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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e019395, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191841

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important vascular disease and public health problem. Prevention of VTE has focused mainly on using thromboprophylaxis to avoid provoked VTE or recurrent VTE, with little attention paid to the possibility of preventing the one third to one half of VTEs that are unprovoked. We review growing research suggesting that unhealthy lifestyle risk factors may cause a considerable proportion of unprovoked VTE. Using epidemiologic data to calculate population attributable risks, we estimate that in the United States obesity may contribute to 30% of VTEs, physical inactivity to 4%, current smoking to 3%, and Western dietary pattern to 11%. We also review possibilities for VTE primary prevention either through a high-risk individual approach or a population-wide approach. Interventions for outpatients at high VTE risk but without VTE provoking factors have not been fully tested; yet, improving patient awareness of risk and symptoms, lifestyle counseling, and possibly statins or direct oral anticoagulants may prove useful in primary prevention of unprovoked VTE. A population approach to prevention would bolster awareness of VTE and aim to shift lifestyle risk factors downward in the whole population using education, environmental changes, and policy. Assuming the epidemiological associations are accurate, causal, and independent of each other, a reduction of obesity, physical inactivity, current smoking, and Western diet by 25% in the general population might reduce the incidence of unprovoked VTE by 12%. We urge further research and consideration that primary prevention of unprovoked VTE may be a worthwhile public health aim.

2.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the longitudinal association between magnesium (Mg) intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: Poisson regression models with robust standard error estimation were used to examine the association between total Mg intake and the risk of MetS in 6802 participants aged ≥45 years at baseline in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Dietary data were collected using the modified Block 98 food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and incident MetS was diagnosed during follow-up if a participant had three or more of the five components of MetS based on the harmonized definition. RESULTS: A total of 1470 participants developed MetS during an average follow-up of 10 years. Comparing the highest quintile of total Mg intake (>437.9 mg/day) to the lowest group (<223.5 mg/day), total Mg intake had a significant inverse association with the risk of MetS [relative risk (RR) = 0.79 (0.63, 0.98), Ptrend = 0.043]. Dietary Mg intake was inversely associated with MetS [RR = 0.72 (0.56, 0.91), Ptrend = 0.006]. Adjusting for baseline components of MetS attenuated the associations, but the linear trends remained. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study indicate that dietary Mg intake was inversely associated with the risk of MetS. We recommend further studies to explain the underlying mechanisms of action.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242062, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between high FVIII clotting activity (FVIII:C), MRI-defined white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and cognitive function over time. METHODS: Data from the population-based Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 5,888, aged ≥65) were used. FVIII:C was measured in blood samples taken at baseline. WMH burden was assessed on two cranial MRI scans taken roughly 5 years apart. Cognitive function was assessed annually using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE) and Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). We used ordinal logistic regression models adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular factors in cross-sectional and longitudinal WMH analyses, and adjusted linear regression and linear mixed models in the analyses of cognitive function. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounding, higher levels of FVIII:C were not strongly associated with the burden of WMH on the initial MRI scan (OR>p75 = 1.20, 95% CI 0.99-1.45; N = 2,735) nor with WMH burden worsening over time (OR>p75 = 1.18, 95% CI 0.87-1.59; N = 1,527). High FVIII:C showed no strong association with cognitive scores cross-sectionally (3MSE>p75 ß = -0.06, 95%CI -0.45 to 0.32, N = 4,005; DSST>p75 ß = -0.69, 95%CI -1.52 to 0.13, N = 3,954) or over time (3MSE>p75 ß = -0.07,95% CI -0.58 to 0.44, N = 2,764; DSST>p75 ß = -0.22, 95% CI -0.97 to 0.53, N = 2,306) after confounding adjustment. INTERPRETATION: The results from this cohort study of older adult participants indicate no strong relationships between higher FVIII:C levels and WMH burden or cognitive function in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043232

