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1.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of various breast-cancer treatments on patients with a BRCA2 mutation has not been studied. We sought to estimate the impact of bilateral oophorectomy and other treatments on breast cancer-specific survival among patients with a germline BRCA2 mutation. METHODS: We identified 664 women with stage I-III breast cancer and a BRCA2 mutation by combining five different datasets (retrospective and prospective). Subjects were followed for 7.2 years from diagnosis to death from breast cancer. Tumour characteristics and cancer treatments were patient-reported and derived from medical records. Predictors of survival were determined using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for other treatments and for prognostic features. RESULTS: The 10-year breast-cancer survival for ER-positive patients was 78.9% and for ER-negative patients was 82.3% (adjusted HR = 1.23 (95% CI, 0.62-2.45, p = 0.55)). The 10-year breast-cancer survival for women who had a bilateral oophorectomy was 89.1% and for women who did not have an oophorectomy was 59.0% (adjusted HR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.28-0.72, p = 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio for chemotherapy was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.65-1.53: p = 0.56). CONCLUSIONS: For women with breast cancer and a germline BRCA2 mutation, positive ER status does not predict superior survival. Oophorectomy is associated with a reduced risk of death from breast cancer and should be considered in the treatment plan.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1236, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623038

RESUMO

Genetic models for cancer have been evaluated using almost exclusively European data, which could exacerbate health disparities. A polygenic hazard score (PHS1) is associated with age at prostate cancer diagnosis and improves screening accuracy in Europeans. Here, we evaluate performance of PHS2 (PHS1, adapted for OncoArray) in a multi-ethnic dataset of 80,491 men (49,916 cases, 30,575 controls). PHS2 is associated with age at diagnosis of any and aggressive (Gleason score ≥ 7, stage T3-T4, PSA ≥ 10 ng/mL, or nodal/distant metastasis) cancer and prostate-cancer-specific death. Associations with cancer are significant within European (n = 71,856), Asian (n = 2,382), and African (n = 6,253) genetic ancestries (p < 10-180). Comparing the 80th/20th PHS2 percentiles, hazard ratios for prostate cancer, aggressive cancer, and prostate-cancer-specific death are 5.32, 5.88, and 5.68, respectively. Within European, Asian, and African ancestries, hazard ratios for prostate cancer are: 5.54, 4.49, and 2.54, respectively. PHS2 risk-stratifies men for any, aggressive, and fatal prostate cancer in a multi-ethnic dataset.

3.
Hered Cancer Clin Pract ; 19(1): 6, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419454

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The role of PALB2 in carcinogenesis remains to be clarified. Our main goal was to determine the prevalence of PALB2 (509_510delGA and 172_175delTTGT) mutations in bladder and kidney cancer patients from Polish population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1413 patients with bladder and 810 cases with kidney cancer and 4702 controls were genotyped for two PALB2 variants: 509_510delGA and 172_175delTTGT. RESULTS: Two mutations of PALB2 gene were detected in 5 of 1413 (0.35%) unselected bladder cases and in 10 of 4702 controls (odds ratio [OR], 1.7; 95% CI 0.56-4.88; p = 0.52). Among 810 unselected kidney cancer cases two PALB2 mutations were reported in two patients (0,24%) (odds ratio [OR], (OR = 1.2; 95% CI 0.25-5.13; p = 0.84). In cases with mutations in PALB2 gene cancer family history was negative. CONCLUSION: We found no difference in the prevalence of recurrent PALB2 mutations between cases and healthy controls. The mutations in PALB2 gene seem not to play a major role in bladder and kidney cancer development in Polish patients.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic hazard scores (PHS) can identify individuals with increased risk of prostate cancer. We estimated the benefit of additional SNPs on performance of a previously validated PHS (PHS46). MATERIALS AND METHOD: 180 SNPs, shown to be previously associated with prostate cancer, were used to develop a PHS model in men with European ancestry. A machine-learning approach, LASSO-regularized Cox regression, was used to select SNPs and to estimate their coefficients in the training set (75,596 men). Performance of the resulting model was evaluated in the testing/validation set (6,411 men) with two metrics: (1) hazard ratios (HRs) and (2) positive predictive value (PPV) of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. HRs were estimated between individuals with PHS in the top 5% to those in the middle 40% (HR95/50), top 20% to bottom 20% (HR80/20), and bottom 20% to middle 40% (HR20/50). PPV was calculated for the top 20% (PPV80) and top 5% (PPV95) of PHS as the fraction of individuals with elevated PSA that were diagnosed with clinically significant prostate cancer on biopsy. RESULTS: 166 SNPs had non-zero coefficients in the Cox model (PHS166). All HR metrics showed significant improvements for PHS166 compared to PHS46: HR95/50 increased from 3.72 to 5.09, HR80/20 increased from 6.12 to 9.45, and HR20/50 decreased from 0.41 to 0.34. By contrast, no significant differences were observed in PPV of PSA testing for clinically significant prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating 120 additional SNPs (PHS166 vs PHS46) significantly improved HRs for prostate cancer, while PPV of PSA testing remained the same.

