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1.
Neuroinformatics ; 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981404

RESUMO

Along with the increasing availability of electronic medical record (EMR) data, phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) and phenome-disease association studies (PheDAS) have become a prominent, first-line method of analysis for uncovering the secrets of EMR. Despite this recent growth, there is a lack of approachable software tools for conducting these analyses on large-scale EMR cohorts. In this article, we introduce pyPheWAS, an open-source python package for conducting PheDAS and related analyses. This toolkit includes 1) data preparation, such as cohort censoring and age-matching; 2) traditional PheDAS analysis of ICD-9 and ICD-10 billing codes; 3) PheDAS analysis applied to a novel EMR phenotype mapping: current procedural terminology (CPT) codes; and 4) novelty analysis of significant disease-phenotype associations found through PheDAS. The pyPheWAS toolkit is approachable and comprehensive, encapsulating data prep through result visualization all within a simple command-line interface. The toolkit is designed for the ever-growing scale of available EMR data, with the ability to analyze cohorts of 100,000 + patients in less than 2 h. Through a case study of Down Syndrome and other intellectual developmental disabilities, we demonstrate the ability of pyPheWAS to discover both known and potentially novel disease-phenotype associations across different experiment designs and disease groups. The software and user documentation are available in open source at https://github.com/MASILab/pyPheWAS .

2.
J Learn Disabil ; 55(1): 43-57, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383991

RESUMO

This study centered on emergent bilingual (EB) students with specific reading comprehension deficits (S-RCD), that is, with poor reading comprehension despite solid word identification skills. The participants were 209 students in Grades 2 to 4, including both EBs and English monolinguals (EMs) with and without S-RCD. Mean comparisons indicated that EBs and EMs with S-RCD showed weaknesses relative to typically developing (TD) readers in oral language, word identification, inference making, and reading engagement, but not in executive functioning. Longitudinal analyses indicated that across two academic years S-RCD persisted for 41% of EBs and EMs alike. Altogether, the study extends research on EBs with S-RCD by identifying variables beyond oral language that may account for their reading comprehension difficulties and providing insight into the extent to which their reading comprehension and word identification performance levels evolve during elementary school. Furthermore, the findings point to the importance of early identification and intervention for weaknesses in reading comprehension and its component elements in both EBs and EMS.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Leitura , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
3.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853956

RESUMO

In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), medical conditions in infancy could be predictive markers for later ASD diagnosis. In this study, electronic medical records of 579 autistic individuals and 1897 matched controls prior to age 2 were analyzed for potential predictive conditions. Using a novel tool, the relative association of each condition in the autistic group was compared to the control group using logistic regressions across medical records. Generalized convulsive epilepsy, nystagmus, lack of normal physiological development, delayed milestones, and strabismus were more likely in those later diagnosed with ASD while perinatal jaundice was less likely to be associated. Lesser-known conditions, such as strabismus and nystagmus, may point to novel predictive co-occurring condition profiles which could improve screening practices for ASD.

4.
Cereb Cortex ; 31(11): 5188-5205, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195789

RESUMO

It has been challenging to elucidate the differences in brain structure that underlie behavioral features of autism. Prior studies have begun to identify patterns of changes in autism across multiple structural indices, including cortical thickness, local gyrification, and sulcal depth. However, common approaches to local gyrification indexing used in prior studies have been limited by low spatial resolution relative to functional brain topography. In this study, we analyze the aforementioned structural indices, utilizing a new method of local gyrification indexing that quantifies this index adaptively in relation to specific sulci/gyri, improving interpretation with respect to functional organization. Our sample included n = 115 autistic and n = 254 neurotypical participants aged 5-54, and we investigated structural patterns by group, age, and autism-related behaviors. Differing structural patterns by group emerged in many regions, with age moderating group differences particularly in frontal and limbic regions. There were also several regions, particularly in sensory areas, in which one or more of the structural indices of interest either positively or negatively covaried with autism-related behaviors. Given the advantages of this approach, future studies may benefit from its application in hypothesis-driven examinations of specific brain regions and/or longitudinal studies to assess brain development in autism.

6.
Discourse Process ; 58(1): 42-59, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716362

RESUMO

In the current investigation, we used structural equation mediation modeling to examine the relations between executive function (indexed by measures of working memory, shifting, and inhibition), decoding ability, and reading comprehension in a sample of 298 6- to 8-year-old children (N =132 and 166 for boys and girls, respectively). Results for the full sample indicated that executive function was mediated by decoding ability. When sex was examined as a moderator of these associations, there was evidence for a trend suggesting that direct relations between executive function and reading comprehension were stronger for girls compared to boys; no significant differences were found for other direct and indirect relations. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of executive function in supporting underlying integrative processes associated with reading comprehension and emphasize the need to further consider the role of executive function in relation to reading.

