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1.
Public Health Res Pract ; 29(2)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384883

RESUMO

While Australia now has well-established national screening programs for breast, bowel and cervical cancers, research continues into the feasibility of developing systematic screening programs for a number of other cancers. In this paper, experts in their fields provide perspectives on the current state of play and future directions for screening and surveillance for melanoma, Lynch syndrome, and liver, lung and prostate cancers in Australia. Although the evidence does not support population screening, there may be opportunities to prevent thousands of deaths through systematic approaches to the early detection of lung cancer and melanoma, testing for Lynch syndrome, and organised surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma among individuals at high risk - guided by targeted research. The paper also looks at what impact new prostate specific antigen testing guidelines are having on screening for prostate cancer.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of a newly developed psycho-educational intervention to reduce fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) in early-stage melanoma patients. METHODS: A within-trial cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis was conducted from the Australian health system perspective using data from linked Medicare records. Outcomes included FCR, measured with the severity subscale of the FCR Inventory; quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) measured using the preference-based instrument, Assessment of Quality of Life-8 Dimensions (AQoL-8D) and 12-month survival. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated for two economic outcomes: (1) cost per additional case of 'high' FCR avoided and (2) cost per QALY gained. Means and 95% CIs around the ICER were generated from non-parametric bootstrapping with 1000 replications. RESULTS: A total of 151 trial participants were included in the economic evaluation. The mean cost of the psycho-educational intervention was AU$1614 per participant, including intervention development costs. The ICER per case of high FCR avoided was AU$12,903. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve demonstrated a 78% probability of the intervention being cost effective relative to the control at a threshold of AU$50,000 per extra person avoiding FCR. The ICER per QALY gained was AU$116,126 and the probability of the intervention being cost effective for this outcome was 36% at a willingness to pay of AU$50,000 per QALY. CONCLUSION: The psycho-educational intervention reduced FCR at 12 months for people at high risk of developing another melanoma and may represent good value for money. For the QALY outcome, the psycho-educational intervention is unlikely to be cost effective at standard government willingness-to-pay levels. The trial was prospectively registered in the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (CTRN12613000304730).

3.
JAMA Dermatol ; 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090868

RESUMO

Importance: Skin self-examination (SSE) is a key factor in the early detection of melanoma, and many new and recurrent melanomas are first detected by patients themselves or their family members. Objective: To explore the views of patients with melanoma regarding SSE in general, as well as their attitudes toward using novel digital technologies to support their own SSE. Design, Setting, and Participants: Qualitative study with semistructured interviews that were conducted from June 20 to December 12, 2016, with 37 individuals in Sydney, Australia, who were previously treated for a first primary localized melanoma during 2014 and had not had a recurrence or new primary melanoma in the time since treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Patients' views and experiences, analyzed thematically. Results: A total of 37 patients (11 women and 26 men; median age, 67 years [interquartile range, 59.5-72 years]) were interviewed. Participants perceived SSE as important for the early identification of local recurrence or new primary melanomas. Despite this belief, participants did not report undertaking full-body SSE on a regular basis. Factors that influenced their low engagement in thorough SSE included lack of self-efficacy, reliance on clinician consultations as the primary means of melanoma detection, and fear of cancer recurrence. Regarding the use of digital technology to assist with SSE, the key motivating factors in favor of such tools were the ability to track changes in lesions over time and the use of automated reminders to undertake SSE. Deterrents included a lack of confidence in undertaking SSE and in using new technology. Conclusions and Relevance: Patients with melanoma are aware of the importance of thorough skin examinations. However, a lack of confidence in their ability to undertake SSE and reliance on clinicians as the primary means of melanoma detection may inhibit patients from undertaking regular and thorough SSE. Patients may benefit from new digital technologies that assist them in undertaking SSE, provided they have appropriate education and technical support.