5.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 65-75, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398198

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a highly heritable disease with large disparities in incidence rates across ancestry populations. We conducted a multiancestry meta-analysis of prostate cancer genome-wide association studies (107,247 cases and 127,006 controls) and identified 86 new genetic risk variants independently associated with prostate cancer risk, bringing the total to 269 known risk variants. The top genetic risk score (GRS) decile was associated with odds ratios that ranged from 5.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.84-5.29) for men of European ancestry to 3.74 (95% CI, 3.36-4.17) for men of African ancestry. Men of African ancestry were estimated to have a mean GRS that was 2.18-times higher (95% CI, 2.14-2.22), and men of East Asian ancestry 0.73-times lower (95% CI, 0.71-0.76), than men of European ancestry. These findings support the role of germline variation contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk, with the GRS offering an approach for personalized risk prediction.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Invasividade Neoplásica , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco
7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158149

RESUMO

The identification of recurrent founder variants in cancer predisposing genes may have important implications for implementing cost-effective targeted genetic screening strategies. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence and relative risk of the CHEK2 recurrent variant c.349A>G in a series of 462 Portuguese patients with early-onset and/or familial/hereditary prostate cancer (PrCa), as well as in the large multicentre PRACTICAL case-control study comprising 55,162 prostate cancer cases and 36,147 controls. Additionally, we investigated the potential shared ancestry of the carriers by performing identity-by-descent, haplotype and age estimation analyses using high-density SNP data from 70 variant carriers belonging to 11 different populations included in the PRACTICAL consortium. The CHEK2 missense variant c.349A>G was found significantly associated with an increased risk for PrCa (OR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.2). A shared haplotype flanking the variant in all carriers was identified, strongly suggesting a common founder of European origin. Additionally, using two independent statistical algorithms, implemented by DMLE+2.3 and ESTIAGE, we were able to estimate the age of the variant between 2300 and 3125 years. By extending the haplotype analysis to 14 additional carrier families, a shared core haplotype was revealed among all carriers matching the conserved region previously identified in the high-density SNP analysis. These findings are consistent with CHEK2 c.349A>G being a founder variant associated with increased PrCa risk, suggesting its potential usefulness for cost-effective targeted genetic screening in PrCa families.

8.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 64: 126682, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed whether blood cadmium levels were associated with incident lung cancer and could be used in the context of a screening program for early-stage lung cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We measured blood cadmium levels among 205 lung cancer patients and 205 matched controls. Cases and controls were matched for sex, age and smoking history (total pack-years, years since cessation for former smokers). RESULTS: The odds ratio for those in the highest quartile of cadmium level (versus lowest) was four-fold (OR = 4.41, 95 % CI:2.01-9.67, p < 0.01). The association was present in former smokers (OR = 16.8, 95 % CI:3.96-71.2, p < 0.01), but not in current smokers (OR = 1.23, 95 % CI: 0.34-4.38) or in never smokers (OR not defined). Among former smokers, the association was present in both early- and late-stage lung cancer. CONCLUSION: Blood cadmium levels may be a marker to help with the early detection of lung cancer among former smokers.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 147(10): 2793-2800, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875559