7.
Neuroinformatics ; 19(3): 447-460, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196967

RESUMO

Brain atlases have proven to be valuable neuroscience tools for localizing regions of interest and performing statistical inferences on populations. Although many human brain atlases exist, most do not contain information about white matter structures, often neglecting them completely or labelling all white matter as a single homogenous substrate. While few white matter atlases do exist based on diffusion MRI fiber tractography, they are often limited to descriptions of white matter as spatially separate "regions" rather than as white matter "bundles" or fascicles, which are well-known to overlap throughout the brain. Additional limitations include small sample sizes, few white matter pathways, and the use of outdated diffusion models and techniques. Here, we present a new population-based collection of white matter atlases represented in both volumetric and surface coordinates in a standard space. These atlases are based on 2443 subjects, and include 216 white matter bundles derived from 6 different automated state-of-the-art tractography techniques. This atlas is freely available and will be a useful resource for parcellation and segmentation.


Assuntos
Neurociências , Substância Branca , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Autism ; 25(3): 800-811, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662293

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: People with autism spectrum disorder often have a number of other medical conditions in addition to autism. These can range from constipation to epilepsy. This study uses medical record data to understand how frequently and how long people with autism have to be seen by a medical professional for these other medical conditions. This study confirmed that people with autism often have a number of other medical conditions and that they have to go see a medical professional about those conditions often. We also looked to see if children diagnosed with autism after age 5 years might have different medical conditions compared to children diagnosed earlier. Children diagnosed later had more conditions like asthma, hearing loss, and mood disorders. This work describes how much medical care people with autism get for different medical conditions and the burden of seeking additional medical care for people with autism and their families.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Epilepsia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Criança , Comorbidade , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor
9.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 62(4): 392-395, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663319

RESUMO

Disentangling the dimensionality in environmental adversity offers nuanced insights at both theoretical and practical levels, such as the ways that disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances during childhood development may contribute to adolescent psychopathology. Miller and colleagues (2020) provide evidence into how early deprivation and threat may exacerbate later psychopathology. Yet, how certain factors in this early environment differentially facilitate children's cognitive and socioemotional growth may modulate the severity of later psychopathology. In this commentary, we reflect on the promising evidence offered by Miller and colleagues and extend additional considerations regarding academic growth, cognitive abilities, and protective environmental factors.


Assuntos
Emoções , Socialização , Adolescente , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Humanos , Psicopatologia
10.
Sci Stud Read ; 24(3): 179-199, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982142

RESUMO

In the present study, we used latent variable structural equation modeling to investigate relations between oral language, decoding, and two components of executive function (cognitive flexibility and working memory) and reading comprehension in a sample of 271 native English-speaking 9.00- to 14.83-year-olds. Results of the mediation analyses indicated that both oral language and decoding fully mediated the relations between working memory and cognitive flexibility and reading comprehension. These findings suggest that executive function is likely associated with reading comprehension through its relation with decoding and oral language and provide additional support for the role of executive function in reading comprehension as a potentially crucial precursor to skilled reading.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236418, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735601

RESUMO

Diffusion magnetic resonance images may suffer from geometric distortions due to susceptibility induced off resonance fields, which cause geometric mismatch with anatomical images and ultimately affect subsequent quantification of microstructural or connectivity indices. State-of-the art diffusion distortion correction methods typically require data acquired with reverse phase encoding directions, resulting in varying magnitudes and orientations of distortion, which allow estimation of an undistorted volume. Alternatively, additional field maps acquisitions can be used along with sequence information to determine warping fields. However, not all imaging protocols include these additional scans and cannot take advantage of state-of-the art distortion correction. To avoid additional acquisitions, structural MRI (undistorted scans) can be used as registration targets for intensity driven correction. In this study, we aim to (1) enable susceptibility distortion correction with historical and/or limited diffusion datasets that do not include specific sequences for distortion correction and (2) avoid the computationally intensive registration procedure typically required for distortion correction using structural scans. To achieve these aims, we use deep learning (3D U-nets) to synthesize an undistorted b0 image that matches geometry of structural T1w images and intensity contrasts from diffusion images. Importantly, the training dataset is heterogenous, consisting of varying acquisitions of both structural and diffusion. We apply our approach to a withheld test set and show that distortions are successfully corrected after processing. We quantitatively evaluate the proposed distortion correction and intensity-based registration against state-of-the-art distortion correction (FSL topup). The results illustrate that the proposed pipeline results in b0 images that are geometrically similar to non-distorted structural images, and more closely match state-of-the-art correction with additional acquisitions. In addition, we show generalizability of the proposed approach to datasets that were not in the original training / validation / testing datasets. These datasets included varying populations, contrasts, resolutions, and magnitudes and orientations of distortion and show efficacious distortion correction. The method is available as a Singularity container, source code, and an executable trained model to facilitate evaluation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Algoritmos , Artefatos , Imagem Ecoplanar/métodos , Humanos
12.
Read Writ ; 33(4): 1037-1073, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831478

