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3.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 313-329, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085121

RESUMO

Asthma genes have been identified through a range of approaches, from candidate gene association studies and family-based genome-wide linkage analyses to genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The first GWAS of asthma, reported in 2007, identified multiple markers on chromosome 17q21 as associates of the childhood-onset asthma. This remains the best replicated asthma locus to date. However, notwithstanding undeniable successes, genetic studies have produced relatively heterogeneous results with limited replication, and despite considerable promise, genetics of asthma and allergy has, so far, had limited impact on patient care, our understanding of disease mechanisms, and development of novel therapeutic targets. The paucity of precise replication in genetic studies of asthma is partly explained by the existence of numerous gene-environment interactions. Another important issue which is often overlooked is that of time of the assessment of the primary outcome(s) and the relevant environmental exposures. Most large GWASs use the broadest possible definition of asthma to increase the sample size, but the unwanted consequence of this is increased phenotypic heterogeneity, which dilutes effect sizes. One way of addressing this is to precisely define disease subtypes (e.g. by applying novel mathematical approaches to rich phenotypic data) and use these latent subtypes in genetic studies.


Assuntos
Asma , Hipersensibilidade , Asma/genética , Criança , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/genética
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23741, 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887467

RESUMO

The mechanisms explaining excess morbidity and mortality in respiratory infections among males are poorly understood. Innate immune responses are critical in protection against respiratory virus infections. We hypothesised that innate immune responses to respiratory viruses may be deficient in males. We stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 345 participants at age 16 years in a population-based birth cohort with three live respiratory viruses (rhinoviruses A16 and A1, and respiratory syncytial virus) and two viral mimics (R848 and CpG-A, to mimic responses to SARS-CoV-2) and investigated sex differences in interferon (IFN) responses. IFN-α responses to all viruses and stimuli were 1.34-2.06-fold lower in males than females (P = 0.018 - < 0.001). IFN-ß, IFN-γ and IFN-induced chemokines were also deficient in males across all stimuli/viruses. Healthcare records revealed 12.1% of males and 6.6% of females were hospitalized with respiratory infections in infancy (P = 0.017). In conclusion, impaired innate anti-viral immunity in males likely results in high male morbidity and mortality from respiratory virus infections.

5.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(4)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34881328

RESUMO

Background: The prevalences of obstructive and restrictive spirometric phenotypes, and their relation to early-life risk factors from childhood to young adulthood remain poorly understood. The aim was to explore these phenotypes and associations with well-known respiratory risk factors across ages and populations in European cohorts. Methods: We studied 49 334 participants from 14 population-based cohorts in different age groups (≤10, >10-15, >15-20, >20-25 years, and overall, 5-25 years). The obstructive phenotype was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) z-score less than the lower limit of normal (LLN), whereas the restrictive phenotype was defined as FEV1/FVC z-score ≥LLN, and FVC z-score

6.
World Allergy Organ J ; 14(12): 100617, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934475

RESUMO

Background: Cough features a complex peripheral and central neuronal network. The function of the chemosensitive and stretch (afferent) cough receptors is well described but partly understood. It is speculated that chronic cough reflects a neurogenic inflammation of the cough reflex, which becomes hypersensitive. This is mediated by neuromediators, cytokines, inflammatory cells, and a differential expression of neuronal (chemo/stretch) receptors, such as transient receptor potential (TRP) and purinergic P2X ion channels; yet the overall interaction of these mediators in neurogenic inflammation of cough pathways remains unclear. Objectives: The World Allergy Organization/Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (WAO/ARIA) Joint Committee on Chronic Cough reviewed the current literature on neuroanatomy and pathophysiology of chronic cough. The role of TRP ion channels in pathogenic mechanisms of the hypersensitive cough reflex was also examined. Outcomes: Chemoreceptors are better studied in cough neuronal pathways compared to stretch receptors, likely due to their anatomical overabundance in the respiratory tract, but also their distinctive functional properties. Central pathways are important in suppressive mechanisms and behavioral/affective aspects of chronic cough. Current evidence strongly suggests neurogenic inflammation induces a hypersensitive cough reflex marked by increased expression of neuromediators, mast cells, and eosinophils, among others. TRP ion channels, mainly TRP V1/A1, are important in the pathogenesis of chronic cough due to their role in mediating chemosensitivity to various endogenous and exogenous triggers, as well as a crosstalk between neurogenic and inflammatory pathways in cough-associated airways diseases.