RESUMO

In designing national strategies for genetic testing, it is important to define the full spectrum of pathogenic mutations in prostate cancer (PCa) susceptibility genes. To investigate the frequency of mutations in PCa susceptibility genes in Polish familial PCa cases and to estimate gene-related PCa risks and probability of aggressive disease, we analyzed the coding regions of 14 genes by exome sequencing in 390 men with familial prostate cancer and 308 cancer-free controls. We compared the mutation frequencies between PCa cases and controls. We also compared clinical characteristics of prostate cancers between mutation carriers and noncarriers. Of the 390 PCa cases, 76 men (19.5%) carried a mutation in BRCA1, BRCA2, NBN, ATM, CHEK2, HOXB13, MSH2 or MSH6 genes. No mutations were found in BRIP1, PTEN, TP53, MLH1, PMS2 and SPOP. Significant associations with familial PCa risk were observed for CHEK2, NBN, ATM, and HOXB13. High-grade (Gleason 8-10) tumors were seen in 56% of BRCA2, NBN or ATM carriers, compared to 21% of patients who tested negative for mutations in these genes (OR = 4.7, 95% CI 2.0-10.7, P = .0003). In summary, approximately 20% of familial prostate cancer cases in Poland can be attributed to mutations in eight susceptibility genes. Carriers of mutations in BRCA2, NBN and ATM develop aggressive disease and may benefit from intensified screening and/or chemotherapy.

10.
Breast Cancer ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine spectrum and prevalence of germline mutations in TP53 gene among Polish women with early-onset breast cancer (BC), which has not been determined until now. METHODS: A cohort of 100 females with BC diagnosed ≤ 30 years of age and with a positive family history of cancer was used as a discovery cohort. 1880 women with BC ≤ 45 years old and a control group of 2000 healthy women were genotyped as a replication phase of this study. RESULTS: Four heterozygous pathogenic missense mutations were detected in a group of 100 patients with early-onset breast cancer. On the basis of software prediction and available literature data, all these variants were defined as pathogenic. None of these TP53 variants were detected among 1880 breast cancer patients and 2000 healthy controls. No large mutations were found among early-onset cases using MLPA reaction. CONCLUSION: Germline pathogenic TP53 variants were found in 4% early-onset Polish BC patients. No founder mutations were identified in Polish population. To improve the treatment and surveillance screening, the search for germline TP53 pathogenic variants is recommended for all female BC cases diagnosed ≤ 30 years old.

11.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 29(6): 511-519, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976206

RESUMO

Evaluation of the prevalence of POT1, ACD, and TERF2IP mutations among Polish melanoma patients. A cohort of 60 patients from melanoma-prone families, 1500 unselected cases and 1500 controls were genotyped. Methodology included Sanger sequencing, in-silico software predilection, and TaqMan assays. We identified three nonsynonymous variants: POT1 c.903 G>T; TERF2IP c.970 A>G; and ACD c.1544 T>C and a splice site variant ACD c.645 G>A. The c.903 G>T was predicted to be pathogenic according to PolyPhen-2, benign according to Mutation Taster, PROVEAN, AGVGD, and SIFT. The c.645 G>A was defined as disease caused by Mutation Taster and Human Splicing Finder and as variant of unknown significance by ClinVar. The other detected variants were described as benign. The c.903 G>T variant was present in two unselected cases and one control [P = 0.57, odds ratio (OR) = 2.00]; the c.645 G>A variant was not detected among the unselected cases and the controls; the c.970 A>G variant was present in 110 cases and 133 controls (P = 0.14, OR = 0.81); the c.1544 T>C variant was present in 687 cases and 642 controls (P = 0.11, OR = 1.07). We found no loss of heterozygosity of the c.903 G>T, c.970 A>G, and c.645 G>A variants. C.645 G>A variant had no effect on splicing or expression. The changes in POT1 c.903 G>T and ACD c.645 G>A can be classified as rare variants of unknown significance, the other variants appear to be polymorphisms. Germline mutations in POT1, ACD, and TERF2IP are infrequent among Polish melanoma patients.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824581

