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1.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(6)2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532064

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis is a progressive joint disease characterized by the activation of different molecular mediators, including proinflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, metalloproteinases and nociceptive mediators. Anacardium occidentale L. is a medicinal plant with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study we evaluate the effects of cashew nuts (from Anacardium occidentale L.) oral administration on an experimental model of painful degenerative joint disease. Monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) was intraarticularly injected, and cashew nuts were orally administered three times per week for 21 days, starting the third day after MIA injection. Nociception was evaluated by a Von Frey filament test, and motor function by walking track analysis at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after osteoarthritis. Histological and biochemical alteration were examined at the end of the experiment. Cashew nuts administration reduced pain-like behavior and showed antioxidant activities, restoring biochemical serum parameters: glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) levels, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, cashew nuts ameliorated radiographic and histological alteration, resulting in decreased cartilage degradation, pro-inflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinases levels and mast cells recruitment. Our results demonstrated that the oral assumption of cashew nuts counteracts the inflammatory and oxidative process involved in osteoarthritis.

2.
Vet Sci ; 7(2)2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560159

RESUMO

Virtually every cellular process is affected by diet and this represents the foundation of dietary management to a variety of small animal disorders. Special attention is currently being paid to a family of naturally occurring lipid amides acting through the so-called autacoid local injury antagonism, i.e., the ALIA mechanism. The parent molecule of ALIAmides, palmitoyl ethanolamide (PEA), has being known since the 1950s as a nutritional factor with protective properties. Since then, PEA has been isolated from a variety of plant and animal food sources and its proresolving function in the mammalian body has been increasingly investigated. The discovery of the close interconnection between ALIAmides and the endocannabinoid system has greatly stimulated research efforts in this field. The multitarget and highly redundant mechanisms through which PEA exerts prohomeostatic functions fully breaks with the classical pharmacology view of "one drug, one target, one disease", opening a new era in the management of animals' health, i.e., an according-to-nature biomodulation of body responses to different stimuli and injury. The present review focuses on the direct and indirect endocannabinoid receptor agonism by PEA and its analogues and also targets the main findings from experimental and clinical studies on ALIAmides in animal health and wellbeing.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(12)2020 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545788

RESUMO

Inflammation is a protective reaction activated in response to detrimental stimuli, such as dead cells, irritants or pathogens, by the evolutionarily conserved immune system and is regulated by the host. The inflammasomes are recognized as innate immune system sensors and receptors that manage the activation of caspase-1 and stimulate inflammation response. They have been associated with several inflammatory disorders. The NLRP3 inflammasome is the most well characterized. It is so called because NLRP3 belongs to the family of nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs). Recent evidence has greatly improved our understanding of the mechanisms by which the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated. Additionally, increasing data in animal models, supported by human studies, strongly implicate the involvement of the inflammasome in the initiation or progression of disorders with a high impact on public health, such as metabolic pathologies (obesity, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis), cardiovascular diseases (ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease), inflammatory issues (liver diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, gut microbiome, rheumatoid arthritis) and neurologic disorders (Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurological disorders), compared to other molecular platforms. This review will provide a focus on the available knowledge about the NLRP3 inflammasome role in these pathologies and describe the balance between the activation of the harmful and beneficial inflammasome so that new therapies can be created for patients with these diseases.

4.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434943

RESUMO

Treating chronic pain using opioids, such as morphine, is hampered by the development of opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH; increased pain sensitivity), antinociceptive tolerance and withdrawal which can contribute to dependence and abuse. In the central nervous system, the purine nucleoside adenosine has been implicated in beneficial and detrimental actions of morphine, but the extent of their interaction remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that morphine-induced OIH and antinociceptive tolerance in rats is associated with a 2-fold increase in adenosine kinase (ADK) expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (DH-SC). Blocking ADK activity in the spinal cord provided greater than 90% attenuation of OIH and antinociceptive tolerance through A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) signaling. Supplementing adenosine signaling with selective A3AR agonists blocked OIH and antinociceptive tolerance in rodents of both sexes. Engagement of A3AR in the spinal cord with an ADK inhibitor or A3AR agonist was associated with reduced DH-SC expression of the NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3; 60-75%), cleaved caspase 1 (40-60%), interleukin (IL)-1ß (76-80%) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF; 50-60%). In contrast, the neuroinhibitory and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased 2-fold. In mice, A3AR agonists prevented the development of tolerance in a model of neuropathic pain and reduced naloxone-dependent withdrawal behaviors by greater than 50%. These findings suggest A3AR-dependent adenosine signaling is compromised during sustained morphine to allow the development of morphine-induced adverse effects. These findings raise the intriguing possibility that A3AR agonists may be useful adjunct to opioids to manage their unwanted effects.