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) spans a wide spectrum of illness. Severe cases of COVID-19 can manifest inflammation in organs other than the lung, in tissues not known to support viral replication, and also in a hypercoagulable state. These observations have suggested that SARS-CoV-2 can provoke a hyperimmune response in some cases that could lead to secondary organ damage. Methods: With evidence of elevated levels of interleuking-6 (IL-6) in patients with severe COVID-19, we conducted a small pilot off-label compassionate care study of the IL-6 receptor inhibitor tocilizumab patients with severe COVID-19. Results: Following a single infusion of tocilizumab in patients with severe manifested rapid declines in C-reactive protein (CRP), D-Dimer, and gradual rises in lymphocyte and platelet counts. Conclusions: These findings suggest both pathophysiological mechanisms as well as clinical benefit that might be seen with IL-6 inhibition in severe COVID-19.

5.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003361, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) risk is highest in late life, and impaired pulmonary vascular function is a risk factor for HF development. However, data regarding the contributors to and prognostic importance of pulmonary vascular dysfunction among HF-free elders in the community are limited and largely restricted to pulmonary hypertension. Our objective was to define the prevalence and correlates of abnormal pulmonary pressure, resistance, and compliance and their association with incident HF and HF phenotype (left ventricular [LV] ejection fraction [LVEF] ≥ or < 50%) independent of LV structure and function. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed cross-sectional and time-to-event analyses in a prospective epidemiologic cohort study, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. This is an ongoing, observational study that recruited 15,792 persons aged 45-64 years between 1987 and 1989 (visit 1) from four representative communities in the United States: Minneapolis, Minnesota; Jackson, Mississippi; Hagerstown, Maryland; and Forsyth County, North Carolina. The current analysis included 2,810 individuals aged 66-90 years, free of HF, who underwent echocardiography at the fifth study visit (June 8, 2011, to August 28, 2013) and had measurable tricuspid regurgitation by spectral Doppler. Echocardiography-derived pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and pulmonary arterial compliance (PAC) were measured. The main outcome was incident HF after visit 5, and key secondary end points were incident HF with preserved LVEF (HFpEF) and incident HF with reduced LVEF (HFrEF). The mean ± SD age was 76 ± 5 years, 66% were female, and 21% were black. Mean values of PASP, PVR, and PAC were 28 ± 5 mm Hg, 1.7 ± 0.4 Wood unit, and 3.4 ± 1.0 mL/mm Hg, respectively, and were abnormal in 18%, 12%, and 14%, respectively, using limits defined from the 10th and 90th percentile limits in 253 low-risk participants free of cardiovascular disease or risk factors. Left heart dysfunction was associated with abnormal PASP and PAC, whereas a restrictive ventilatory deficit was associated with abnormalities of PASP, PVR, and PAC. PASP, PVR, and PAC were each predictive of incident HF or death (hazard ratio per SD 1.3 [95% CI 1.1-1.4], p < 0.001; 1.1 [1.0-1.2], p = 0.04; 1.2 [1.1-1.4], p = 0.001, respectively) independent of LV measures. Elevated pulmonary pressure was predictive of incident HFpEF (HFpEF: 2.4 [1.4-4.0, p = 0.001]) but not HFrEF (1.4 [0.8-2.5, p = 0.31]). Abnormal PAC predicted HFrEF (HFpEF: 2.0 [1.0-4.0, p = 0.05], HFrEF: 2.8 [1.4-5.5, p = 0.003]), whereas abnormal PVR was not predictive of either (HFpEF: 0.9 [0.4-2.0, p = 0.85], HFrEF: 0.7 [0.3-1.4, p = 0.30],). A greater number of abnormal pulmonary vascular measures was associated with greater risk of incident HF. Major limitations include the use of echo Doppler to estimate pulmonary hemodynamic measures, which may lead to misclassification; inclusions bias related to detectable tricuspid regurgitation, which may limit generalizability of our findings; and survivor bias related to the cohort age, which may result in underestimation of the described associations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed abnormalities of PASP, PVR, and PAC in 12%-18% of elders in the community. Higher PASP and lower PAC were independently predictive of incident HF. Abnormally high PASP predicted incident HFpEF but not HFrEF. These findings suggest that impairments in pulmonary vascular function may precede clinical HF and that a comprehensive pulmonary hemodynamic evaluation may identify pulmonary vascular phenotypes that differentially predict HF phenotypes.