7.
World Allergy Organ J ; 14(12): 100618, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34963794

RESUMO

Background: Chronic cough can be triggered by respiratory and non-respiratory tract illnesses originating mainly from the upper and lower airways, and the GI tract (ie, reflux). Recent findings suggest it can also be a prominent feature in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), laryngeal hyperresponsiveness, and COVID-19. The classification of chronic cough is constantly updated but lacks clear definition. Epidemiological data on the prevalence of chronic cough are informative but highly variable. The underlying mechanism of chronic cough is a neurogenic inflammation of the cough reflex which becomes hypersensitive, thus the term hypersensitive cough reflex (HCR). A current challenge is to decipher how various infectious and inflammatory airway diseases and esophageal reflux, among others, modulate HCR. Objectives: The World Allergy Organization/Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (WAO/ARIA) Joint Committee on Chronic Cough reviewed the current literature on classification, epidemiology, presenting features, and mechanistic pathways of chronic cough in airway- and reflux-related cough phenotypes, OSA, and COVID-19. The interplay of cough reflex sensitivity with other pathogenic mechanisms inherent to airway and reflux-related inflammatory conditions was also analyzed. Outcomes: Currently, it is difficult to clearly ascertain true prevalence rates in epidemiological studies of chronic cough phenotypes. This is likely due to lack of standardized objective measures needed for cough classification and frequent coexistence of multi-organ cough origins. Notwithstanding, we emphasize the important role of HCR as a mechanistic trigger in airway- and reflux-related cough phenotypes. Other concomitant mechanisms can also modulate HCR, including type2/Th1/Th2 inflammation, presence or absence of deep inspiration-bronchoprotective reflex (lower airways), tissue remodeling, and likely cough plasticity, among others.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942235

RESUMO

Amongst patients with asthma, reliance on the type/dose of prescribed medication and symptom control does not adequately capture those at risk of adverse outcomes, and we need biomarkers for risk and treatment stratification which are consistently accurate, readily quantifiable and reproducible. The majority of patients with severe asthma, regardless of age, have predominant type-2 (T2) inflammation mediated disease, making airway/blood eosinophils, FeNO, periostin and/or allergic sensitization potentially important biomarkers for severe disease. In both adult and pediatric asthma, there is scope to improve prediction of severe attacks by using a composite T2 biomarkers of blood eosinophils and FeNO. Technological advances in component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) microarray technologies coupled with the development of interpretation software offer a possibility to use CRD as biomarkers of asthma severity amongst sensitized asthmatics. Genetic predisposition and polygenic risk scores of relevant traits (e.g., lung function, host immune responses, biomarkers of exposure from the indoor and outdoor environment, infection and microbial dysbiosis) may also contribute to prediction algorithms. We challenge the idea that asthma can be accurately defined in an individual patient by a discrete and static "endotype" (e.g., T2-high asthma). As we traverse the new era of molecular endotyping in asthma, we need to understand how relevant mechanisms impact patient outcomes, and in parallel develop new tools and approaches to stratify therapies and define individual patient trajectories.