5.
Am J Hematol ; 2020 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419224

RESUMO

The optimal first-line treatment for advanced-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is still a matter of debate. While ABVD is less toxic and as effective as other, more intensive chemotherapy regimens, escalated BEACOPP (BEACOPPesc) is superior to ABVD for initial disease control and prolonged time-to-relapse. However, this advantage is associated with higher rate of early and late toxicities. As most of these data have been accumulated from clinical trials, a retrospective analysis was conducted in a large database of patients treated outside clinical trials to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of these regimes in a real-world setting. From October 2009 to October 2018, 397 advanced-stage HL patients treated with either ABVD or BEACOPPesc were retrospectively assessed in 7 European cancer centers (2 Austrian and 5 Italian centers). Complete metabolic remission (CMR) by PET was achieved in 76% and 85% of patients in the ABVD and BEACOPPesc groups, respectively (p = .01). Severe adverse events occurred more frequently with BEACOPPesc than ABVD. At a median follow-up of 8 years, 9% of the patients who achieved CMR after BEACOPPesc relapsed compared to 16.6% in the ABVD group (p = .043). No statistical difference in progression free survival (PFS) was observed between the two cohorts overall (p = .11), but there was a trend towards a superior PFS in high-risk patients treated with BEACOPPesc (p = .074). Nevertheless, overall survival was similar between the two groups (p = .94). In conclusion, we confirm that ABVD is an effective and less toxic therapeutic option for advanced-stage HL. Although BEACOPP results in better initial tumor control, the long-term outcome remains similar between the two regimens.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438777

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin, characterized by dryness and more or less severe itching. The etiology of AD is complex and has not been fully clarified, involving genetic susceptibility, immunological abnormalities, epidermal barrier dysfunction, and environmental factors. Xyloglucan (XG) and pea protein (PP) are two compounds of natural origin characterized by the ability to create a physical barrier that protects mucosae membranes, reducing inflammation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of XG + PP in both a mouse model of AD and Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) infection- associated AD. Mice were topically treated with 200 µL of 0.5% oxazolone on the dorsal skin three times a week for AD induction. Mice received XG and PP by topical administration 1 h before oxazolone treatment. In S. aureus infection-associated AD, to induce a superficial superinfection of the skin, mice were also treated with 5 µL of 108 of a culture of S. aureus for 2 weeks; mice superinfected received XG and PP by topical administration 1 h before oxazolone + S. aureus. Four weeks later, the skin was removed for histological and biochemical analysis. Our results demonstrated the protective barrier effects of XG and PP characterized by a reduction in histological tissue changes, mastocyte degranulation, and tight junction permeability in the skin following oxazolone treatment. Moreover, XG + PP was able to preserve filaggrin expression, a hallmark of AD. Our data also support the effectiveness of XG + PP to reduce the damage by superinfection post AD induced by S. aureus. In conclusion, a future product containing XG and PP could be considered as a potentially interesting approach for the treatment of AD.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429243

RESUMO

Inflammation is known to be an essential trigger of the pathological changes that have a critical impact on nerve repair and regeneration; moreover, damage to peripheral nerves can cause a loss of sensory function and produces persistent neuropathic pain. To date, various potential approaches for neuropathic pain have focused on controlling neuroinflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of a new association of ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide (PEAum), an Autacoid Local Injury Antagonist Amide (ALIAmide) with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, with Paracetamol, a common analgesic, in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury (SNI). The association of PEAum-Paracetamol, in a low dose (5 mg/kg + 30 mg/kg), was given by oral gavage daily for 14 days after SNI. PEAum-Paracetamol association was able to reduce hyperalgesia, mast cell activation, c-Fos and nerve growth factor (NGF) expression, neural histological damage, cytokine release, and apoptosis. Furthermore, the analgesic action of PEAum-Paracetamol could act in a synergistic manner through the inhibition of the NF-κB pathway, which leads to a decrease of cyclooxygenase 2-dependent prostaglandin E2 (COX-2/PGE2) release. In conclusion, we demonstrated that PEAum associated with Paracetamol was able to relieve pain and neuroinflammation after SNI in a synergistic manner, and this therapeutic approach could be relevant to decrease the demand of analgesic drugs.