6.
Vasc Med ; : 1358863X20957406, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089749

RESUMO

The tridecapeptide neurotensin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disease. Its stable precursor, pro-neurotensin/neuromedin N (pro-NT/NMN), has been associated with composite cardiovascular outcomes including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. The exclusive association of pro-NT/NMN with ischemic stroke has not been evaluated. We conducted a prospective case-cohort study in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. From 2003 to 2007, REGARDS enrolled 30,239 white or black adults aged ⩾ 45 years. Baseline fasting pro-NT/NMN was measured by immunoassay in the analytic sample including 448 incident ischemic stroke cases and 818 random cohort sample participants. A total of 464 ischemic strokes occurred. Risk of stroke was assessed with a Cox proportional-hazards model incorporating demographic covariates and a second adding stroke risk factors. Increased pro-NT/NMN was associated with ischemic stroke in the demographic model overall (hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation (SD) pro-NT/NMN 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.33) and in men (HR per SD pro-NT/NMN 1.25, 95% CI 1.04-1.50); HRs were attenuated in the risk factor model. Pre-existing diabetes mellitus and CHD were the largest confounders of ischemic stroke risk, each accounting for an estimated 19% of the association of pro-NT/NMN with ischemic stroke observed in the demographic model. There were no significant interactions of race or sex with pro-NT/NMN. Further research on associations of pro-NT/NMN with stroke risk factors such as diabetes mellitus is indicated.

7.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thrombosis (VT) incidence increases markedly with age. Coagulation factors are also positively associated with age. OBJECTIVE: To study whether higher levels of coagulation factors II (prothrombin),VIII, IX and XI are associated with risk of a first VT in the elderly. METHODS: 401 patients and 431 control subjects aged 70 and older were included in the Age and Thrombosis, Acquired and Genetic risk factors in the Elderly (AT-AGE) study. Blood was collected one year after the event in patients and in all control subjects for measurement of coagulation factors. To assess the risk of VT, odds ratios were calculated after stratification of coagulation factors in quartiles and at the 90th percentile, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, body mass index, and study center). RESULTS: Mean age was 78 years (range: 70-100 years). The ORs of VT for factors in the top quartile compared with the lowest quartile were 4.5 (CI95: 2.7-7.3) for factor VIII, 2.4 (CI95: 1.1-5.2) for factor IX, and 1.7 (CI95: 1.0-2.9) for factor XI. High prothrombin was not associated with an increased VT risk. There was no dose-response association between the number of high coagulation factors and VT risk. The population attributable risk (PAR) of VT was 37.6%, 23.3% and 12.4% for factor VIII, IX, and XI, respectively. CONCLUSION: In this study of elderly, higher factors VIII, IX and XI but not prothrombin, were positively associated with the risk of VT.