9.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spirometric restriction, defined as a reduced forced vital capacity (FVC) with a preserved FEV1/FVC ratio, is associated with increased respiratory and non-respiratory comorbidities and all-cause mortality in adulthood. Little is known about the early origins of this condition. We sought to identify early-life risk factors for spirometric restriction in adult life. METHODS: In this longitudinal, multicohort, population-based study, we used data from the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study (TCRS), which recruited 1246 healthy infants at birth between April 1980, and October 1984, in Tucson, AZ, USA. Questionnaires were answered by the primary caregiver at enrolment, immediately after the child's birth, and multiple follow-up questionnaires were completed through childhood and adulthood. At the age of 22, 26, 32, and 36 years, lung function was measured with spirometry. At each survey, three mutually exclusive spirometric patterns were defined: (1) normal (FEV1/FVC ≥10th percentile and FVC ≥10th percentile); (2) restrictive (FEV1/FVC ≥10th percentile and FVC <10th percentile); and (3) obstructive (FEV1/FVC <10th percentile, independent of FVC). Data on demographic features and parental health factors were collected from questionnaires; pregnancy and perinatal data (including nutritional problems) and birth measurements were obtained from medical records; and weight, height, and body-mass index (BMI) during childhood (age 6-16 years) were measured by study nurses. The associations between early-life risk factors and spirometric patterns were assessed by multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis, adjusted for survey year, sex, and race-ethnicity. Significant risk factors were further tested for replication in the Swedish Child (Barn), Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiological (BAMSE; n=1817; spirometry surveys were done at age 24 years) survey and the UK Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study (MAAS; n=411; spirometry surveys were done at age 18 years) birth cohorts, and fixed-effect meta-analyses of relative risk ratios (RRRs) from multinomial logistic regression models were done to generate a pooled estimate of the effect across the three cohorts. Measurements of body composition (MAAS; n=365) and total lung capacity (TCRS; n=173 and MAAS; n=407) were also available for a subset of participants. FINDINGS: Of 1246 healthy infants included in TCRS, for the present study we included data for 652 participants who had at least one set of spirometry data, contributing up to 1668 observations. In the TCRS cohort, results from the multivariate models showed that maternal nutritional problems during pregnancy (RRR 2·48 [95% CI 1·30-4·76]; p=0·0062), being born small for gestational age (birthweight <10th percentile; 3·26 [1·34-7·93]; p=0·0093), and being underweight in childhood (BMI-for-age <5th percentile; 3·54 [1·35-9·26]; p=0·010) were independent predictors of spirometric restriction in adult life. Associations between being small for gestational age (p=0·0028) and underweight in childhood (p<0·0001) with adult spirometric restriction were supported by the results of meta-analysis of data from all three cohorts. In the MAAS cohort, having a low lean BMI (ie, <10th percentile) at age 11 years predicted adult (age 18 years) spirometric restriction (RRR 3·66 [1·48-9·02]; p=0·0048). These associations of spirometric restriction with small for gestational age, childhood underweight, and low lean BMI in childhood were verified in participants with spirometric restriction who had diminished total lung capacity, indicating that these factors specifically increase the risk of lung restriction. INTERPRETATION: Poor growth and nutritional deficits in utero and throughout childhood precede and predict the development of spirometric restriction in adult life. Strategies to improve prenatal and childhood growth trajectories could help to prevent spirometric restriction and its associated morbidity and mortality burden. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health.

10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6618, 2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785669

RESUMO

Previous genome-wide association studies revealed multiple common variants involved in eczema but the role of rare variants remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigate the role of rare variants in eczema susceptibility. We meta-analyze 21 study populations including 20,016 eczema cases and 380,433 controls. Rare variants are imputed with high accuracy using large population-based reference panels. We identify rare exonic variants in DUSP1, NOTCH4, and SLC9A4 to be associated with eczema. In DUSP1 and NOTCH4 missense variants are predicted to impact conserved functional domains. In addition, five novel common variants at SATB1-AS1/KCNH8, TRIB1/LINC00861, ZBTB1, TBX21/OSBPL7, and CSF2RB are discovered. While genes prioritized based on rare variants are significantly up-regulated in the skin, common variants point to immune cell function. Over 20% of the single nucleotide variant-based heritability is attributable to rare and low-frequency variants. The identified rare/low-frequency variants located in functional protein domains point to promising targets for novel therapeutic approaches to eczema.

