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1.
J Palliat Care ; : 8258597211002308, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818159

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between provider religion and religiosity and consensus about end-of-life care and explore if geographical and institutional factors contribute to variability in practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a modified Delphi method 22 end-of-life issues consisting of 35 definitions and 46 statements were evaluated in 32 countries in North America, South America, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Asia, Australia and South Africa. A multidisciplinary, expert group from specialties treating patients at the end-of-life within each participating institution assessed the association between 7 key statements and geography, religion, religiosity and institutional factors likely influencing the development of consensus. RESULTS: Of 3049 participants, 1366 (45%) responded. Mean age of respondents was 45 ± 9 years and 55% were females. Following 2 Delphi rounds, consensus was obtained for 77 (95%) of 81 definitions and statements. There was a significant difference in responses across geographical regions. South African and North American respondents were more likely to encourage patients to write advance directives. Fewer Eastern European and Asian respondents agreed with withdrawing life-sustaining treatments without consent of patients or surrogates. While respondent's religion, years in practice or institution did not affect their agreement, religiosity, physician specialty and responsibility for end-of-life decisions did. CONCLUSIONS: Variability in agreement with key consensus statements about end-of-life care is related primarily to differences among providers, with provider-level variations related to differences in religiosity and specialty. Geography also plays a role in influencing some end-of-life practices. This information may help understanding ethical dilemmas and developing culturally sensitive end-of-life care strategies.

2.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; : 10781552211006180, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy raises the risk of drug-drug interactions and adverse events among patients with cancer. Most polypharmacy research has focused on adults age 65 or older enrolled in Medicare insurance. To better inform pharmacy practice and cancer care delivery, data are needed on polypharmacy among commercially insured patients with cancer and those younger than 65. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of insurance enrollment and claims files linked to the Puget Sound Cancer Surveillance System for adults age 18 and older who were commercially insured, diagnosed with stage IV cancer, survived 30+ days after diagnosis, and did not enroll in hospice. We describe the prevalence of polypharmacy, chemotherapy use, and medication-related out-of-pocket (OOP) costs in the last month of life. RESULTS: Of 606 patients, 390 (64%) experienced polypharmacy (i.e. 5+ medications) in the last 30 days of life. Almost half (n = 297, 49%) received chemotherapy or targeted agents; chemotherapy was associated with significantly higher odds of polypharmacy (odds ratio (OR) 2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.04-4.20). The most commonly prescribed medications at end of life were opioids, benzodiazepines and anti-emetics. Among 484 patients (80%) incurring medication-related costs in the last month of life, median total OOP cost was $82 (interquartile range $30-$200). Seven patients (1%) had total costs above $5,000. The median chemotherapy-related OOP cost was $446 (IQR $150-$1896); 32 patients (7%) had chemotherapy-related OOP costs between $1,000 and $5,000. CONCLUSION: Most patients with advanced cancer experienced polypharmacy at end of life, although most medications observed herein are commonly used for supportive care. Patients receiving chemotherapy had higher medication-related OOP costs, and chemotherapy was significantly associated with polypharmacy at end of life. Evaluation of polypharmacy at end of life may represent an important opportunity to improve quality of life and reduce costs for patients and families.