8.
Circulation ; 142(16): 1524-1531, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control programs were initiated in the United States during the 1960s and 1970s. Whereas blood pressure (BP) control in the population and subsequent reduced hypertension-related disease risks have improved since the implementation of these interventions, it is unclear whether these BP changes can be generalized to diverse and high-risk populations. This report describes the 4-decade change in BP levels for the population in a high disease risk southeastern region of the United States. The objective is to determine the magnitude of the shift in systolic BP (SBP) among Blacks and Whites from the Southeast between 1960 and 2005 with the assessment of the unique population cohorts. METHODS: A multicohort study design compared BPs from the CHS (Charleston Heart Study) and ECHS (Evans County Heart Study) in 1960 and the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) 4 decades later. The analyses included participants ≥45 years of age from CHS (n=1323), ECHS (n=1842), and REGARDS (n=6294) with the main outcome of SBP distribution. RESULTS: Among Whites 45 to 54 years of age, the median SBP was 18 mm Hg (95% CI, 16-21 mm Hg) lower in 2005 than 1960. The median shift was a 45 mm Hg (95% CI, 37-51 mm Hg) decline for those ≥75 years of age. The shift was larger for Blacks, with median declines of 38 mm Hg (95% CI, 32-40 mm Hg) at 45 to 54 years of age and 50 mm Hg (95% CI, 33-60 mm Hg) for ages ≥75 years. The 95th percentile of SBP decreased 60 mm Hg for Whites and 70 mm Hg for Blacks. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current analyses of the unique cohorts in the Southeast confirm the improvements in population SBP levels since 1960. This assessment provides new evidence of improvement in SBP, suggesting that strategies and programs implemented to improve hypertension treatment and control have been extraordinarily successful for both Blacks and Whites residing in a high-risk region of the United States. Severe BP elevations commonly observed in the 1960s have been nearly eliminated, with the current 75th percentile of BP generally less than the 25th percentile of BP in 1960.

9.
Blood Adv ; 4(19): 4929-4944, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049056

RESUMO

Multiple risk-assessment models (RAMs) for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized medical patients have been developed. To inform the 2018 American Society of Hematology (ASH) guidelines on VTE, we conducted an overview of systematic reviews to identify and summarize evidence related to RAMs for VTE and bleeding in medical inpatients. We searched Epistemonikos, the Cochrane Database, Medline, and Embase from 2005 through June 2017 and then updated the search in January 2020 to identify systematic reviews that included RAMs for VTE and bleeding in medical inpatients. We conducted study selection, data abstraction and quality assessment (using the Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews [ROBIS] tool) independently and in duplicate. We described the characteristics of the reviews and their included studies, and compared the identified RAMs using narrative synthesis. Of 15 348 citations, we included 2 systematic reviews, of which 1 had low risk of bias. The reviews included 19 unique studies reporting on 15 RAMs. Seven of the RAMs were derived using individual patient data in which risk factors were included based on their predictive ability in a regression analysis. The other 8 RAMs were empirically developed using consensus approaches, risk factors identified from a literature review, and clinical expertise. The RAMs that have been externally validated include the Caprini, Geneva, IMPROVE, Kucher, and Padua RAMs. The Padua, Geneva, and Kucher RAMs have been evaluated in impact studies that reported an increase in appropriate VTE prophylaxis rates. Our findings informed the ASH guidelines. They also aim to guide health care practitioners in their decision-making processes regarding appropriate individual prophylactic management.

10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2023242, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119108