11.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 11(9): e12076, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory symptoms are common in early life and often transient. It is difficult to identify in which children these will persist and result in asthma. Machine learning (ML) approaches have the potential for better predictive performance and generalisability over existing childhood asthma prediction models. This study applied ML approaches to predict school-age asthma (age 10) in early life (Childhood Asthma Prediction in Early life, CAPE model) and at preschool age (Childhood Asthma Prediction at Preschool age, CAPP model). METHODS: Clinical and environmental exposure data was collected from children enrolled in the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (N = 1368, ∼15% asthma prevalence). Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) identified an optimal subset of features predictive of school-age asthma for each model. Seven state-of-the-art ML classification algorithms were used to develop prognostic models. Training was performed by applying fivefold cross-validation, imputation, and resampling. Predictive performance was evaluated on the test set. Models were further externally validated in the Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study (MAAS) cohort. RESULTS: RFE identified eight and twelve predictors for the CAPE and CAPP models, respectively. Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms provided the best performance for both the CAPE (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC = 0.71) and CAPP (AUC = 0.82) models. Both models demonstrated good generalisability in MAAS (CAPE 8-year = 0.71, 11-year = 0.71, CAPP 8-year = 0.83, 11-year = 0.79) and excellent sensitivity to predict a subgroup of persistent wheezers. CONCLUSION: Using ML approaches improved upon the predictive performance of existing regression-based models, with good generalisability and ability to rule in asthma and predict persistent wheeze.

12.
Allergy ; 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food anaphylaxis is commonly elicited by unintentional ingestion of foods containing the allergen above the tolerance threshold level of the individual. While labeling the 14 main allergens used as ingredients in food products is mandatory in the EU, there is no legal definition of declaring potential contaminants. Precautionary allergen labeling such as "may contain traces of" is often used. However, this is unsatisfactory for consumers as they get no information if the contamination is below their personal threshold. In discussions with the food industry and technologists, it was suggested to use a voluntary declaration indicating that all declared contaminants are below a threshold of 0.5 mg protein per 100 g of food. This concentration is known to be below the threshold of most patients, and it can be technically guaranteed in most food production. However, it was also important to assess that in case of accidental ingestion of contaminants below this threshold by highly allergic patients, no fatal anaphylactic reaction could occur. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to assess whether a fatal reaction to 5mg of protein or less has been reported, assuming that a maximum portion size of 1kg of a processed food exceeds any meal and thus gives a sufficient safety margin. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched until 24 January 2021 for provocation studies and case reports in which one of the 14 major food allergens was reported to elicit fatal or life-threatening anaphylactic reactions and assessed if these occurred below the ingestion of 5mg of protein. A Delphi process was performed to obtain an expert consensus on the results. RESULTS: In the 210 studies included, in our search, no reports of fatal anaphylactic reactions reported below 5 mg protein ingested were identified. However, in provocation studies and case reports, severe reactions below 5 mg were reported for the following allergens: eggs, fish, lupin, milk, nuts, peanuts, soy, and sesame seeds. CONCLUSION: Based on the literature studied for this review, it can be stated that cross-contamination of the 14 major food allergens below 0.5 mg/100 g is likely not to endanger most food allergic patients when a standard portion of food is consumed. We propose to use the statement "this product contains the named allergens in the list of ingredients, it may contain traces of other contaminations (to be named, e.g. nut) at concentrations less than 0.5 mg per 100 g of this product" for a voluntary declaration on processed food packages. This level of avoidance of cross-contaminations can be achieved technically for most processed foods, and the statement would be a clear and helpful message to the consumers. However, it is clearly acknowledged that a voluntary declaration is only a first step to a legally binding solution. For this, further research on threshold levels is encouraged.

13.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(12): 1212-1221, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518469

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Children with food allergy are at increased risk for asthma and asthma morbidity. Since leukotrienes are implicated in the pathogenesis of both asthma and probably in food allergies, we hypothesized that asthmatic children with concomitant food allergy may have a favorable response to antileukotriene treatment. METHODS: Asthmatic children aged 6-18 years with and without food allergy were treated with montelukast and placebo in a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over parallel-group study. The primary outcome of the study was improvement in FEV1%. Asthma control tests, spirometry and methacholine challenges were performed as well as Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) levels. PGD2, CystLT, and lipoxin levels were measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). RESULTS: A total of 113 children were enrolled and 87 completed the study in accordance with the protocol. At baseline, children with food allergy and asthma (FAA) had higher levels of PGD2 and CysLT levels in the EBC than children with asthma alone (AA) (p < 0.001 for each). In the montelukast arm, although FEV1% was significantly higher in the FAA group compared to AA (p = 0.005), this effect was linked to the baseline difference of FEV1% between both arms. Montelukast treatment failed to improve FEV1% in both groups compared to the placebo. No effect of montelukast was observed in the remaining study parameters. CONCLUSION: Although children with FAA do not show a more favorable response to montelukast treatment compared to AA, a significant difference between baseline PGD2 and CystLT levels between FAA and AA groups may point to a different endotype of childhood asthma.