8.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anacardium occidentale L. is a tropical plant used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. The goal of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant potential of oral administration of cashew nuts (from Anacardium occidentale L.) in a mouse model of colitis. METHODS: Induction of colitis was performed by intrarectally injection of dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS). Cashew nuts were administered daily orally (100 mg/kg) in DNBS-injected mice. RESULTS: Four days after DNBS, histological and macroscopic colon alterations as well as marked clinical signs and increased cytokine production were observed. Neutrophil infiltration, measured by myeloperoxidase (MPO) positive immunostaining, was correlated with up-regulation of adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and P-selectin in colons. Oxidative stress was detected with increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, nitrotyrosine, and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) positive staining in inflamed colons. Oral treatment with cashew nuts reduced histological, macroscopic damage, neutrophil infiltration, pro-inflammatory cytokines and MDA levels, as well as nitrotyrosine, PARP and ICAM-1, and P-selectin expressions. Colon inflammation could be related to nuclear factor (NF)-kB pathway activation and reduced manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) antioxidant activity. Cashew nuts administration inhibited NF-kB and increased MnSOD antioxidant expressions. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that oral assumption of cashew nuts may be beneficial for the management of colitis.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244997

RESUMO

Chronic rejection is the major leading cause of morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), a fibroproliferative disorder of the small airways, is the main manifestation of chronic lung allograft rejection. We investigated, using transgenic mice, the mechanisms through which the deficiency of IL-1ß/IL-18, Casp-1, or Fpr-1 genes could be protective in an experimental model of BOS, induced in mice by allogeneic heterotopic tracheal transplantation. Fpr-1 KO mice showed a marked reduction in histological markers of BOS and of mast cell numbers compared to other groups. Molecular analyses indicated that the absence of the Fpr-1 gene was able to decrease NF-κB nuclear translocation and modulate NLRP3 inflammasome signaling and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in a more significant way compared to other groups. Additionally, Fpr-1 gene deletion caused a reduction in resistance to the apoptosis, assessed by the TUNEL assay. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated changes in nitrotyrosine, PARP, VEGF, and TGF-ß expression associated with the pathology, which were reduced in the absence of the Fpr1 gene more so than by the deletion of IL-1ß/IL-18 and Casp-1. We underline the importance of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the pathogenic role of Fpr-1 in experimental models of BOS, which is the result of the modulation of immune cell recruitment together with the modulation of local cellular activation, suggesting this gene as a new target in the control of the pathologic features of BOS.

10.
Pain ; 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301840

RESUMO

Morphine-induced alterations in sphingolipid metabolism in the spinal cord and increased formation of the bioactive sphingolipid metabolite sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) have been implicated in the development of morphine-induced hyperalgesia (OIH; increased pain sensitivity) and antinociceptive tolerance. These adverse effects hamper opioid use for treating chronic pain and contribute to dependence and abuse. S1P produces distinct effects through five G protein-coupled receptors (S1PR1-5) and several intracellular targets. How S1P exerts its effects in response to morphine remains unknown. Here, we report that S1P contributes to the development of OIH and tolerance through S1P1 receptor subtype 1 (S1PR1) signaling in uninjured male and female rodents that can be blocked by targeting S1PR1 with S1PR1 antagonists or RNA silencing. In mouse neuropathic pain models, S1PR1 antagonists blocked the development of tolerance to the anti-allodynic effects of morphine without altering morphine pharmacokinetics and prevented prolonged morphine-induced neuropathic pain. Targeting S1PR1 reduced morphine-induced neuroinflammatory events in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord: increased glial marker expression, mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and nuclear factor κB activation and increased inflammatory cytokine expression, such as interleukin-1ß, a cytokine central in the modulation of opioid-induced neural plasticity. Our results identify S1PR1 as a critical path for S1P signaling in response to sustained morphine and reveal downstream neuroinflammatory pathways impacted by S1PR1 activation. Our data support investigating S1PR1 antagonists as a clinical approach to mitigate opioid-induced adverse effects and repurposing the functional S1PR1 antagonist FTY720, which is FDA-approved for multiple sclerosis, as an opioid adjunct.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(8)2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344758

