): 10-8, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23331525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between genetic variation in chromosomal region 20p13-p12 (ADAM33 and flanking genes ATRN, GFRA4, SIGLEC1 and HSPA12B) and asthma. Amongst asthmatics, we then investigated the association between genetic variants and asthma severity. We evaluated the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the context of genetic variants. METHODS: In a case-control study, we recruited 423 asthmatic children and 414 non-asthmatic controls (age 5-18 yr). Amongst asthmatics, we measured lung function and extracted data on hospitalisation for asthma exacerbation from medical records. Early-life ETS exposure was assessed by questionnaire. We included 85 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the analysis. RESULTS: Seventeen SNPs were significantly associated with asthma; one (rs41534847 in ADAM33) remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Thirty-six SNPs were significantly associated with lung function, of which 15 (six ARTN, three ADAM33, five SIGLEC1 and one HSPA12B) remained significant after correction. We observed a significant interaction between 23 SNPs and early-life ETS exposure in relation to lung function measures. For example, for rs512625 in ADAM33, there was significant interaction with ETS exposure in relation to hospitalisations (p(int)  = 0.02) and lung function (p(int)  = 0.03); G-allele homozygotes had a 9.15-fold [95% CI 2.28-36.89] higher risk of being hospitalized and had significantly poorer lung function if exposed to ETS, with no effect of ETS exposure amongst A-allele carriers. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated several novel significant interactions between polymorphisms in 20p13-p12 and early-life ETS exposure with asthma presence and, amongst asthmatics, a significant association with the severity of their disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAM/genética , Asma , Cromossomos Humanos Par 20/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fumar/genética , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Asma/genética , Asma/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tabaco
18.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 185(11): 1197-204, 2012 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22461367

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Given the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in lung development, we hypothesized that polymorphisms in VEGF-A may be associated with lung function. OBJECTIVES: The current study was designed to assess the role of genetic variants in VEGF-A as determinants of airway function from infancy through early adulthood. METHODS: Association between five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VEGF-A and lung function were assessed longitudinally in two unselected birth cohorts and cross-sectionally among infants. Replication with two SNPs was conducted in adults and children with asthma. We investigated the functionality of the SNP most consistently associated with lung function (rs3025028) using Western blotting to measure the ratio of plasma VEGF-A(165b)/panVEGF-A(165) among homozygotes. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In two populations in infancy, C-allele homozygotes of rs3025028 had significantly higher VmaxFRC, forced expiratory flow(50), and forced expiratory flow(25-75) compared with other genotype groups. Among preschool children (age 3 yr), C allele of rs3025028 was associated with significantly higher specific airway conductance, with similar findings observed for lung function in school-age children. For FEV(1)/FVC ratio similar findings were observed among adolescents and young adults (birth cohort), and then replicated in adults and schoolchildren with asthma (cross-sectional studies). For rs3025038, plasma VEGF-A(165b)/panVEGF-A(165) was significantly higher among CC versus GG homozygotes (P ≤ 0.02) at birth, in school-age children, and in adults. CONCLUSIONS: We report significant associations between VEGF-A SNP rs3025028 and parameters of airway function measured throughout childhood, with the effect persisting into adulthood. We propose that the mechanism may be mediated through the ratios of active and inhibitory isoforms of VEGF-A(165), which may be determined by alternative splicing.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Alelos , Asma/fisiopatologia , Western Blotting , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Testes de Função Respiratória , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Capacidade Pulmonar Total/genética , Reino Unido , Capacidade Vital/genética
19.
Nat Genet ; 44(2): 187-92, 2011 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22197932

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a commonly occurring chronic skin disease with high heritability. Apart from filaggrin (FLG), the genes influencing atopic dermatitis are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 5,606 affected individuals and 20,565 controls from 16 population-based cohorts and then examined the ten most strongly associated new susceptibility loci in an additional 5,419 affected individuals and 19,833 controls from 14 studies. Three SNPs reached genome-wide significance in the discovery and replication cohorts combined, including rs479844 upstream of OVOL1 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.88, P = 1.1 × 10(-13)) and rs2164983 near ACTL9 (OR = 1.16, P = 7.1 × 10(-9)), both of which are near genes that have been implicated in epidermal proliferation and differentiation, as well as rs2897442 in KIF3A within the cytokine cluster at 5q31.1 (OR = 1.11, P = 3.8 × 10(-8)). We also replicated association with the FLG locus and with two recently identified association signals at 11q13.5 (rs7927894; P = 0.008) and 20q13.33 (rs6010620; P = 0.002). Our results underline the importance of both epidermal barrier function and immune dysregulation in atopic dermatitis pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 20/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5 , Citocinas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Epiderme/imunologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Proteínas de Filamentos Intermediários/genética , Cinesina/genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
20.
Mol Cancer Res ; 7(1): 41-54, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19147536

RESUMO

We report that 10% of melanoma tumors and cell lines harbor mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene. These novel mutations include three truncating mutations and 20 missense mutations occurring at evolutionary conserved residues in FGFR2 as well as among all four FGFRs. The mutation spectrum is characteristic of those induced by UV radiation. Mapping of these mutations onto the known crystal structures of FGFR2 followed by in vitro and in vivo studies show that these mutations result in receptor loss of function through several distinct mechanisms, including loss of ligand binding affinity, impaired receptor dimerization, destabilization of the extracellular domains, and reduced kinase activity. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of loss-of-function mutations in a class IV receptor tyrosine kinase in cancer. Taken into account with our recent discovery of activating FGFR2 mutations in endometrial cancer, we suggest that FGFR2 may join the list of genes that play context-dependent opposing roles in cancer.


Assuntos
Melanoma/genética , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/química , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Divisão Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sequência Conservada , Humanos , Melanoma/patologia , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
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