14.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(8): 1691-1699, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood allergic rhinitis (AR) is clinically heterogenous. We aimed to identify distinct phenotypes among children with AR using data-driven techniques and to ascertain their association with patterns of symptoms, allergic sensitization, and comorbidities. METHODS: We recruited 510 children with physician-diagnosed AR, of whom 205 (40%) had asthma. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to identify latent structure within the data set using 17 variables (allergic conjunctivitis, eczema, asthma, family history of asthma, family history of allergic rhinitis, skin sensitization to 8 common allergens, tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy). RESULTS: A four-class solution was selected as the optimal model based on statistical fit. We labeled latent classes as: (1) AR with grass mono-sensitization and conjunctivitis (n = 361, 70.8%); (2) AR with house dust mite sensitization and asthma (n = 75, 14.7%); (3) AR with pet and grass polysensitization and conjunctivitis (n = 35, 6.9%); and (4) AR among children with tonsils and adenoids removed (n = 39, 7.6%). Perennial AR was significantly more common among children in Class 2 (OR 5.83, 95% CI 3.42-9.94, p < .001) and Class 3 (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.36-6.13, p = .006). Mild and intermittent AR symptoms were significantly more common in children in Class 2 compared to those in Class 1. AR was more severe in Class 1 compared to other 3 classes, indicating that upper respiratory symptoms are more severe among children with isolated seasonal rhinitis, than in those with rhinitis and coexisting asthma. CONCLUSION: We have identified 4 phenotypes in school-age children with AR, which were associated with different patterns of clinical symptoms and comorbidities.

15.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 51(9): 1185-1194, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomedical research increasingly relies on computational approaches to extract relevant information from large corpora of publications. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the consequence of the ambiguity between the use of terms "Eczema" and "Atopic Dermatitis" (AD) from the Information Retrieval perspective, and its impact on meta-analyses, systematic reviews and text mining. METHODS: Articles were retrieved by querying the PubMed using terms 'eczema' (D003876) and "dermatitis, atopic" (D004485). We used machine learning to investigate the differences between the contexts in which each term is used. We used a decision tree approach and trained model to predict if an article would be indexed with eczema or AD tags. We used text-mining tools to extract biological entities associated with eczema and AD, and investigated the discrepancy regarding the retrieval of key findings according to the terminology used. RESULTS: Atopic dermatitis query yielded more articles related to veterinary science, biochemistry, cellular and molecular biology; the eczema query linked to public health, infectious disease and respiratory system. Medical Subject Headings terms associated with "AD" or "Eczema" differed, with an agreement between the top 40 lists of 52%. The presence of terms related to cellular mechanisms, especially allergies and inflammation, characterized AD literature. The metabolites mentioned more frequently than expected in articles with AD tag differed from those indexed with eczema. Fewer enriched genes were retrieved when using eczema compared to AD query. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: There is a considerable discrepancy when using text mining to extract bio-entities related to eczema or AD. Our results suggest that any systematic approach (particularly when looking for metabolites or genes related to the condition) should be performed using both terms jointly. We propose to use decision tree learning as a tool to spot and characterize ambiguity, and provide the source code for disambiguation at https://github.com/cfrainay/ResearchCodeBase.