RESUMO

There are twenty recurrent mutations in six breast-cancer-predisposing genes in Poland (BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, PALB2, NBN, and RECQL). The frequencies of the twenty alleles have not been measured in a large series of early-onset breast cancer patients from Poland unselected for family history. We genotyped 2464 women with breast cancer diagnosed below age 41 years for twenty recurrent germline mutations in six genes, including BRCA1, BRCA2 CHEK2, PALB2, NBN, and RECQL. A mutation in one of the six genes was identified in 419 of the 2464 early-onset breast cancer cases (17%), including 22.4% of those cases diagnosed below age 31. The mutation frequency was 18.8% for familial breast cancer cases and 6% for non-familial cases. Among women with breast cancer below age 31, the mutation frequency was 23.6% for familial cases and 17.4% in non-familial cases. The majority of mutations (76.2%) were seen in BRCA1 and BRCA2. In Poland, a panel of twenty recurrent mutations in six genes can identify a genetic basis for a high percentage of early-onset cases and testing is recommended for all women with breast cancer at age 40 or below.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765800

RESUMO

Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and metallothioneins (MTs) are Zinc-related proteins which are involved in processes crucial for carcinogenesis such as angiogenesis, proliferation and apoptosis. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MMPs and MTs that affect genes expression have been associated with cancer risk, including breast, lung and colon. Methods: The study group consisted of 648 unselected patients (299 with breast cancer, 199 with lung cancer, 150 with colon cancer) and 648 unaffected individuals. Five SNPs, rs1799750 in MMP-1, rs243865 in MMP-2, rs11568818 in MMP-7, rs2252070 in MMP-13 and rs28366003 in MT2A were genotyped and serum zinc (Zn) level was measured. The cancer risk was calculated using multivariable logistic regression with respect to Zn. Results: None of the 5 tested polymorphisms showed a correlation with cancer risk in studied groups, although for MMP-2, MMP-7 and MT2A non-significant differences in genotypes frequencies among cases and controls were observed. Conclusions: Analyses of polymorphisms, rs1799750 in MMP-1, rs243865 in MMP-2, rs11568818 in MMP-7, rs2252070 in MMP-13 and rs28366003 in MT2A in relation to serum Zn level did not show significant association with breast, lung and colon cancer risk among polish patients. Further studies are needed to verify this observation.

14.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648197

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens is an important cause of lung cancer. One of these substances is chromium, which is found ubiquitously across the planet. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified chromium(VI) as a human carcinogen. The aim of this study was to assess whether serum chromium levels, as well as DNA variants in selected genes involved in carcinogenesis, xenobiotic-metabolism, and oxidative stress could be helpful in the detection of lung cancer. We conducted a study using 218 lung cancer patients and 218 matched healthy controls. We measured serum chromium levels and genotyped ten genetic variants in ERCC2, XRCC1, MT1B, GSTP1, ABCB1, NQ01, CRTC3, GPX1, SOD2 and CAT. The odds ratios of being diagnosed with lung cancer were calculated using conditional logistic regression with respect to serum chromium level and genotypes. The odds ratio for the occurrence of lung cancer increased with increasing serum chromium levels. The difference between the quartiles with the lowest vs. highest chromium level was more than fourfold in the entire group (OR 4.52, CI 2.17-9.42, p < 0.01). This correlation was significantly increased by more than twice when specific genotypes were taken into consideration (ERCC-rs12181 TT, OR 12.34, CI 1.17-130.01, p = 0.04; CRTC3-rs12915189 non GG, OR 9.73, CI 1.58-60.10, p = 0.01; GSTP1-rs1695 non AA, OR 9.47, CI 2.06-43.49, p = < 0.01; CAT-rs1001179 non CC, OR 9.18, CI 1.64-51.24, p = 0.01). Total serum chromium levels > 0.1 µg/L were correlated with 73% (52/71) of lung cancers diagnosed with stage I disease. Our findings support the role of chromium and the influence of key proteins on lung cancer burden in the general population.