RESUMO

The major end-products of dietary fiber fermentation by gut microbiota are the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate, and butyrate, which have been shown to modulate host metabolism via effects on metabolic pathways at different tissue sites. Several studies showed the inhibitory effects of sodium propionate (SP) on nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathway. We carried out an in vitro model of inflammation on the J774-A1 cell line, by stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and H2O2, followed by the pre-treatment with SP at 0.1, 1 mM and 10 mM. To evaluate the effect on acute inflammation and superoxide anion-induced pain, we performed a model of carrageenan (CAR)-induced rat paw inflammation and intraplantar injection of KO2 where rats received SP orally (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg). SP decreased in concentration-dependent-manner the expression of cicloxigenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) following LPS stimulation. SP was able to enhance anti-oxidant enzyme production such as manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) following H2O2 stimulation. In in vivo models, SP (30 and 100 mg/kg) reduced paw inflammation and tissue damage after CAR and KO2 injection. Our results demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of SP; therefore, we propose that SP may be an effective strategy for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

12.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 98(4): 595-612, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338310

RESUMO

Extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT) is increased in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, and its serum levels correlate with a worse prognosis. In the present manuscript, we show that eNAMPT serum levels are increased in IBD patients that fail to respond to anti-TNFα therapy (infliximab or adalimumab) and that its levels drop in patients that are responsive to these therapies, with values comparable with healthy subjects. Furthermore, eNAMPT administration in dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-treated mice exacerbates the symptoms of colitis, suggesting a causative role of this protein in IBD. To determine the druggability of this cytokine, we developed a novel monoclonal antibody (C269) that neutralizes in vitro the cytokine-like action of eNAMPT and that reduces its serum levels in rodents. Of note, this newly generated antibody is able to significantly reduce acute and chronic colitis in both DNBS- and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Importantly, C269 ameliorates the symptoms by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines. Specifically, in the lamina propria, a reduced number of inflammatory monocytes, neutrophils, Th1, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes are found upon C269 treatment. Our data demonstrate that eNAMPT participates in IBD and, more importantly, that eNAMPT-neutralizing antibodies are endowed with a therapeutic potential in IBD. KEY MESSAGES: What are the new findings? Higher serum eNAMPT levels in IBD patients might decrease response to anti-TNF therapy. The cytokine-like activity of eNAMPT may be neutralized with a monoclonal antibody. Neutralization of eNAMPT ameliorates acute and chronic experimental colitis. Neutralization of eNAMPT limits the expression of IBD inflammatory signature. Neutralization of eNAMPT impairs immune cell infiltration in lamina propria.

13.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(7): 1013-1026, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176482

RESUMO

An innovative approach to identify new conformational antigens of Aß1-42 recognized by IgG autoantibodies as biomarkers of state and stage in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients is described. In particular, through the use of bioinformatics modeling, conformational similarities between several Aß1-42 forms and other amyloid-like proteins with F1 capsular antigen (Caf1) of Yersinia pestis were first found. pVIII M13 phage display libraries were then screened against YPF19, anti-Caf1 monoclonal antibody, and IgGs of AD patients, in alternate biopanning cycles of a so-called "double binding" selection. From the selected phage clones, one, termed 12III1, was found to be able to prevent in vitro Aß1-42-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells, as well as to promote disaggregation of preformed fibrils, to a greater extent with respect to wild-type phage (pC89). IgG levels detected by 12III1 provided a significant level of discrimination between diseased and nondemented subjects, as well as a good correlation with the state progression of the disease. These results give significant impact in AD state and stage diagnosis, paving the way for the development not only for an innovative blood diagnostic assay for AD precise diagnosis, progressive clinical assessment, and screening but also for new effective treatments.

14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 125: 110023, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092830

RESUMO

Several studies demonstrated the pharmacological actions of carnosine as well as hyaluronic acid (HA) during joint inflammation. In that regard, the aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of a new HA -Carnosine conjugate (FidHycarn) on the modulation of the inflammatory response in mice subjected to collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced by two intradermal injections of 100 µl of an emulsion of collagen (CII) and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) at the base of the tail on day 0 and 21. At 35 day post CIA induction, the animals were sacrificed. CII injection caused erythema and edema in the hind paws, histological alterations with erosion of the joint cartilage as well as behavioral changes. Oral treatment with FidHycarn starting at the onset of arthritis (day 25) ameliorated the clinical signs, improved behavioral deficits as well as decreased histological and radiographic alterations. The degree of oxidative damage evaluated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine, poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) expressions and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, was also significantly reduced in Carnosine+HA association and FidHycarn treated mice. Moreover, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and cyclo-oxygenase COX-2 enzyme were also more significantly reduced by Carnosine+HA and FidHycarn compared to carnosine alone. However, interestingly, in some cases, the effects of FidHycarn were more important than Carnosine+HA association and not statistically different to methotrexate (MTX) used as positive control. Thus, the conjugation of Carnosine with HA (FidHycarn) could represent an interesting therapeutic strategy to combat arthritis disorders.