16.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e048338, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215609

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical recommendations for childhood asthma are often based on data extrapolated from studies conducted in adults, despite significant differences in mechanisms and response to treatments. The Paediatric Asthma in Real Life (PeARL) Think Tank aspires to develop recommendations based on the best available evidence from studies in children. An overview of systematic reviews (SRs) on paediatric asthma maintenance management and an SR of treatments for acute asthma attacks in children, requiring an emergency presentation with/without hospital admission will be conducted. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Standard methodology recommended by Cochrane will be followed. Maintenance pharmacotherapy of childhood asthma will be evaluated in an overview of SRs published after 2005 and including clinical trials or real-life studies. For evaluating pharmacotherapy of acute asthma attacks leading to an emergency presentation with/without hospital admission, we opted to conduct de novo synthesis in the absence of adequate up-to-date published SRs. For the SR of acute asthma pharmacotherapy, we will consider eligible SRs, clinical trials or real-life studies without time restrictions. Our evidence updates will be based on broad searches of Pubmed/Medline and the Cochrane Library. We will use A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews, V.2, Cochrane risk of bias 2 and REal Life EVidence AssessmeNt Tool to evaluate the methodological quality of SRs, controlled clinical trials and real-life studies, respectively.Next, we will further assess interventions for acute severe asthma attacks with positive clinical results in meta-analyses. We will include both controlled clinical trials and observational studies and will assess their quality using the previously mentioned tools. We will employ random effect models for conducting meta-analyses, and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology to assess certainty in the body of evidence. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for SRs. Our findings will be published in peer reviewed journals and will inform clinical recommendations being developed by the PeARL Think Tank. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBERS: CRD42020132990, CRD42020171624.


Assuntos
Asma , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Viés , Criança , Hospitalização , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
17.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(8): 1824-1832, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemokines are important mediators in immune cell recruitment, contributing to allergy development. However, extensive studies of chemokines in the circulation in relation to the presence and development of allergic diseases remain scarce. Our aim was to investigate associations of circulating allergy-related chemokines with the development of asthma and sensitization cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a population-based cohort. METHODS: The chemokines CCL17, CCL22, CXCL10, CXCL11 and CCL18 were measured in plasma samples from children in the Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study. Samples were available from cord blood at birth (n = 376), age 1 (n = 195) and age 8 (n = 334). Cross-sectional and longitudinal association analyses were performed in relation to asthma and allergic sensitization, as well as allergic phenotype clusters previously derived using machine learning in the same study population. RESULTS: In children with asthma and/or allergic sensitization, CCL18 levels were consistently elevated at 1 and/or 8 years of ages. In a longitudinal model including information on asthma from 4 time points (5, 8, 11 and 16 years of ages), we observed a significant association between increasing CCL18 levels at age 1 and a higher risk of asthma from early school age to adolescence (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.1-7.6, p = .028). We observed similar associations in longitudinal models for allergic sensitization. Asthma later in life was preceded by increased CXCL10 levels after birth and decreased CXCL11 levels at birth. CONCLUSION: Elevated CCL18 levels throughout childhood precede the development of asthma and allergic sensitization. The Th1-associated chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL11 also associated with the development of both outcomes, with differential temporal effects.

18.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(5): 523-535, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961755

RESUMO

Rationale: Preschool wheezing is heterogeneous, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood.Objectives: To investigate lower airway inflammation and infection in preschool children with different clinical diagnoses undergoing elective bronchoscopy and BAL.Methods: We recruited 136 children aged 1-5 years (105 with recurrent severe wheeze [RSW]; 31 with nonwheezing respiratory disease [NWRD]). Children with RSW were assigned as having episodic viral wheeze (EVW) or multiple-trigger wheeze (MTW). We compared lower airway inflammation and infection in different clinical diagnoses and undertook data-driven analyses to determine clusters of pathophysiological features, and we investigated their relationships with prespecified diagnostic labels.Measurements and Main Results: Blood eosinophil counts and percentages and allergic sensitization were significantly higher in children with RSW than in children with a NWRD. Blood neutrophil counts and percentages, BAL eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and positive bacterial culture and virus detection rates were similar between groups. However, pathogen distribution differed significantly, with higher detection of rhinovirus in children with RSW and higher detection of Moraxella in sensitized children with RSW. Children with EVW and children with MTW did not differ in terms of blood or BAL-sample inflammation, or bacteria or virus detection. The Partition around Medoids algorithm revealed four clusters of pathophysiological features: 1) atopic (17.9%), 2) nonatopic with a low infection rate and high use of inhaled corticosteroids (31.3%), 3) nonatopic with a high infection rate (23.1%), and 4) nonatopic with a low infection rate and no use of inhaled corticosteroids (27.6%). Cluster allocation differed significantly between the RSW and NWRD groups (RSW was evenly distributed across clusters, and 60% of the NWRD group was assigned to cluster 4; P < 0.001). There was no difference in cluster membership between the EVW and MTW groups. Cluster 1 was dominated by Moraxella detection (P = 0.04), and cluster 3 was dominated by Haemophilus or Staphylococcus or Streptococcus detection (P = 0.02).Conclusions: We identified four clusters of severe preschool wheeze, which were distinguished by using sensitization, peripheral eosinophilia, lower airway neutrophilia, and bacteriology.