15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(10): 1467-1475, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514134

RESUMO

We determined the effect of sample size on performance of polygenic hazard score (PHS) models in prostate cancer. Age and genotypes were obtained for 40,861 men from the PRACTICAL consortium. The dataset included 201,590 SNPs per subject, and was split into training and testing sets. Established-SNP models considered 65 SNPs that had been previously associated with prostate cancer. Discovery-SNP models used stepwise selection to identify new SNPs. The performance of each PHS model was calculated for random sizes of the training set. The performance of a representative Established-SNP model was estimated for random sizes of the testing set. Mean HR98/50 (hazard ratio of top 2% to average in test set) of the Established-SNP model increased from 1.73 [95% CI: 1.69-1.77] to 2.41 [2.40-2.43] when the number of training samples was increased from 1 thousand to 30 thousand. Corresponding HR98/50 of the Discovery-SNP model increased from 1.05 [0.93-1.18] to 2.19 [2.16-2.23]. HR98/50 of a representative Established-SNP model using testing set sample sizes of 0.6 thousand and 6 thousand observations were 1.78 [1.70-1.85] and 1.73 [1.71-1.76], respectively. We estimate that a study population of 20 thousand men is required to develop Discovery-SNP PHS models while 10 thousand men should be sufficient for Established-SNP models.

16.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546565

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The known epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility genes account for less than 50% of the heritable risk of ovarian cancer suggesting that other susceptibility genes exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution to ovarian cancer susceptibility of rare deleterious germline variants in a set of candidate genes. METHODS: We sequenced the coding region of 54 candidate genes in 6385 invasive EOC cases and 6115 controls of broad European ancestry. Genes with an increased frequency of putative deleterious variants in cases versus controls were further examined in an independent set of 14 135 EOC cases and 28 655 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium and the UK Biobank. For each gene, we estimated the EOC risks and evaluated associations between germline variant status and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The ORs associated for high-grade serous ovarian cancer were 3.01 for PALB2 (95% CI 1.59 to 5.68; p=0.00068), 1.99 for POLK (95% CI 1.15 to 3.43; p=0.014) and 4.07 for SLX4 (95% CI 1.34 to 12.4; p=0.013). Deleterious mutations in FBXO10 were associated with a reduced risk of disease (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.00, p=0.049). However, based on the Bayes false discovery probability, only the association for PALB2 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer is likely to represent a true positive. CONCLUSIONS: We have found strong evidence that carriers of PALB2 deleterious mutations are at increased risk of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Whether the magnitude of risk is sufficiently high to warrant the inclusion of PALB2 in cancer gene panels for ovarian cancer risk testing is unclear; much larger sample sizes will be needed to provide sufficiently precise estimates for clinical counselling.

17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1731-1738, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A polygenic hazard score (PHS), the weighted sum of 54 SNP genotypes, was previously validated for association with clinically significant prostate cancer and for improved prostate cancer screening accuracy. Here, we assess the potential impact of PHS-informed screening. METHODS: United Kingdom population incidence data (Cancer Research United Kingdom) and data from the Cluster Randomized Trial of PSA Testing for Prostate Cancer were combined to estimate age-specific clinically significant prostate cancer incidence (Gleason score ≥7, stage T3-T4, PSA ≥10, or nodal/distant metastases). Using HRs estimated from the ProtecT prostate cancer trial, age-specific incidence rates were calculated for various PHS risk percentiles. Risk-equivalent age, when someone with a given PHS percentile has prostate cancer risk equivalent to an average 50-year-old man (50-year-standard risk), was derived from PHS and incidence data. Positive predictive value (PPV) of PSA testing for clinically significant prostate cancer was calculated using PHS-adjusted age groups. RESULTS: The expected age at diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer differs by 19 years between the 1st and 99th PHS percentiles: men with PHS in the 1st and 99th percentiles reach the 50-year-standard risk level at ages 60 and 41, respectively. PPV of PSA was higher for men with higher PHS-adjusted age. CONCLUSIONS: PHS provides individualized estimates of risk-equivalent age for clinically significant prostate cancer. Screening initiation could be adjusted by a man's PHS. IMPACT: Personalized genetic risk assessments could inform prostate cancer screening decisions.