15.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 59, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways are involved in migraine and endogenous antioxidant defense system has a role in the prevention of hyperalgesia in migraine. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of the most pharmacologically effective molecules among the fumaric acid esters (FAEs), dimethyl fumarate, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element (Nrf-2/ARE) pathway-mediated, in regulating the hypersensitivity in a mouse model of nitroglycerine (NTG)-induced migraine. METHODS: Mice were orally administered with DMF at the doses of 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, 5 min after NTG intraperitoneal injections. We performed histological and molecular analysis on the whole brain and behavioral tests after 4 h by NTG-migraine induction. The expression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-кB) subunit p65, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor alpha (IκBα), inducible nitrite oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), Nrf-2, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were detected by Western blot. Tail flick, hot plate, orofacial formalin, and photophobia tests were used to evaluate migraine-like pain and migraine-related light sensitivity. Moreover, we evaluate Nrf-2-dependent mechanism by the in vitro stimulation of cells extracted by trigeminal ganglia with diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide (DETA/NO), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. The cells were pre-treated with DMF and an antagonist of Nrf-2, trigonelline (TR) 2 h before DETA/NO stimulation. RESULTS: DMF treatment notably reduced histological damage as showed by cresyl violet staining; also, regulating both NF-κB and Nrf-2 pathway, DMF treatment decreased the severity of inflammation and increased the protective antioxidant action. Moreover, the headache was significantly reduced. The protective effect of DMF treatment, via Nrf-2, was confirmed in in vitro studies, through inhibition of Nrf-2 by trigonelline. Cytotoxicity, iNOS, and MnSOD expression were evaluated. CONCLUSION: These results provided the evidence that DMF, by Nrf-2 modulation, has a protective effect on central sensitization induced by NTG, suggesting a new insight into the potential application of DMF as novel candidates in drug development for migraine.

16.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 60(7): 879-888, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064621

RESUMO

The discovery of hematologic improvement and bone marrow modification by the drug ß-D mannuronic acid (M2000) during treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in phase 1/2/3 clinical trials prompted us to design a new trial to target hematologic deficits in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In this open-label, randomized phase 2 clinical trial, the potential effect and tolerability of drug M2000 was assessed in patients with low- and intermediate-1-risk MDS. The primary efficacy end point was hematologic improvement after 12 weeks of ß-D-mannuronic acid therapy. Among 34 enrolled patients, half received their conventional therapy plus ß-D-mannuronic acid, and the other half received only conventional drugs. In the conventional + ß-D mannuronic acid treatment group, hematologic improvement and development of transfusion independence and/or reduction in transfusion requirements were seen in 12 patients (92.3%) and 1 patient (7.7%), respectively. Moreover, 5 patients (38.5%), 2 patients (15.4%), and 1 patient (7.7%) in the ß-D-mannuronic acid-treated group showed hematologic improvement of the major parameters of erythroid, neutrophil, and platelet responses, respectively, based on the International Working Group criteria), whereas in the conventional treatment group as control, no hematologic improvements including erythroid, neutrophil, and platelet response was seen. In this trial, the addition of ß-D mannuronic acid to conventional treatment showed promising results in MDS patients with low and intermediate-1 risk with effects on hematologic improvements without significant adverse effect.

17.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 13, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a emergent disease characterized by different clinical manifestations in both humans and dogs. Predominant clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis are ulcerative painless skin lesions. Several data reported that pain is associated with human and dog leishmaniasis, out with areas of painless ulcerative lesions per se. Actually, current medications used for leishmaniasis management are characterized by several side effects and, in addition, some cases of the disease are refractory to the treatment. On this background it is mandatory the identification of new and safe candidates for designing less toxic and low-cost remedies. Therefore, the search for new leishmanicidal compounds is indispensable. METHODS: In the present paper we investigated the effect of orally N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) supplementation at dose of 200 mg/Kg for 10 weeks, in subcutaneous Leishmania (L). amazonensis infected BALB/c mice. And evaluating the effect of NAC on inflammatory response such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß levels, and on thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. RESULTS: In the present paper we showed how NAC supplementation affected parameters of oxidative stress (GSH, MDA, SOD), inflammation such as cytokines levels (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNFα) and mast cell activation and consequently on induced pain, during leishmaniosis in BALB\c mice. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of our study provided the scientific data demonstrating that L. amazonensis infection induces inflammation and pain in BALB/c mice that are reversed by administration of NAC.