RESUMO

Importance: Obesity is a global health challenge and a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASVCD). Performance of the pooled cohort equations (PCE) for ASCVD risk by body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is unknown. Objective: To assess performance of the PCE across clinical BMI categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used pooled individual-level data from 8 community-based, prospective, longitudinal cohort studies with 10-year ASCVD event follow-up from 1996 to 2016. We included all adults ages 40 to 79 years without baseline ASCVD or statin use, resulting in a sample size of 37 311 participants. Data were analyzed from August 2017 to July 2020. Exposures: Participant BMI category: underweight (<18.5), normal weight (18.5 to <25), overweight (25 to <30), mild obesity (30 to <35), and moderate to severe obesity (≥35). Main Outcomes and Measures: Discrimination (Harrell C statistic) and calibration (Nam-D'Agostino χ2 goodness-of-fit test) of the PCE across BMI categories. Improvement in discrimination and net reclassification with addition of BMI, waist circumference, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) to the PCE. Results: Among 37 311 participants (mean [SD] age, 58.6 [11.8] years; 21 897 [58.7%] women), 380 604 person-years of follow-up were conducted. Mean (SD) baseline BMI was 29.0 (6.2), and 360 individuals (1.0%) were in the underweight category, 9937 individuals (26.6%) were in the normal weight category, 13 601 individuals (36.4%) were in the overweight category, 7783 individuals (20.9%) were in the mild obesity category, and 5630 individuals (15.1%) were in the moderate to severe obesity category. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) 10-year estimated ASCVD risk was 7.1% (2.5%-15.4%), and 3709 individuals (9.9%) developed ASCVD over a median (IQR) 10.8 [8.5-12.6] years. The PCE overestimated ASCVD risk in the overall cohort (estimated/observed [E/O] risk ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.18-1.26) and across all BMI categories except the underweight category. Calibration was better near the clinical decision threshold in all BMI groups but worse among individuals with moderate or severe obesity (E/O risk ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.25-1.47) and among those with the highest estimated ASCVD risk ≥20%. The PCE C statistic overall was 0.760 (95% CI, 0.753-0.767), with lower discrimination in the moderate or severe obesity group (C statistic, 0.742; 95% CI, 0.721-0.763) compared with the normal-range BMI group (C statistic, 0.785; 95% CI, 0.772-0.798). Waist circumference (hazard ratio, 1.07 per 1-SD increase; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11) and hsCRP (hazard ratio, 1.07 per 1-SD increase; 95% CI, 1.05-1.09), but not BMI, were associated with increased ASCVD risk when added to the PCE. However, these factors did not improve model performance (C statistic, 0.760; 95% CI, 0.753-0.767) with or without added metrics. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the PCE had acceptable model discrimination and were well calibrated at clinical decision thresholds but overestimated risk of ASCVD for individuals in overweight and obese categories, particularly individuals with high estimated risk. Incorporation of the usual clinical measures of obesity did not improve risk estimation of the PCE. Future research is needed to determine whether incorporation of alternative high-risk obesity markers (eg, weight trajectory or measures of visceral or ectopic fat) into the PCE may improve risk prediction.

11.
Stroke ; 51(11): 3417-3424, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104469

RESUMO

In the United States, causes of racial differences in stroke and its risk factors remain only partly understood, and there is a long-standing disparity in stroke incidence and mortality impacting Black Americans. Only half of the excess risk of stroke in the United States Black population is explained by traditional risk factors, suggesting potential effects of other factors including genetic and biological characteristics. Here, we nonsystematically reviewed candidate laboratory biomarkers for stroke and their relationships to racial disparities in stroke. Current evidence indicates that IL-6 (interleukin-6), a proinflammatory cytokine, mediates racial disparities in stroke through its association with traditional risk factors. Only one reviewed biomarker, Lp(a) (lipoprotein[a]), is a race-specific risk factor for stroke. Lp(a) is highly genetically determined and levels are substantially higher in Black than White people; clinical and pharmaceutical ramifications for stroke prevention remain uncertain. Other studied stroke risk biomarkers did not explain racial differences in stroke. More research on Lp(a) and other biological and genetic risk factors is needed to understand and mitigate racial disparities in stroke.

12.
Circulation ; : CIR0000000000000907, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High awareness that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death (LCOD) among women is critical to prevention. This study evaluated longitudinal trends in this awareness among women. METHODS AND RESULTS: Online surveys of US women (≥25 years of age) were conducted in January 2009 and January 2019. Data were weighted to the US population distribution of sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate knowledge of the LCOD. In 2009, awareness of heart disease as the LCOD was 65%, decreasing to 44% in 2019. In 2019, awareness was greater with older age and increasing education and lower among non-White women and women with hypertension. The 10-year awareness decline was observed in all races/ethnicities and ages except women ≥65 years of age. The greatest declines were among Hispanic women (odds ratio of awareness comparing 2019 to 2009, 0.14 [95% CI, 0.07-0.28]), non-Hispanic Black women (odds ratio, 0.31 [95% CI, 0.19-0.49]), and 25- to 34-year-olds (odds ratio, 0.19 [95% CI, 0.10-0.34]). In 2019, women were more likely than in 2009 to incorrectly identify breast cancer as the LCOD (odds ratio, 2.59 [95% CI, 1.86-3.67]), an association that was greater in younger women. Awareness of heart attack symptoms also declined. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness that heart disease is the LCOD among women declined from 2009 to 2019, particularly among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black women and in younger women (in whom primordial/primary prevention may be most effective). An urgent redoubling of efforts by organizations interested in women's health is required to reverse these trends.