4.
Ann Epidemiol ; 35: 1-3, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036443

RESUMO

The under-representation of women in leadership in scientific fields presents a serious problem. Gender diversity is integral to innovation and productivity, and inequality leads to loss of gender talent in science including epidemiology. This policy brief summarizes some of the key dimensions and determinants contributing to gender-equity gaps in epidemiology and other scientific fields, relevant to developed countries where there is more published evidence. Women in scientific fields hold fewer positions on editorial boards, lack equal representation in speaking engagements at conferences, and are less likely to publish or receive top tier grant funding. Reasons for these inequities range from unconscious bias, biased promotion systems, and traditional norms in the division of family life and labor in our society leading to the attrition of women in academia. Addressing the problem of gender inequity, as a component of gender inequality, will provide an ethical basis to advance innovation. Data on gender equity in the field of epidemiology are sparse. We call on academic institutions, professional societies and associations, and editorial boards relevant to epidemiology (as well as other academic disciplines more broadly) to take meaningful action to build an evidence base as to the extent of gender inequities in epidemiologic research, teaching, policy, and practice. We outline some of the necessary steps required to achieve gender equity, such as career development and mentoring programs, institutional support, and programs to address bias.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 61: 8-13, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from sunlight is directly associated with melanoma skin cancer, however reducing sun-exposure can be difficult to achieve at a population level. METHODS: Using a genomic risk information behaviour change trial for melanoma prevention, we classified participants as risk-seeking, risk-neutral or risk-averse for domain-specific risk taking (DOSPERT). One-way ANOVA determined the association between socio-demographic characteristics and risk-taking score, and multivariable linear regression ascertained impact of an individual's underlying risk propensity on an objective measure of sun-exposure, standard erythemal dose (SED), at 3-months follow-up. RESULTS: Of 119 participants, mean age 53 years; 50% males, 87% had a personal/family history of cancer; 19% were classified risk-seeking, 57% risk-neutral. The mean risk-taking score was significantly higher in younger participants (≤50 years: 13.86 vs. >50 years: 11.11, p = 0.003); and lower in those with a personal/family history of skin cancer versus without (10.55 vs 13.33, p = 0.009). Risk averse individuals had lower weekly mean SEDs at 3-months than risk neutral and risk seeking individuals (2.56, 5.81, 4.81 respectively, p = 0.01). Risk seekers showed fewer sun protective habits (p < 0.001); and higher intentional tanning, (p = 0.01). At 3-months, risk seekers attained 16%-54% lower SEDs in the genomic information group compared with controls, however this was not significantly different across risk groups (interaction p = 0.13). CONCLUSION: An individual's underlying risk attitude is likely associated with sun-exposure behaviours, and may modify the effect of a genomic risk information behaviour change intervention. Young people and risk seekers may benefit most from being given information on their genetic risk of melanoma.

6.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 3(5): 332-342, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline variants in the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) might increase the risk of childhood and adolescent melanoma, but a clear conclusion is challenging because of the low number of studies and cases. We assessed the association of MC1R variants with childhood and adolescent melanoma in a large study comparing the prevalence of MC1R variants in child or adolescent patients with melanoma to that in adult patients with melanoma and in healthy adult controls. METHODS: In this retrospective pooled analysis, we used the M-SKIP Project, the Italian Melanoma Intergroup, and other European groups (with participants from Australia, Canada, France, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and the USA) to assemble an international multicentre cohort. We gathered phenotypic and genetic data from children or adolescents diagnosed with sporadic single-primary cutaneous melanoma at age 20 years or younger, adult patients with sporadic single-primary cutaneous melanoma diagnosed at age 35 years or older, and healthy adult individuals as controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for childhood and adolescent melanoma associated with MC1R variants by multivariable logistic regression. Subgroup analysis was done for children aged 18 or younger and 14 years or younger. FINDINGS: We analysed data from 233 young patients, 932 adult patients, and 932 healthy adult controls. Children and adolescents had higher odds of carrying MC1R r variants than did adult patients (OR 1·54, 95% CI 1·02-2·33), including when analysis was restricted to patients aged 18 years or younger (1·80, 1·06-3·07). All investigated variants, except Arg160Trp, tended, to varying degrees, to have higher frequencies in young patients than in adult patients, with significantly higher frequencies found for Val60Leu (OR 1·60, 95% CI 1·05-2·44; p=0·04) and Asp294His (2·15, 1·05-4·40; p=0·04). Compared with those of healthy controls, young patients with melanoma had significantly higher frequencies of any MC1R variants. INTERPRETATION: Our pooled analysis of MC1R genetic data of young patients with melanoma showed that MC1R r variants were more prevalent in childhood and adolescent melanoma than in adult melanoma, especially in patients aged 18 years or younger. Our findings support the role of MC1R in childhood and adolescent melanoma susceptibility, with a potential clinical relevance for developing early melanoma detection and preventive strategies. FUNDING: SPD-Pilot/Project-Award-2015; AIRC-MFAG-11831.