RESUMO

As readers struggle to coordinate various reading- and language-related skills during oral reading fluency (ORF), miscues can emerge, especially when processing complex texts. Following a miscue, students often self-correct as a strategy to potentially restore ORF and online linguistic comprehension. Executive functions (EF) are hypothesized to play an interactive role during ORF. Yet, the role of EF in self-corrections while reading complex texts remains elusive. To this end, we evaluated the relation between students' probability of self-correcting miscues-or P(SC)-and their EF profile in a cohort of 143 participants (aged 9-15) who represented a diverse spectrum of reading abilities. Moreover, we used experimentally-manipulated passages (decoding, vocabulary, syntax, and cohesion) and employed a fully cross-classified mixed-effects multilevel regression strategy to evaluate the interplay between components of ORF, EF, and text complexity. Our results revealed that, after controlling for reading and language abilities, increased production of miscues across different passage conditions was explained by worse EF. We also found that students with better EF exhibited greater P(SC) when reading complex texts. While text complexity taxes students' EF and influences their production of miscues, findings suggest that EF may be interactively recruited to restore ORF via self-correcting oral reading errors. Overall, our results suggest that domain-general processes (e.g., EF) are associated with production of miscues and may underlie students' behavior of self-corrections, especially when reading complex texts. Further understanding of the relation between different components of ORF and cognitive processes may inform intervention strategies to improve reading proficiency and overall academic performance.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536780

RESUMO

Following the increased emphasis on expository text in early grades, this study examined narrative and expository reading comprehension growth in a sample of children who were followed longitudinally from grades 1 to 4, with the goals of explaining potential differences in children's overall performance and growth of narrative and expository text comprehension and identifying the cognitive factors that distinctly contribute to comprehension for each text type. We hypothesized that differences in reading comprehension growth of narrative and expository texts would be explained by various cognitive factors, specifically those related to executive functions (EF; e.g., working memory, planning/organization, shifting, and inhibition). At four annual time points, children (n= 94) read, retold (Recall), and answered questions (CompQ) about expository and narrative passages. Growth curve modeling was used to explore reading comprehension development across the two types of text. On average, results showed that children scored better on reading comprehension of narrative passages than they did on expository passages across all time points. After controlling for socioeconomic status (SES), vocabulary in 1st grade predicted 4th grade comprehension scores (Recall) for both narrative and expository passages, while word reading efficiency (WRE) in 1st grade predicted 4th grade comprehension scores (CompQ) for expository passages only. Additionally, WRE was associated with the growth of expository reading comprehension: children with higher WRE showed a faster growth rate for expository CompQ. The contribution of EF to text comprehension was largely confined to expository text, although planning and organization (measured using a direct cognitive assessment) in 1st grade also predicted 4th grade comprehension scores for narrative text Recall. For expository text comprehens ion, working memory, planning and organization, shifting, and inhibition (measured using a parent rating scale), predicted reading comprehension outcomes. Critically, 1st grade shifting and inhibition not only predicted 4th grade expository text comprehension (CompQ), but also modulated its growth rate: children with stronger shifting and inhibition had faster rates of growth. Together, these findings suggest that expository reading comprehension is (1) more difficult than narrative reading comprehension and (2) is associated with unique cognitive skills.