13.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888372

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is associated with a high incidence of thrombosis and mortality despite standard anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis. There is equipoise regarding the optimal dose of anticoagulant intervention in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and consequently, immediate answers from high-quality randomized trials are needed. METHODS: The World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform was searched on June 17, 2020 for randomized controlled trials comparing increased dose to standard dose anticoagulant interventions in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Two authors independently screened the full records for eligibility and extracted data in duplicate. RESULTS: A total of 20 trials were included in the review. All trials are open label, 5 trials use an adaptive design, 1 trial uses a factorial design, 2 trials combine multi-arm parallel group and factorial designs in flexible platform trials, and at least 15 trials have multiple study sites. With individual target sample sizes ranging from 30 to 3000 participants, the pooled sample size of all included trials is 12 568 participants. Two trials include only intensive care unit patients, and 10 trials base patient eligibility on elevated D-dimer levels. Therapeutic intensity anticoagulation is evaluated in 14 trials. All-cause mortality is part of the primary outcome in 14 trials. DISCUSSION: Several trials evaluate different dose regimens of anticoagulant interventions in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Because these trials compete for sites and study participants, a collaborative effort is needed to complete trials faster, conduct pooled analyses and bring effective interventions to patients more quickly.

14.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(11): 2756-2763, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common disease that has a genetic basis. Lifestyle factors contribute to risk, but it is unknown whether healthy lifestyle can mitigate the genetic risk. We studied whether greater adherence to the American Heart Association's cardiovascular health metric, Life's Simple 7 (LS7), is associated with lower incidence of VTE in individuals across categories of a genetic risk score (GRS) for VTE. Approach AND RESULTS: We followed 9026 White participants from the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study, a prospective cohort enrolled in 1987 to 1989 until 2015. We tested the joint associations with VTE of a validated VTE GRS comprising 5 well-known gene variants and baseline LS7 categories. There were 466 incident VTE events over 22.8 years. Participants with an optimal LS7 score had a lower incidence of VTE (3.9%) than those with inadequate LS7 (5.7%). Compared with the high GRS and inadequate LS7 group (hazard ratio=1), those with high GRS and optimal LS7 indeed had a reduced hazard ratio of VTE: 0.65 (95% CI, 0.48-0.89). The group with low GRS and optimal LS7 had the lowest hazard ratio of VTE (0.39 [95% CI, 0.25-0.61]). Of the LS7 components, in all GRS groups, the factor most strongly protective for VTE was normal weight. CONCLUSIONS: Among people at low or high genetic risk for VTE, healthier lifestyle factors, particularly normal weight, were associated with a lower incidence of VTE. Further studies should determine the impact of lifestyle changes among patients at high genetic risk of VTE, such as in thrombophilic families.

15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(19): e016482, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928039