7.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 81(2): 386-394, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although rare in the general population, highly penetrant germline mutations in CDKN2A are responsible for 5%-40% of melanoma cases reported in melanoma-prone families. We sought to determine whether MELPREDICT was generalizable to a global series of families with melanoma and whether performance improvements can be achieved. METHODS: In total, 2116 familial melanoma cases were ascertained by the international GenoMEL Consortium. We recapitulated the MELPREDICT model within our data (GenoMELPREDICT) to assess performance improvements by adding phenotypic risk factors and history of pancreatic cancer. We report areas under the curve (AUC) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) along with net reclassification indices (NRIs) as performance metrics. RESULTS: MELPREDICT performed well (AUC 0.752, 95% CI 0.730-0.775), and GenoMELPREDICT performance was similar (AUC 0.748, 95% CI 0.726-0.771). Adding a reported history of pancreatic cancer yielded discriminatory improvement (P < .0001) in GenoMELPREDICT (AUC 0.772, 95% CI 0.750-0.793, NRI 0.40). Including phenotypic risk factors did not improve performance. CONCLUSION: The MELPREDICT model functioned well in a global data set of familial melanoma cases. Adding pancreatic cancer history improved model prediction. GenoMELPREDICT is a simple tool for predicting CDKN2A mutational status among melanoma patients from melanoma-prone families and can aid in directing these patients to receive genetic testing or cancer risk counseling.

9.
Australas J Dermatol ; 2018 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30302753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There are limited population-based data documenting the incidence and management of lentigo maligna (LM) and invasive lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM). We report the data on occurrence and management of LM and LMM in an Australian population. METHODS: Prospective collection of incidence and clinician-reported management of melanoma in situ (MIS; n = 450, capped) and localised invasive melanoma (n = 3251) notified to the New South Wales Cancer Registry over 12-months in 2006-2007. RESULTS: The estimated annual incidence of all MIS was 27.0 per 100 000 (LM 12.2, non-LM MIS 5.9 and unclassified MIS 9.0). Patients with LM or LMM were on average approximately 10 years older than those with other melanoma subtypes (P < 0.001). The head and neck was the location of 59% of LM, 44% of LMM and <20% of other melanoma subtypes (P < 0.001). The majority of LM and LMM were treated only by specialists. Diagnostic partial biopsies were more frequent for LM and LMM than for other melanoma subtypes, and primary care physicians were more likely than specialists to do a punch partial biopsy than a shave biopsy. The reported median definitive excision margin for LM was 5.0 mm compared with 7.2 mm for non-LM MIS (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this Australian population, LM was twice as frequent as other types of MIS. Improved strategies for diagnosis and management are required.

11.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 17(12): 1853-1860, 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113042

RESUMO

Melanoma rates have increased in populations that are mainly European. The main etiologic factor is ultraviolet radiation, from the sun as well as artificial tanning devices. Host factors such as skin color, number of nevi, hair and eye color and tanning ability are critical factors in modifying an individual's response to the sun. Genetic factors interact with host factors and environmental factors to increase risk. This review summarizes our current knowledge of environment and genetics on melanoma risk and on gene-environment interaction.