14.
J Neuropsychol ; 14(3): 467-495, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034941

RESUMO

Substantial evidence has suggested that reading and math are supported by executive processes (EP). However, to date little is known about which portion of the neural system underpinning domain-general executive skills works to support reading and math. In this study, we aimed to answer this question using fMRI via two complementary approaches. First, imaging data were acquired whilst a sample of 231 adolescents performed each of three separate tasks designed to assess reading comprehension, numerical magnitude estimation, and EP in working memory (WM), respectively. With careful task designs and conjunction analyses, we were able to isolate cross-domain brain activity specifically related to EP, as opposed to lower-level domain-general processes (e.g., visual processing). Second, the meta-analytic tool Neurosynth was used to independently identify brain regions involved reading, math, and EP. Using a combination of forward and reverse statistical inference and conjunction analyses, we again isolated brain regions specifically supporting domain-general EP. Results from both approaches yielded overlapping activation for reading, math, and EP in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, left inferior frontal junction, and left precentral gyrus. This pattern suggests that posterior regions of the prefrontal cortex, rather than more central regions such as mid-DLPFC, play a leading role in supporting domain-general EP utilized by both reading and math.


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Matemática , Leitura , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Percepção Visual , Adulto Jovem
15.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 77(4): 378-386, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876910

RESUMO

Importance: Understanding the neurodevelopmental trajectory of psychiatric symptoms is important for improving early identification, intervention, and prevention of mental disorders. Objective: To test whether the strength of the coupling of activation between specific brain regions, as measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), predicted individual children's developmental trajectories in terms of attentional problems characteristic of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and internalizing problems characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD). Design, Setting, and Participants: A community cohort of 94 children was recruited from Vanderbilt University between 2010 and 2013. They were followed up longitudinally for 4 years and the data were analyzed from 2016 to 2019. Based on preregistered hypotheses and an analytic plan, we examined whether specific brain connectivity patterns would be associated with longitudinal changes in scores on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), a parental-report assessment used to screen for emotional, behavioral, and social problems and to predict psychiatric illnesses. Main Outcomes and Measures: We used the strength of resting-state fMRI connectivity at age 7 years to predict subsequent changes in CBCL measures 4 years later and investigated the mechanisms of change by associating brain connectivity changes with changes in the CBCL. Results: We analyzed data from a longitudinal brain development study involving children assessed at age 7 years (n = 94; 41 girls [43.6%]) and 11 years (n = 54; 32 girls [59.3%]). As predicted, less positive coupling at age 7 years between the medial prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was associated with a decrease in attentional symptoms by age 11 years (t49 = 2.38; P = .01; ß = 0.32). By contrast, a less positive coupling between a region implicated in mood, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), and DLPFC at age 7 years was associated with an increase in internalizing (eg, anxiety/depression) behaviors by age 11 years (t49 = -2.4; P = .01; ß = -0.30). Logistic regression analyses revealed that sgACC-DLPFC connectivity was a more accurate predictor than baseline CBCL measures for progression to a subclinical score on internalization (t50 = -2.61; P = .01; ß = -0.29). We then replicated and extended the sgACC-DLPFC result in an independent sample of children with (n = 25) or without (n = 18) familial risk for MDD. Conclusions and Relevance: These resting-state fMRI metrics are promising biomarkers for the early identification of children at risk of developing MDD or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.


Assuntos
Afeto , Atenção , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Neuroimagem Funcional , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lista de Checagem , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Sci Stud Read ; 24(6): 462-483, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716490

RESUMO

Reading fluency undoubtedly underlies reading competence; yet, the role of executive functions (EF) is less well understood. Here, we investigated the relationship between children's reading fluency and EF. Children's (n = 82) reading and language performance was determined by standardized assessments and EF by parental questionnaire. Results revealed that production of more miscues was explained by poorer reading and language performance and EF. Yet, self-correcting a miscue was predicted by better EF, beyond reading and language abilities. Intriguingly, EF partially mediated the relationship between reading and self-correction, suggesting that self-correction reflects parallel recruitment and coordination of domain-specific and domain-general processes.