RESUMO

Background The Life's Simple 7 (LS7) metric incorporates health behaviors (body mass index, diet, smoking, physical activity) and health factors (blood pressure, cholesterol, glucose) to estimate an individual's level of cardiovascular health. The association between cardiovascular health and incident hypertension is unresolved. Hypertension's threshold was recently lowered and it is unclear if better cardiovascular health is associated with lower risk of incident hypertension with the updated threshold or in a multirace cohort. We sought to assess the association between better LS7 score and risk of incident hypertension among Black and White adults using a 130/80 mm Hg hypertension threshold. Methods and Results We determined the association between LS7 metric and incident hypertension in the REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Disparities in Stroke) study, including participants free of baseline hypertension (2003-2007) who completed a second visit between 2013 and 2016. Hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥130/80 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication use. Each LS7 component was assigned 0 (poor), 1 (intermediate), or 2 (ideal) points. We generated a 14-point score by summing points. Among 2930 normotensive participants (20% Black, 80% White), the median (25th-75th percentiles) LS7 total score was 9 (8-10) points. Over a median follow-up of 9 years, 42% developed hypertension. In the fully adjusted model, each 1-point higher LS7 score had a 6% lower risk of incident hypertension (risk ratio, 0.94 per 1 point; 95% CI, 0.92-0.96). Conclusions Better cardiovascular health was associated with lower risk of incident hypertension using a 130/80 mm Hg hypertension threshold among Black and White adults.

16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(12): 1455-1465, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factors and biomarkers associate differentially with heart failure (HF) risk in men and women is unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate sex-specific associations of CV risk factors and biomarkers with incident HF. METHODS: The analysis was performed using data from 4 community-based cohorts with 12.5 years of follow-up. Participants (recruited between 1989 and 2002) were free of HF at baseline. Biomarker measurements included natriuretic peptides, cardiac troponins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, D-dimer, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, sST2, galectin-3, cystatin-C, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. RESULTS: Among 22,756 participants (mean age 60 ± 13 years, 53% women), HF occurred in 2,095 participants (47% women). Age, smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, body mass index, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, left ventricular hypertrophy, and left bundle branch block were strongly associated with HF in both sexes (p < 0.001), and the combined clinical model had good discrimination in men (C-statistic = 0.80) and in women (C-statistic = 0.83). The majority of biomarkers were strongly and similarly associated with HF in both sexes. The clinical model improved modestly after adding natriuretic peptides in men (ΔC-statistic = 0.006; likelihood ratio chi-square = 146; p < 0.001), and after adding cardiac troponins in women (ΔC-statistic = 0.003; likelihood ratio chi-square = 73; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CV risk factors are strongly and similarly associated with incident HF in both sexes, highlighting the similar importance of risk factor control in reducing HF risk in the community. There are subtle sex-related differences in the predictive value of individual biomarkers, but the overall improvement in HF risk estimation when included in a clinical HF risk prediction model is limited in both sexes.

17.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Weight gain increases risk of cardiovascular disease, but has not been examined extensively in relationship to venous thromboembolism (VTE). The association between weight change over 9 years and subsequent VTE among participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study was examined, with a hypothesis that excess weight gain is a risk factor for VTE, relative to no weight change. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Quintiles of 9-year weight change were calculated (visit 4 1996-1998 weight minus visit 1 1987-1989 weight in kg: Quintile 1: ≥-1.81 kg; Quintile 2: <-1.81 to ≤1.36 kg; Quintile 3: >1.36 to ≤4.08 kg; Quintile 4: >4.08 to ≤7.71 kg; Quintile 5: >7.71 kg). Incident VTEs from visit 4 (1996-1998) through 2015 were identified and adjudicated using medical records. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox models. RESULTS: 529 incident VTEs were identified during an average of 19 years of follow up. Compared to Quintile 2, participants in Quintile 5 of weight change had 1.46 times the rate of incident VTE (HR = 1.46 (95% CI 1.09, 1.95), adjusted for age, race, sex, income, physical activity, smoking, and prevalent CVD). The HR for Quintile 5 was modestly attenuated to 1.38 (95% CI 1.03, 1.84) when visit 1 BMI was included in the model. When examined separately, results were significant for unprovoked VTE, but not for provoked VTE. Among those obese at visit 1, both weight gain (HR 1.86 95% CI 1.27, 2.71) and weight loss (HR 2.11 95% CI 1.39, 3.19) were associated with incident VTE, compared with normal-weight participants with no weight change. CONCLUSIONS: Weight gain later life was associated with increased risk for unprovoked VTE. Among those with obesity, both weight gain and weight loss were associated with increased risk for VTE.