4.
Crit Care Med ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730742

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Treatment decisions following severe acute brain injury need to consider patients' goals-of-care and long-term outcomes. Using family members as respondents, we aimed to assess patients' goals-of-care in the ICU and explore the impact of adaptation on survivors who did not reach the level of recovery initially considered acceptable. DESIGN: Prospective, observational, mixed-methods cohort study. SETTING: Comprehensive stroke and level 1 trauma center in Pacific Northwest United States. PARTICIPANTS: Family members of patients with severe acute brain injury in an ICU for greater than 2 days and Glasgow Coma Scale score less than 12. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: At enrollment, we asked what level of physical and cognitive recovery the patient would find acceptable. At 6 months, we assessed level of recovery through family surveys and chart review. Families of patients whose outcome was below that considered acceptable were invited for semistructured interviews, examined with content analysis. RESULTS: For 184 patients, most family members set patients' minimally acceptable cognitive recovery at "able to think and communicate" or better (82%) and physical recovery at independence or better (66%). Among 170 patients with known 6-month outcome, 40% had died in hospital. Of 102 survivors, 33% were able to think and communicate, 13% were independent, and 10% died after discharge. Among survivors whose family member had set minimally acceptable cognitive function at "able to think and communicate," 64% survived below that level; for those with minimally acceptable physical function at independence, 80% survived below that. Qualitative analysis revealed two key themes: families struggled to adapt to a new, yet uncertain, normal and asked for support and guidance with ongoing treatment decisions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Six months after severe acute brain injury, most patients survived to a state their families initially thought would not be acceptable. Survivors and their families need more support and guidance as they adapt to a new normal and struggle with persistent uncertainty.

6.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(3): e0365, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786441

RESUMO

Objectives: Being a caregiver for a patient in the ICU can place emotional burden on families and engaging families in caregiving can reduce psychological distress. Our goal was to observe support methods used by families in the ICU and identify differences between race/ethnicity. Design: A secondary analysis of a multicenter before-and-after clinical trial. Setting: Three hospitals in Chicago, Providence, and Florence, Italy. Participants: Family members of patients admitted to the ICU. Interventions: In the primary study, an intervention was designed to engage families in seven domains that were based on the five physical senses (taste, touch, sight, smell, and sound), personal care, and spiritual care of the patient. During the control phase, nursing staff observed and recorded if they witnessed families participating in support methods unprompted. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We compared the use of support methods among families from different races, categorized by race as either White, Black, or other using generalized estimating equation population-averaged logistic regression analysis. A total of 133 patients and 226 family members were enrolled in the control arm of the primary study, with patients being 71.2% White, 17% Black, and 11.8% other. Compared with Whites, families who identified their race Black or other may be more likely to participate in support methods that included personal care, touch, or spiritual care. Families who identified as Black may also be more likely to incorporate audio or sound. There were no differences in the categories of sight, smell, or taste. Conclusions: Our study identifies racial differences in the use of bedside support methods in the ICU. Guiding families in a culturally congruent and open-minded manner may have the potential to decrease family distress and improve the experience for families in the ICU.

7.
Crit Care Med ; 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence, characteristics, and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and to describe the characteristics and outcomes for patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest within the ICU, compared with non-ICU patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Finally, we evaluated outcomes stratified by age. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE, and preprint websites was conducted between January 1, 2020, and December 10, 2020. Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews identification: CRD42020203369. STUDY SELECTION: Studies reporting on consecutive in-hospital cardiac arrest with a resuscitation attempt among patients with coronavirus disease 2019. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors independently performed study selection and data extraction. Study quality was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were synthesized according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews guidelines. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus or through an independent third reviewer. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eight studies reporting on 847 in-hospital cardiac arrest were included. In-hospital cardiac arrest incidence varied between 1.5% and 5.8% among hospitalized patients and 8.0-11.4% among patients in ICU. In-hospital cardiac arrest occurred more commonly in older male patients. Most initial rhythms were nonshockable (83.9%, [asystole = 36.4% and pulseless electrical activity = 47.6%]). Return of spontaneous circulation occurred in 33.3%, with a 91.7% in-hospital mortality. In-hospital cardiac arrest events in ICU had higher incidence of return of spontaneous circulation (36.6% vs 18.7%; p < 0.001) and relatively lower mortality (88.7% vs 98.1%; p < 0.001) compared with in-hospital cardiac arrest in non-ICU locations. Patients greater than or equal to 60 years old had significantly higher in-hospital mortality than those less than 60 years (93.1% vs 87.9%; p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately, one in 20 patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 received resuscitation for an in-hospital cardiac arrest. Hospital survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest within the ICU was higher than non-ICU locations and seems comparable with prepandemic survival for nonshockable rhythms. Although the data provide guidance surrounding prognosis after in-hospital cardiac arrest, it should be interpreted cautiously given the paucity of information surrounding treatment limitations and resource constraints during the pandemic. Further research is into actual causative mechanisms is needed.