Assuntos
Asma/classificação , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/genética , Sons Respiratórios/classificação , Sons Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Sons Respiratórios/genética , Avaliação de Sintomas , Asma/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenótipo , Sons Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(8): 3157-3163.e5, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A biomarker that could identify individuals at high risk for severe honeybee sting allergic reaction and/or systemic adverse events (SAEs) during venom immunotherapy (VIT) would improve the management of patients with honeybee (HB) venom allergy. OBJECTIVE: To identify biomarkers for risk of severe sting reactions or SAEs during VIT. METHODS: We recruited 332 patients undergoing HB VIT. We ascertained predictors of the severity of the field-sting reaction and the severity and threshold of SAEs during VIT. We assessed the use of cardiovascular medications; baseline serum tryptase (BST) levels; specific IgEs to HB venom, rApi m 1, and rApi m 10; and basophil activation test (BAT) response. RESULTS: Significant and independent predictors of a severe HB field-sting reaction were age (P = .008), an absence of skin symptoms (P = .001), BST (P = .014), and BAT response at an HB venom concentration of 0.1 µg/mL (P = .001). Predictors of severe SAEs during HB VIT were age (P = .025), BST (P = .006), and BAT response (P = .001). BAT response was also an individual and significant predictor of any SAEs and SAEs at a low cumulative allergen dose (median, 55 µg) during VIT build-up (P < .001). The use of ß-blockers and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and specific IgE levels were not associated with the severity of HB field-sting reactions or VIT SAEs. CONCLUSIONS: BST and basophil activation are independent risk factors for severe HB sting anaphylaxis and SAEs during HB VIT. BAT response was the best biomarker for any SAEs and a lower threshold of SAEs during HB VIT. These risk factors can help guide recommendations for VIT and overcome systemic reactions to HB VIT.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Venenos de Abelha , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Animais , Abelhas , Biomarcadores , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/diagnóstico
20.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(5): 609-621, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618597

RESUMO

Introduction: Big data are reshaping the future of medicine. The growing availability and increasing complexity of data have favored the adoption of modern analytical and computational methodologies in every area of medicine. Over the past decades, asthma research has been characterized by a shift in the way studies are conducted and data are analyzed. Motivated by the assumptions that 'data will speak for themselves', hypothesis-driven approaches have been replaced by data-driven hypotheses-generating methods to explore hidden patterns and underlying mechanisms. However, even with all the advancement in technologies and the new important insight that we gained to understand and characterize asthma heterogeneity, very few research findings have been translated into clinically actionable solutions.Areas covered: To investigate some of the fundamental analytical approaches adopted in the current literature and appraise their impact and usefulness in medicine, we conducted a bibliometric analysis of big data analytics in asthma research in the past 50 years.Expert opinion: No single data source or methodology can uncover the complexity of human health and disease. To fully capitalize on the potential of 'big data', we will have to embrace the collaborative science and encourage the creation of integrated cross-disciplinary teams brought together around technological advances.


Assuntos
Asma , Aprendizado de Máquina , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/terapia , Humanos
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