18.
FASEB J ; 34(3): 4085-4106, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950563

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disorder characterized by inflammation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and it is associated with different neurological disorders. Recent evidence has demonstrated that the gut-brain-axis has a central function in the perpetuation of IBS, and for this reason, it can be considered a possible therapeutic target. N-Palmitoylethanolamine-oxazoline (PEA-OXA) possesses anti-inflammatory and potent neuroprotective effects. Although recent studies have explained the neuroprotective properties of PEA-OXA, nothing is known about its effects on the gut-brain axis during colitis. The aim of this study is to explore the mechanism and the effect of PEA-OXA on the gut-brain axis in rats subjected to experimental colitis induced by oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Daily oral administration of PEA-OXA (10 mg/kg daily o.s.) was able to decrease the body weight loss, macroscopic damage, colon length, histological alteration, and inflammation after DSS induction. Additionally, PEA-OXA administration enhanced neurotrophic growth factor release and decreased the astroglial and microglial activation induced by DSS. Moreover, PEA-OXA restored intestinal permeability and tight junctions (TJs) as well as reduced apoptosis in the colon and brain. In our work, we demonstrated, for the first time, the action of PEA-OXA on the gut-brain axis in a model of DSS-induced colitis and its implication on the "secondary" effects associated with colonic disturbance.

19.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets ; 19(1): 27-43, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The activity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis is commonly dysregulated in stress-related psychiatric disorders. Annexin A1 (ANXA1), an endogenous ligand of Formyl Peptide Receptor (FPR) 2/3, is a member of the family of phospholipid- and calcium-binding proteins with a well-defined role in the delayed early inhibitory feedback of Glucocorticoids (GC) in the pituitary gland and implicated in the occurrence of behavioural disorders such as anxiety. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the potential role of ANXA1 and its main receptor, as a cellular mediator of behavioural disorders, in a model of Corticosterone (CORT)-induced depression and subsequently, the possible correlation between the depressive state and impairment of hippocampal memory. METHODS: To induce the depression model, Wild-Type (WT), ANXA1 Knockout (KO), and FPR2/3 KO mice were exposed to oral administration of CORT for 28 days dissolved in drinking water. Following this, histological, biochemical and behavioural analyses were performed. RESULTS: FPR2/3 KO and ANXA1 KO mice showed improvement in anxiety and depression-like behaviour compared with WT mice after CORT administration. In addition, FPR2/3 KO and ANXA1 KO mice showed a reduction in histological alterations and neuronal death in hippocampal sections. Moreover, CORT+ FPR2/3 KO and ANXA1 KO, exhibited a higher expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), phospho-ERK, cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and a decrease in Serotonin Transporter Expression (SERT) compared to WT(CORT+) mice. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the absence of the ANXA1 protein, even more than the absence of its main receptor (FPR 2/3), was fundamental to the inhibitory action of GC on the HPA axis; it also maintained the hippocampal homeostasis by preventing neuronal damage associated with depression.

20.
FASEB J ; 34(1): 1576-1590, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914614

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are characterized by an inflammatory and oxidative stress condition in the intestinal tissue. In this study, we evaluated the effect of plumericin, one of the main bioactive components of Himatanthus sucuuba (Woodson) bark, on intestinal inflammation and oxidative stress, both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of plumericin (0.5-2 µM) in vitro was evaluated in rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) treated with lipopolysaccharides from E. coli (10 µg/mL) plus interferon-γ (10 U/mL). Moreover, a 2,4,6-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis model was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of plumericin (3 mg/kg) in vivo. The results showed that plumericin significantly reduces intestinal inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and nitrotyrosine formation. Plumericin also inhibited nuclear factor-κB translocation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) release, and inflammasome activation. Moreover, plumericin activated the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 pathway in IEC-6. Using the DNBS-induced colitis model, a significant reduction in the weight loss and in the development of the macroscopic and histologic signs of colon injury, together with a reduced inflammatory and oxidative stress state, were observed in plumericin-treated mice. These results indicate that plumericin exerts a strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Thus, it might be a candidate for the development of a new pharmacologic approach for IBDs treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Indenos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Iridoides/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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