17.
J Neurodev Disord ; 11(1): 37, 2019 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the first 3-years of life, as the brain undergoes dramatic growth, children begin to develop speech and language. Hallmarks of this progression are seen when children reach developmental milestones, forming the foundation of language. Expressive language milestones, such as the production of a child's first word, are delayed in 5-8% of children. While for some children delays in reaching these milestones are harbingers of developmental disorders, for others expressive language delays appear to resolve. Regardless of whether or not early language skills appear resolved, difficulty with later comprehension is a likely outcome. Whether this heightened risk for poor comprehension differs based on text features, individual characteristics, or receipt of intervention remains unknown. Moreover, this relationship between expressive language development and comprehension is not yet linked to neurobiology, though the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) is a potential neurobiological correlate. Therefore, we investigated the impact of, and interactions between, expressive language development, early intervention, and the ILF on comprehension. METHODS: Longitudinal recurrent survival analyses predicted the risk of answering a comprehension question incorrectly. Predictors of comprehension included expressive language development, passage features, participant characteristics, fractional anisotropy, receipt of early intervention, and later diagnosis of speech or language disorders. RESULTS: Children with later expressive language milestones had poorer comprehension. When comprehension text features were examined, children with later milestones had poorer listening and reading comprehension, and poorer narrative and expository comprehension. The left ILF acted as a neurodevelopmental correlate, one that moderated the relationship between expressive language milestones and comprehension. Specifically, the left ILF exacerbated the relationship for those who did not receive early intervention and buffered the relationship for those who received intervention services. Early intervention decreased the risk of poor comprehension by 39% for children later diagnosed with a speech or language disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Early intervention should be provided for children with delayed expressive language milestones, particularly those who are at risk for speech or language disorders. The ILF plays a critical role in the relationship between expressive language development and comprehension, which may be that of a protective factor for children with the most severe early issues with speech and language.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/patologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Leitura , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Criança , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Masculino , Vias Neurais , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia
18.
J Learn Disabil ; 52(6): 442-455, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354088

RESUMO

Learning to read relies upon the integration of phonological, orthographic, and semantic information. However, no studies have investigated how children with varying reading abilities learn phonological-orthographic (PO) and semantic aspects of novel words as a function of both learning approach (LA; e.g., learning new words in isolation or context) and outcome (fluency or comprehension). In this study, 45 children participated in three tasks that differentially tested PO and semantic attributes of novel pseudo-words learned through two learning approaches. Children were classified into groups as having dyslexia (DYS), having specific reading comprehension deficits (S-RCDs), or being typically developing readers (TD). Differences were found between groups, with S-RCD poorer than TD on semantic but not PO components of learning. Children with DYS displayed impaired results on both semantic and PO learning but showed an interaction on task by LA performance. Specifically, in the DYS group, isolation LA yielded better performance on PO learning, while context LA was better for semantic learning. These results indicate that (a) children with S-RCDs have a unique learning profile that is dissociable from DYS and TD and (b) reading impairments are not static but rather influence acquisition of reading skill in different ways, depending on reading profile.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Idioma , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Compreensão/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Leitura , Semântica , Vocabulário
19.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 62: 70-77, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247249

RESUMO

Deep learning has shown remarkable improvements in the analysis of medical images without the need for engineered features. In this work, we hypothesize that deep learning is complementary to traditional feature estimation. We propose a network design to include traditional structural imaging features alongside deep convolutional ones and illustrate this approach on the task of imaging-based age prediction in two separate contexts: T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (N = 5121, ages 4-96, healthy controls) and computed tomography (CT) of the head (N = 1313, ages 1-97, healthy controls). In brain MRI, we can predict age with a mean absolute error of 4.08 years by combining raw images along with engineered structural features, compared to 5.00 years using image-derived features alone and 8.23 years using structural features alone. In head CT, we can predict age with a median absolute error of 9.99 years combining features, compared to 11.02 years with image-derived features alone and 13.28 years with structural features alone. These results show that we can complement traditional feature estimation using deep learning to improve prediction tasks. As the field of medical image processing continues to integrate deep learning, it will be important to use the new techniques to complement traditional imaging features instead of fully displacing them.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado Profundo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
20.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 37: 100647, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059925

RESUMO

To better characterize the neural correlates of the full spectrum of reading ability, this fMRI study examined how variations in reading ability correlate with task-based brain activity during reading among a large community sample of adolescents (N = 234). In addition, complimentary approaches taking advantage of empirical as well as independent meta-analytic information were employed to isolate neural substrates of domain-general executive processes that are predictive of reading ability. Age-related differences in brain activity were also examined. Better reading was associated with increased activation in left anterior and inferior temporal regions and parts of orbitofrontal cortex, along with reduced activation in the thalamus and left frontal eye field (FEF). Converging evidence suggests that FEF activity corresponds to executive processes during reading. In contrast, activity in temporal regions is likely to reflect cognitive processes specific to reading. Older adolescents also demonstrated increased activation in an orbitofrontal region that overlaps with the aforementioned age-independent, reading-related regions, along with reduced activity in parietal and occipital regions. These results suggest that comparedto poor readers, proficient readers benefit from efficient reading-specific processes and require less executive effort, implemented via the FEF, during a reading comprehension task.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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