18.
Circulation ; 142(6): e85-e94, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776842

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The impact of the US Surgeon General's The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in 2008 has been lower than expected given the public health impact of this disease. This scientific statement highlights future research priorities in venous thromboembolism, developed by experts and a crowdsourcing survey across 16 scientific organizations. At the fundamental research level (T0), researchers need to identify pathobiological causative mechanisms for the 50% of patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism and to better understand mechanisms that differentiate hemostasis from thrombosis. At the human level (T1), new methods for diagnosing, treating, and preventing venous thromboembolism will allow tailoring of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to individuals. At the patient level (T2), research efforts are required to understand how foundational evidence impacts care of patients (eg, biomarkers). New treatments, such as catheter-based therapies, require further testing to identify which patients are most likely to experience benefit. At the practice level (T3), translating evidence into practice remains challenging. Areas of overuse and underuse will require evidence-based tools to improve care delivery. At the community and population level (T4), public awareness campaigns need thorough impact assessment. Large population-based cohort studies can elucidate the biological and environmental underpinnings of venous thromboembolism and its complications. To achieve these goals, funding agencies and training programs must support a new generation of scientists and clinicians who work in multidisciplinary teams to solve the pressing public health problem of venous thromboembolism.

19.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737612

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the prospective association between serum Mg level and the incidence of cognitive impairment. METHODS: A random sub-cohort (n = 2063) from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort was included in this study. Baseline serum Mg concentration was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. According to the current reference interval of serum magnesium (0.75-0.95 mmol/L), we classified participants below the interval as Level 1 and used it as the referent. The rest of the study population were equally divided into three groups, named Level 2 to 4. Incident cognitive impairment was identified using the Six-Item Screener. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression models. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, an inverse threshold association between serum Mg level and incident cognitive impairment was observed. Compared to those with hypomagnesemia (Level 1: < 0.75 mmol/L), the relative odds of incident cognitive impairment was reduced by 41% in the second level [OR (95% CI) = 0.59 (0.37, 0.94)]; higher serum Mg level did not provide further benefits [Level 3 and 4 versus Level 1: OR (95% CI) = 0.54 (0.34, 0.88) and 0.59 (0.36, 0.96), P for linear trend = 0.08]. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this prospective study suggest that sufficient Mg status within the normal range may be beneficial to cognitive health in the US general population.

20.
Prev Med ; 139: 106217, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702350

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine whether attainment of clinical and lifestyle targets varied by race and sex among adults with diabetes onset in older adulthood. This study included 1420 black and white adults from the REGARDS study without diabetes at baseline (2003-07) but with diabetes onset at the follow-up exam (2013-16). Attainment of clinical targets (A1c <8%; blood pressure < 140/90 mmHg; and statin use) and lifestyle targets (not smoking; physical activity≥ 4 times/week; and moderate/no alcohol use) was assessed at the follow-up exam. Modified Poisson regression was used to obtain prevalence ratios (PR) for meeting clinical and lifestyle targets stratified by race and sex, separately. The mean age was 71.5 years, 53.6% were female, and 46.1% were black. The majority were aware of their diabetes status (85.7%) and used oral or injectable hypoglycemic medications (64.8%). Overall, 39.4% met all 3 clinical targets and 18.8% met all 3 lifestyle targets. Meeting A1c and blood pressure targets were similar by race and sex. Statin use was more prevalent for men than women among white adults (PR = 1.13; 95% CI = 0.99-1.29) and black adults (PR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.06-1.43). For lifestyle factors, the non-smoking prevalence was similar by race and sex, while white men were more likely than white women to be physically active. Although the attainment of each clinical and lifestyle target separately was generally high among adults with diabetes onset in older adulthood, race and sex differences were apparent. Comprehensive management of clinical and lifestyle factors in people with diabetes remains suboptimal.

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