8.
J Palliat Med ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720787

RESUMO

Background: Parents experience high distress following their child's diagnosis of cancer. We previously tested two delivery models (group and one-on-one) of the "Promoting Resilience in Stress Management for Parents" (PRISM-P) intervention in a randomized trial: one-on-one delivery improved resilience and benefit finding at three months when compared to usual care (UC). Objective: The objective of this analysis was to evaluate quantitative and qualitative outcomes at six months. Design: In this single-center, phase 2, parallel, 1:1:1 randomized trial conducted December 2016 to December 2018, English-speaking parents with a 2-24 year-old child diagnosed with new cancer were randomly assigned to UC, one-on-one, or group PRISM-P, a brief, skill-based curriculum targeting stress management, goal setting, cognitive reframing, and meaning making. We collected parent-reported outcomes (resilience, benefit finding, and psychological distress) at baseline and three and six months. We applied linear mixed-effects regression models to examine six-month outcomes among all participants and conducted directed content analyses of exit interviews with the first 12 parents to complete each study arm. Results: The 94 participating parents were median aged 35-38 years and predominantly white, college-educated mothers. At six months, there was no statistically significant difference in parent-reported outcomes. Exit interviews (n = 36) suggested that PRISM-P was highly valued: 100% of interviewed recipients recommended it for other parents. Most suggested more coaching would help them retain skills, and almost all endorsed a combined one-on-one and group program. Conclusions: Although the PRISM-P benefits observed at three months were not sustained for six months, all interviewed parents found it valuable. Additional opportunities to strengthen and sustain resilience resources include longer follow-up, flexible format, and skill reinforcement. Trial Registration: NCT02998086.

10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(4): 430-434, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450202

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic strained health-care systems throughout the world. For some, available medical resources could not meet the increased demand and rationing was ultimately required. Hospitals and governments often sought to establish triage committees to assist with allocation decisions. However, for institutions operating under crisis standards of care (during times when standards of care must be substantially lowered in the setting of crisis), relying on these committees for rationing decisions was impractical-circumstances were changing too rapidly, occurring in too many diverse locations within hospitals, and the available information for decision making was notably scarce. Furthermore, a utilitarian approach to decision making based on an analysis of outcomes is problematic due to uncertainty regarding outcomes of different therapeutic options. We propose that triage committees could be involved in providing policies and guidance for clinicians to help ensure equity in the application of rationing under crisis standards of care. An approach guided by egalitarian principles, integrated with utilitarian principles, can support physicians at the bedside when they must ration scarce resources.


Assuntos
/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Triagem/organização & administração , Comitês Consultivos/organização & administração , Comitês Consultivos/normas , Cuidados Críticos/economia , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisões Gerenciais , Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/normas , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/economia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/normas , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Pandemias/economia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrão de Cuidado/economia , Triagem/normas
12.
J Palliat Med ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210984

RESUMO

Objectives: The global COVID-19 pandemic made strict visitation policies necessary. We explored the experiences of family members of patients with severe acute brain injury focusing on the impact of family presence in the hospital. Methods: Semistructured interviews (February 2018-April 2020) were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: We interviewed family members of 19 patients with stroke, traumatic brain injury, or cardiac arrest; five interviews occurred after initiation of restrictive visitation policies. Four key themes highlight the role of visitation on family's ability to (1) cope by being at the bedside, (2) protect and advocate for the patient, (3) build trust with clinicians, and (4) receive emotional support in the intensive care unit. After visitation restrictions, families found ways to communicate and support virtually and wished for proactive communication from clinicians. Conclusions: Family presence at patient's bedside fulfills important needs. Visitation restrictions require hospitals to be creative and inclusive to help maintain these connections.