12.
JAMA Dermatol ; 154(9): 1001-1009, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027280

RESUMO

Importance: There are limited data among young adults on sunscreen use during childhood and adulthood and on the association of sunscreen use with melanoma risk. Objective: To assess correlates of early-life sunscreen use and the association between sunscreen use and risk of cutaneous melanoma before age 40 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based, case-control family study analyzed Australian Melanoma Family Study data for persons with questionnaire data on sunscreen use collected by interview from 2001 to 2005 across 3 states in Australia, representing two-thirds of the country's population. Case participants (aged 18-39 years) had confirmed first primary melanoma. Siblings of case participants were included, and case participants without a sibling control were excluded. Unrelated controls (aged 18-44 years) were recruited from the electoral roll or were a spouse, partner, or friend nominated by case participants. Data analyses were conducted from October 2017 to February 2018. Exposures: Self- and parent-reported sunscreen use, sun exposure, and other candidate risk factors during childhood and adulthood. Main Outcomes and Measures: Logistic regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for melanoma and for correlates of sunscreen use. Results: Participation was 629 of 830 contactable cases (76%) (629 of 1197 overall [53%]), 240 of 570 contactable controls (42%) from the electoral roll (240 of 1068 overall [23%]), and 295 of 371 nominated spouse or friend controls (80%); analysis incuded 603 cases and 1088 controls. The median (interquartile range) age was 32 (28-36) years for 603 cases, 35 (30-38) years for 478 unrelated controls, and 34 (29-38) years for 610 sibling controls. There were more women than men (range, 57%-62%) in all groups, approximately 40% (range, 39%-43%) of participants had a university education, and most participants (range, 58%-73%) had British/northern European ethnicity. Risk of melanoma was less with higher use of sunscreen in childhood (OR for highest vs lowest tertiles, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.87; P = .02 for trend) and across the lifetime (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45-0.93; P = .07 for trend). Subgroup analyses suggested that the protective association of sunscreen with melanoma was stronger for people reporting blistering sunburn, receiving a diagnosis of melanoma at a younger age, or having some or many nevi. Total lifetime sun exposure was unrelated to melanoma risk (OR for highest vs lowest tertile, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.66-1.43; P = .94 for trend). By contrast, total sun exposure inversely weighted by sunscreen use (as a measure of sun exposure unprotected by sunscreen) was significantly associated with melanoma risk (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.22-2.65; P = .007 for trend) and appeared stronger for people having lighter pigmentation or some or many nevi or using sunscreen to stay longer in the sun. Regular users of sunscreen were more likely to be female, younger, and of British or northern European ancestry and to have higher educational levels, lighter skin pigmentation, and a stronger history of blistering sunburn. Conclusions and Relevance: Our findings provided evidence that regular sunscreen use is significantly associated with reduced risk of cutaneous melanoma among young adults and identified several characteristics associated with less sunscreen use.

13.
J Invest Dermatol ; 138(12): 2617-2624, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890168

RESUMO

It is unclear to what degree genomic and traditional (phenotypic and environmental) risk factors overlap in their prediction of melanoma risk. We evaluated the incremental contribution of common genomic variants (in pigmentation, nevus, and other pathways) and their overlap with traditional risk factors, using data from two population-based case-control studies from Australia (n = 1,035) and the United Kingdom (n = 1,460) that used the same questionnaires. Polygenic risk scores were derived from 21 gene regions associated with melanoma and odds ratios from published meta-analyses. Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, center, and ancestry. Adding the polygenic risk score to a model with traditional risk factors increased the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) by 2.3% (P = 0.003) for Australia and by 2.8% (P = 0.002) for Leeds. Gene variants in the pigmentation pathway, particularly MC1R, were responsible for most of the incremental improvement. In a cross-tabulation of polygenic by traditional tertile risk scores, 59% (Australia) and 49% (Leeds) of participants were categorized in the same (concordant) tertile. Of participants with low traditional risk, 9% (Australia) and 21% (Leeds) had high polygenic risk. Testing of genomic variants can identify people who are susceptible to melanoma despite not having a traditional phenotypic risk profile.

14.
J Invest Dermatol ; 138(11): 2398-2404, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753029

RESUMO

BRAF and NRAS mutations arise early in melanoma development, but their associations with low-penetrance melanoma susceptibility loci remain unknown. In the Genes, Environment and Melanoma Study, 1,223 European-origin participants had their incident invasive primary melanomas screened for BRAF/NRAS mutations and germline DNA genotyped for 47 single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified as low-penetrant melanoma-risk variants. We used multinomial logistic regression to simultaneously examine each single-nucleotide polymorphism's relationship to BRAF V600E, BRAF V600K, BRAF other, and NRAS+ relative to BRAF-/NRAS- melanoma adjusted for study features. IRF4 rs12203592*T was associated with BRAF V600E (odds ratio [OR] = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.43-0.79) and V600K (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.41-1.03), but not BRAF other or NRAS+ melanoma. A global test of etiologic heterogeneity (Pglobal = 0.001) passed false discovery (Pglobal = 0.0026). PLA2G6 rs132985*T was associated with BRAF V600E (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.05-1.67) and BRAF other (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.11-2.98), but not BRAF V600K or NRAS+ melanoma. The test for etiologic heterogeneity (Pglobal) was 0.005. The IRF4 rs12203592 associations were slightly attenuated after adjustment for melanoma-risk phenotypes. The PLA2G6 rs132985 associations were independent of phenotypes. IRF4 and PLA2G6 inherited genotypes may influence melanoma BRAF/NRAS subtype development.

