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1.
Entropy (Basel) ; 24(9)2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141146

RESUMO

In recent years, quantum collision models, sometimes dubbed repeated interaction models, have gained much attention due to their simplicity and their capacity to convey ideas without resorting to technical complications typical of many approaches and techniques used in the field of open quantum systems. In this tutorial, we show how to use these models, highlighting their strengths and some technical subtleties often overlooked in the literature. We do this by deriving the Markovian master equation and comparing the standard collisional derivation with the standard microscopic one. We then use the collision model to derive the master equation of a two-level system interacting with either a bosonic or fermionic bath to give the reader a flavour of the real use of the model.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(2): 028901, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296931

RESUMO

In the abstract of [Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 040601 (2020)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.125.040601] one can read that "[…] to have a nonzero rate of change of the extractable work, the state ρ_{W} of the battery cannot be an eigenstate of a 'free energy operator,' defined by F≡H_{W}+ß^{-1}log(ρ_{W}), where H_{W} is the Hamiltonian of the battery and ß is the inverse temperature […]." Contrarily to what is presented below Eq. (17) of the Letter, we observe that the above conclusion does not hold when the battery is subject to nonunitary dynamics.

3.
Entropy (Basel) ; 23(9)2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573823

RESUMO

Recent years have seen the flourishing of research devoted to quantum effects on mesoscopic and macroscopic scales. In this context, in Entropy 2019, 21, 705, a formalism aiming at describing macroscopic quantum fields, dubbed Reduced State of the Field (RSF), was envisaged. While, in the original work, a proper notion of entropy for macroscopic fields, together with their dynamical equations, was derived, here, we expand thermodynamic analysis of the RSF, discussing the notion of heat, solving dynamical equations in various regimes of interest, and showing the thermodynamic implications of these solutions.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(19): 190401, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469592

RESUMO

We propose a spatial analog of the Berry's phase mechanism for the coherent manipulation of states of nonrelativistic massive particles moving in a two-dimensional landscape. In our construction the temporal modulation of the system Hamiltonian is replaced by a modulation of the confining potential along the transverse direction of the particle propagation. By properly tuning the model parameters the resulting scattering input-output relations exhibit a Wilczek-Zee non-Abelian phase shift contribution that is intrinsically geometrical, hence insensitive to the specific details of the potential landscape. A theoretical derivation of the effect is provided together with practical examples.

5.
Neuroimage ; 20(2): 657-66, 2003 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14568442

RESUMO

Brain lesions are known to elicit reorganization of function in representational cortex. Using linguistic function as an example, we show that (a) injury-related reorganization may also be observed in language-related cortex and (b) this reorganization not only appears in cortical space but also in the dynamic flow of activity. The present study investigated cortical reorganization in a group of 10 nonfluent aphasics who demonstrated partial recovery of linguistic functions. Compared with controls, linguistic functions were organized in an atypical manner, both in terms of spatial structures involved and in the time course of the linguistic processes, from word reading to late stages of word encoding in working memory. For this purpose, event-related potentials were recorded in a two-stimulus design comprising phonological and semantic tasks. Subjects were asked to judge whether two words, separated by a 2-s interval, rhymed (phonological task) or were semantically associated. During word reading of the phonological task, controls showed negativity/activation over occipital sites, whereas patients displayed negativity at left-medial orbitofrontal locations anterior to the common sites of lesion. During the subsequent 2-s interval associated with word encoding, the two groups showed a reversed pattern: significant left-right anterior asymmetry prevailed in controls, whereas lateralization was absent in patients. Aphasics displayed maximum positivity/inhibition over the left frontal regions, at the typical site of lesion. Compared with controls, patients exhibited significant disinhibition (decreased positivity) of right frontal areas and greater activation of left temporal sites. These results suggest that the concept of language plasticity should include, in addition to spatial aspects of linguistic reorganization, the reorganized temporal dynamics associated with recovery of impaired functions.


Assuntos
Afasia/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Linguística , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Artefatos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Fenótipo , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Leitura , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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