13.
J Palliat Med ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156728

RESUMO

Background: It is not clear whether use of specialty palliative care consults and "comfort measures only" (CMO) order sets differ by type of intensive care unit (ICU). A better understanding of palliative care provided to these patients may help address heterogeneity of care across ICU types. Objectives: Examine utilization of specialty palliative care consultation and CMO order sets across several different ICU types in a multihospital academic health care system. Design: Retrospective cohort study using Washington State death certificates and data from the electronic health record. Setting/Subjects: Adults with a chronic medical illness who died in an ICU at one of two hospitals from July 2013 through December 2018. Five ICU types were identified by patient population and attending physician specialty. Measurements: Documentation of a specialty palliative care consult during a patient's terminal ICU stay and a CMO order set at time of death. Results: For 2706 eligible decedents, ICU type was significantly associated with odds of palliative care consultation (p < 0.001) as well as presence of CMO order set at time of death (p < 0.001). Compared with medical ICUs, odds of palliative care consultation were highest in the cardiothoracic ICU and trauma ICU. Odds of CMO order set in place at time of death were highest in the neurology/neurosurgical ICU. Conclusion: Utilization of specialty palliative care consultations and CMO order sets varies across types of ICUs. Examining this variability within institutions may provide an opportunity to improve end-of-life care for patients with chronic, life-limiting illnesses who die in the ICU.

14.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010356

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Little is known about perceptions of conservative care for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States. STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative study using cognitive interviewing about attitudes regarding conservative care using decision aids on treatments for advanced CKD developed outside the United States. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 14 patients aged ≥75 years with advanced CKD, defined as an eGFR ≤20 ml/min/1.73m2 and not receiving maintenance dialysis, and 6 of their family members. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Thematic analysis of participants' reactions to descriptions of conservative care taken from a various clinical care decision aids. RESULTS: Participants were mostly white (n=15) and had at least some college education (n=16). Four themes emerged from analysis of interviews: 1) Core elements of conservative care: aspects of conservative care that were appealing to participants included a whole-person, team-based and structured approach to care that focused on symptom management, maintaining current lifestyle and managing health setbacks; 2) Importance of how conservative care is framed: participants were more receptive to conservative care when this was framed as an active rather than passive treatment approach and were willing to tolerate uncertainty about future course of illness and prognosis; 3) An explicit approach to shared decision-making: participants believed decisions about conservative care and dialysis should address considerations about risk and benefits of treatment options, family and clinician perspectives and patients' goals, values and preferences; and, 4) Relationship between conservative care and dialysis: although conservative care models outside the US are generally intended to serve as an alternative to dialysis, participants' comments implied that they did not see conservative care and dialysis as mutually exclusive. LIMITATIONS: Themes identified may not generalize to the broader population of US patients with advanced CKD and their family members. CONCLUSION: Participants were favorably disposed to a whole-person, multidisciplinary approach to conservative care especially when framed as an active treatment approach. Models of conservative care excluding the possibility of dialysis were less embraced suggesting that current models will require adaptation to meet the needs of US patients and their families.

15.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; : 1049909120968527, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084357

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Multimorbidity is associated with increased intensity of end-of-life healthcare. This association has been examined by number but not type of conditions. Our purpose was to understand how intensity of care is influenced by multimorbidity within specific chronic conditions to provide guidance for interventions to improve end-of-life care for these patients. METHODS: We identified adults cared for in a multihospital healthcare system who died between 2010-2017. We categorized patients by 4 primary chronic conditions: heart failure, pulmonary disease, renal disease, or dementia. Within each condition, we examined the effect of multimorbidity (presence of 4 or more chronic conditions) on hospital and ICU admission in the last 30 days of life, in-hospital death, and advance care planning (ACP) documentation >30 days before death. We performed logistic regression to estimate associations between multimorbidity and end-of-life care utilization, stratified by the presence or absence of ACP documentation. RESULTS: ACP documentation >30 days before death was associated with lower odds of in-hospital death for all 4 conditions both in patients with and without multimorbidity. With the exception of patients with renal disease without multimorbidity, we observed lower odds of hospitalization and ICU admission for all patients with ACP >30 days before death. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with dementia and multimorbidity had the highest odds of high-intensity end-of-life care. For patients with dementia, heart failure, or pulmonary disease, ACP documentation >30 days before death was associated with lower likelihood of in-hospital death, hospitalization, and ICU use at end-of-life, regardless of multimorbidity.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119402