15.
Fam Pract ; 2018 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800131

RESUMO

Background: Personalized risk assessments using prediction models that incorporate several melanoma risk factors may promote melanoma-prevention behaviours. Objectives: To evaluate the effect on short-term melanoma-prevention behaviours of web-based, real-time, model-generated personalized melanoma risk information and tailored prevention advice, and its feasibility and clinician acceptability. Methods: Between February and April 2016, in an open randomized controlled trial across four general medical practices in New South Wales, Australia, 272 patients were randomly allocated to receive (i) real-time model-generated personalized melanoma risk assessment and tailored melanoma-prevention advice or (ii) generic melanoma-prevention advice. We measured self-reported melanoma-prevention behaviours at baseline and 6 weeks and the intervention's feasibility and acceptability. Results: Follow-up questionnaires were completed by 185 patients at 6 weeks: 174 assessed as average risk and 11 as high or very high risk. There were no statistically significant differences between intervention and control patients in sun protection, sun exposure or early diagnosis behaviours. When stratified by melanoma risk, average risk patients in the intervention group appeared to show greater sun protection at 6 weeks (mean difference = 0.23, on a scale of 1-5; 95% confidence interval: 0.01 to 0.45; P = 0.04) than patients in the control group; the P value for interaction between intervention and risk category was 0.10. There was favourable feedback from patients and general practitioners. Conclusions: Web-based delivery in general practice of real-time, model-generated personalized melanoma risk prediction and tailored melanoma-prevention advice is feasible and acceptable. An apparent increase in sun protection behaviour in average risk patients warrants further evaluation in different risk groups.

16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(8): 1094-1100, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706632

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to understand how genomics-based personal melanoma risk information impacts psychological and emotional health outcomes in the general population. In a pilot randomized controlled trial, participants (n = 103) completed the Multidimensional Impact of Cancer Risk Assessment (MICRA) questionnaire, 3 months after receiving personal melanoma genomic risk information. Mean scores for MICRA items and subscales were stratified by genomic risk group (low, average, high), gender, education, age, and family history of melanoma. P values were obtained from t-tests and analysis of variance tests. We found that overall, participants (mean age: 53 years, range: 21-69; 52% female) had a total MICRA mean score of 18.6 (standard deviation: 11.1, range: 1-70; possible range: 0-105). The high genomic risk group had higher mean scores for the total (24.2, F2,100 = 6.7, P = 0.0019), distress (3.3, F2,100 = 9.4, P = 0.0002) and uncertainty (8.5, F2,100 = 6.5, P = 0.0021) subscales compared with average (17.6, 1.1, and 4.5, respectively) and low-risk groups (14.1, 0.5, and 2.5, respectively). Positive experiences scores were consistent across risk groups. In conclusion, MICRA scores for the total, distress and uncertainty subscales in our study were relatively low overall, but people who receive a high genomic risk result may benefit from increased support following testing.

17.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 70: 106-116, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reducing ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure and improving early detection may reduce melanoma incidence, mortality and health system costs. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of providing information on personal genomic risk of melanoma in reducing UV exposure at 12 months, according to low and high traditional risk. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, participants (target sample = 892) will be recruited from the general population, and randomized (1:1 ratio, intervention versus control). Intervention arm participants provide a saliva sample, receive personalized melanoma genomic risk information, a genetic counselor phone call, and an educational booklet on melanoma prevention. Control arm participants receive only the educational booklet. Eligible participants are aged 18-69 years, have European ancestry and no personal history of melanoma. All participants will complete a questionnaire and wear a UV dosimeter to objectively measure their sun exposure at baseline, 1- and 12-month time-points, except 1-month UV dosimetry will be limited to ~250 participants. The primary outcome is total daily Standard Erythemal Doses at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include objectively measured UV exposure for specific time periods (e.g. midday hours), self-reported sun protection and skin-examination behaviors, psycho-social outcomes, and ethical considerations surrounding offering genomic testing at a population level. A within-trial and modelled economic evaluation will be undertaken from an Australian health system perspective to assess the intervention costs and outcomes. DISCUSSION: This trial will inform the clinical and personal utility of introducing genomic testing into the health system for melanoma prevention and early detection at a population-level. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12617000691347.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 143(3): 508-514, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29473154