18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(20): 5411-5423, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554541

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gene expression-based molecular subtypes of high-grade serous tubo-ovarian cancer (HGSOC), demonstrated across multiple studies, may provide improved stratification for molecularly targeted trials. However, evaluation of clinical utility has been hindered by nonstandardized methods, which are not applicable in a clinical setting. We sought to generate a clinical grade minimal gene set assay for classification of individual tumor specimens into HGSOC subtypes and confirm previously reported subtype-associated features. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Adopting two independent approaches, we derived and internally validated algorithms for subtype prediction using published gene expression data from 1,650 tumors. We applied resulting models to NanoString data on 3,829 HGSOCs from the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium. We further developed, confirmed, and validated a reduced, minimal gene set predictor, with methods suitable for a single-patient setting. RESULTS: Gene expression data were used to derive the predictor of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma molecular subtype (PrOTYPE) assay. We established a de facto standard as a consensus of two parallel approaches. PrOTYPE subtypes are significantly associated with age, stage, residual disease, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and outcome. The locked-down clinical grade PrOTYPE test includes a model with 55 genes that predicted gene expression subtype with >95% accuracy that was maintained in all analytic and biological validations. CONCLUSIONS: We validated the PrOTYPE assay following the Institute of Medicine guidelines for the development of omics-based tests. This fully defined and locked-down clinical grade assay will enable trial design with molecular subtype stratification and allow for objective assessment of the predictive value of HGSOC molecular subtypes in precision medicine applications.See related commentary by McMullen et al., p. 5271.

19.
Int J Cancer ; 146(5): 1293-1298, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469414

RESUMO

Methylation of the promoter of the BRCA1 gene in DNA derived from peripheral blood cells is a possible risk factor for breast cancer. It is not clear if this association is restricted to certain types of breast cancer or is a general phenomenon. We evaluated BRCA1 methylation status in peripheral blood cells from 942 breast cancer patients and from 500 controls. We also assessed methylation status in 262 paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Methylation status was assessed using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting and was categorized as positive or negative. BRCA1 methylation in peripheral blood cells was strongly associated with the risk of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (odds ratio [OR] 4.70; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.13-7.07; p < 0.001), but not of estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer (OR 0.80; 95% CI: 0.46-1.42; p = 0.46). Methylation was also overrepresented among patients with high-grade cancers (OR 4.53; 95% CI: 2.91-7.05; p < 0.001) and medullary cancers (OR 3.08; 95% CI: 1.38-6.88; p = 0.006). Moreover, we detected a significant concordance of BRCA1 promoter methylation in peripheral blood and paired tumor tissue (p < 0.001). We found that BRCA1 promoter methylation in peripheral blood cells is associated with approximately five times greater risk of TNBC. We propose that BRCA1 methylation in blood-derived DNA could be a novel biomarker of increased breast cancer susceptibility, in particular for triple-negative tumors.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/sangue , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
20.
Int J Cancer ; 146(10): 2721-2727, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348523

RESUMO

Arsenic is recognized as a potent carcinogen at high concentrations, but the relationship between environmental arsenic and breast cancer risk has not well been studied. Most research has focused on the effect of arsenic in populations with high endemic exposure, and not in populations with arsenic levels within normal limits. We sought to determine if blood arsenic levels predict the risk of breast and other cancers risk among women in northern Poland. The cohort consisted of 1,702 healthy women, aged 40 and above, identified between 2010 and 2017. Blood arsenic level was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. After an average of 4.5 years of follow-up (range 0.7-7.3 years), there were 110 incident cases of cancer diagnosed in the cohort, including 68 cases of breast cancer. Women in the highest quartile of arsenic had a highly significant 13-fold increased risk of developing breast cancer, compared to women in the lowest quartile (hazard ratio [HR] = 13.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.02-43.0). Results were similar for arsenic and all incident cancers (HR quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 13.3; 95% CI 4.78-37.0). If confirmed, our study suggests that the blood arsenic level may be a useful predictive marker of cancer risk in women.


Assuntos
Arsênico/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Fatores de Risco
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