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Initial reports of case fatality rates (CFR) among adults with coronavirus diease-19 (COVID-19) receiving invasive medical ventilation (IMV) are highly variable. OBJECTIVE: To examine the CFR of patients with COVID-19 receiving IMV. METHODS: Two authors independently searched PubMed, Embase, medRxiv, bioRxiv, the COVID-19 living systematic review, and national registry databases. The primary outcome was the "reported CFR" for patients with confirmed COVID-19 requiring IMV. "Definitive hospital CFR" for patients with outcomes at hospital discharge was also investigated. Finally, CFR was analyzed by patient age, geographic region, and study quality based on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: Sixty-nine studies were included, describing 57,420 adult patients with COVID-19 who received IMV. Overall reported CFR was estimated as 45% (95% CI 39-52%). Fifty-four out of 69 studies stated whether hospital outcomes were available but provided a definitive hospital outcome on only 13,120 (22.8%) of the total IMV patient population. Among studies where age-stratified CFR was available, pooled CFR estimates ranged from 47.9% (95% CI 46.4-49.4%) in younger patients (age ≤40) to 84.4% (95% CI 83.3-85.4) in older patients (age >80). CFR was also higher in early COVID-19 epicenters. Overall heterogeneity is high (I2>90%) with non-significant Egger's regression test suggesting no publication bias. CONCLUSION: Almost half of COVID-19 patients receiving IMV died, based on the reported CFR, but variable CFR reporting methods resulted in a wide range of CFR between studies. Reported CFR was higher in older patients and in early pandemic epicenters, which may be influenced by limited ICU resources. Reporting of definitive outcomes on all patients would facilitate comparisons between studies. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

17.
Chest ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has severely affected ICUs and critical care health-care providers (HCPs) worldwide. RESEARCH QUESTION: How do regional differences and perceived lack of ICU resources affect critical care resource use and the well-being of HCPs? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Between April 23 and May 7, 2020, we electronically administered a 41-question survey to interdisciplinary HCPs caring for patients critically ill with COVID-19. The survey was distributed via critical care societies, research networks, personal contacts, and social media portals. Responses were tabulated according to World Bank region. We performed multivariate log-binomial regression to assess factors associated with three main outcomes: limiting mechanical ventilation (MV), changes in CPR practices, and emotional distress and burnout. RESULTS: We included 2,700 respondents from 77 countries, including physicians (41%), nurses (40%), respiratory therapists (10%), and advanced practice providers (8%). The reported lack of ICU nurses was higher than that of intensivists (32% vs 15%). Limiting MV for patients with COVID-19 was reported by 16% of respondents, was lowest in North America (10%), and was associated with reduced ventilator availability (absolute risk reduction [aRR], 2.10; 95% CI, 1.61-2.74). Overall, 66% of respondents reported changes in CPR practices. Emotional distress or burnout was high across regions (52%, highest in North America) and associated with being female (aRR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01-1.33), being a nurse (aRR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.13-1.53), reporting a shortage of ICU nurses (aRR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.33), reporting a shortage of powered air-purifying respirators (aRR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.09-1.55), and experiencing poor communication from supervisors (aRR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.16-1.46). INTERPRETATION: Our findings demonstrate variability in ICU resource availability and use worldwide. The high prevalence of provider burnout and its association with reported insufficient resources and poor communication from supervisors suggest a need for targeted interventions to support HCPs on the front lines.