RESUMO

Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, mainly affecting populations of European ancestry. Some observational studies suggest that particular diets reduce melanoma risk, putatively through an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption. However, interpretation of these observational findings is difficult due to residual confounding or reverse causality. To date, a randomized controlled trial has not been carried out to examine the relationship between PUFAs and melanoma. Hence, we performed a Mendelian randomisation (MR) study to evaluate the link between PUFAs and melanoma. To perform MR, we used summary results from the largest risk genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of melanoma, consisting of 12,874 cases and 23,203 controls. As instrumental variables we selected SNPs associated with PUFA levels from a GWAS meta-analysis of PUFA levels, from the CHARGE consortium. We used the inverse variance weighted method to estimate a causal odds ratio. To aid interpretation, we established a benchmark "large" predicted change in PUFAs in which, for example, an increase in docosahexaenoic acid (DPA) of 0.17 units (equal to 1 standard deviation) moves a person from the 17th percentile to the median. Raising PUFA levels by a large amount (increasing DPA by 0.17 units) only negligibly changed melanoma risk: odds ratio [OR] = 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.96-1.10). Other PUFAs yielded similar results as DPA. Our MR analysis suggests that the effect of PUFA levels on melanoma risk is either zero or very small.

19.
Photochem Photobiol ; 94(4): 815-820, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421857

RESUMO

Self-reported sun exposure is commonly measured using questionnaires or diaries, but there are limited data on their validity, particularly for population subgroups. This research aimed to compare self-reported sun exposure, measured as (1) habitual time outdoors over the past month on weekends and weekdays and (2) a 4-day diary measure, against objective measurement of personal ultraviolet radiation using polysulfone film dosimeters. From November 2015 to January 2016, 94 people (22-69 years and living in New South Wales, Australia) completed a questionnaire, 4-day diary and 4-day dosimeter measures of overall, weekday and weekend sun exposure. Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman plots were used to measure agreement. The overall weekly correlation was 0.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44, 0.68) between standard erythemal doses (SEDs) measured by dosimeter and time spent outdoors measured by questionnaire, 0.74 (95% CI 0.66-0.81) between dosimeter and diary, and 0.59 (95% CI 0.48-0.68) between questionnaire and diary measures. Validity was lower for younger people and weekend sun exposure. There was strong correlation between dosimeter and sun diary measures and moderate correlation between dosimeter and questionnaire measures. Daily measurement over a longer period may be required to accurately capture weeklong sun exposure in all population subgroups.

20.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 25(3): 617-625, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29299710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Follow-up practices after diagnosis and treatment of primary cutaneous melanoma vary considerably. We aimed to determine factors associated with recommendations for follow-up setting, frequency, skin surveillance, and concordance with clinical guidelines. METHODS: The population-based Melanoma Patterns of Care study documented clinicians' recommendations for follow-up for 2148 patients diagnosed with primary cutaneous melanoma over a 12-month period (2006/2007) in New South Wales, Australia. Multivariate log binomial regression models adjusted for patient and lesion characteristics were used to examine factors associated with follow-up practices. RESULTS: Of 2158 melanomas, Breslow thickness was < 1 mm for 57% and ≥ 1 mm for 30%, while in situ melanomas accounted for 13%. Follow-up was recommended for 2063 patients (96%). On multivariate analysis, factors associated with a recommendation for follow-up at a specialist center were Breslow thickness ≥ 1 mm [prevalence ratio (PR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.09] and initial treatment at a specialist center (PR 1.12, 95% CI 1.08-1.16). Longer follow-up intervals of > 3 months were more likely to be recommended for females, less likely for people living in rural compared with urban areas, and less likely for thicker (≥ 1 mm) melanomas compared with in situ melanomas. Skin self-examination was encouraged in 84% of consultations and was less likely to be recommended for patients ≥ 70 years (PR 0.88, 95% CI 0.84-0.93) and for those with thicker (≥ 1 mm) melanomas (PR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.99). Only 1% of patients were referred for psychological care. CONCLUSIONS: Follow-up recommendations were generally consistent with Australian national guidelines for management of melanoma, however some variations could be targeted to improve patient outcomes.

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