18.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(10): 2424-2433, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The care of patients in the United States who have ESKD is often shaped by their hopes and prognostic expectations related to kidney transplant. Little is known about how patients' engagement in the transplant process might relate to patterns of end-of-life care. METHODS: We compared six measures of intensity of end-of-life care among adults in the United States with ESKD who died between 2005 and 2014 after experiencing differing exposure to the kidney transplant process. RESULTS: Of 567,832 decedents with ESKD, 27,633 (5%) had a functioning kidney transplant at the time of death, 14,653 (3%) had a failed transplant, 16,490 (3%) had been removed from the deceased donor waitlist, 17,010 (3%) were inactive on the waitlist, 11,529 (2%) were active on the waitlist, and 480,517 (85%) had never been waitlisted for or received a transplant (reference group). In adjusted analyses, compared with the reference group, patients exposed to the transplant process were significantly more likely to have been admitted to an intensive care unit and to have received an intensive procedure in the last 30 days of life; they were also significantly more likely to have died in the hospital. Those who died on the transplant waitlist were also less likely than those in the reference group to have been enrolled in hospice and to have discontinued dialysis before death. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who had engaged in the kidney transplant process received more intensive patterns of end-of-life care than other patients with ESKD. These findings support the relevance of advance care planning, even for this relatively healthy segment of the ESKD population.

19.
J Crit Care ; 60: 267-272, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932112

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intensive care interventions that prolong life without achieving meaningful benefit are considered clinically "inappropriate". In 2012, the frequency of perceived-inappropriate critical care was 10.8% at one academic health system; and we aimed to re-evaluate this frequency. METHODS: For 4 months in 2017, we surveyed critical care physicians daily and asked whether each patient was receiving appropriate, probably inappropriate, or inappropriate critical care. Patients were categorized into three groups: 1) patients for whom treatment was never inappropriate, 2) patients with at least one assessment that treatment was probably inappropriate, but no inappropriate treatment assessments, and 3) patients who had at least one assessment of inappropriate treatment. RESULTS: Fifty-five physicians made 10,105 assessments on 1424 patients. Of these, 94 (6.6%) patients received at least one assessment of inappropriate critical care, which is lower than 2012 (10.8% (p < 0.01)). Comparing 2017 and 2012, patient age, MS-DRG, length of stay, and hospital mortality were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Inpatient mortality in 2017 was 73% for patients receiving inappropriate critical care. CONCLUSIONS: Over five years the proportion of patients perceived to be receiving inappropriate critical care dropped by 40%. Understanding the reasons for such change might elucidate how to continue to reduce inappropriate critical care.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985937

RESUMO

Purpose: Although targeted psychosocial programming for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with advanced cancer is a well-described priority, how best to engage AYAs in that programming is less clear. We aimed to examine AYA perspectives on facilitators and barriers to utilization of psychosocial programs and preferred mode of delivery. Methods: In this nested cohort study, AYAs participated in semistructured 1:1 interviews on communication needs. The present analysis focused on questions regarding psychosocial program delivery. Data were analyzed using directed content analysis followed by thematic content analysis to further organize and refine identified global themes and organizational themes. Results: We interviewed 32 patients (Mage = 18, range 14-25, 41% female). Key facilitators to utilization of psychosocial services by AYAs were to (1) align in importance of coping skills, (2) emphasize AYA self-motivation and agency in approach and introduction to services, and (3) offer services to everyone and at multiple timepoints. Key AYA barriers included (1) considering themselves an exception to the rule when discussing the psychosocial needs of AYAs with cancer, (2) the challenge of starting something new, and (3) reluctance to share emotional problems with psychosocial clinicians. Regarding the mode of delivery, some preferred in-person delivery due to opportunities for developing a close relationship and therapeutic rapport-building. Mobile app-based delivery was universally appealing. Conclusion: We provide a potential framework to increase uptake of psychosocial services in the high needs population of AYAs with advanced cancer. Future research will explore implementation strategies for increasing AYA engagement in psychosocial intervention programs.

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