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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181574

RESUMO

Exposure to maltreatment in childhood is associated with lifelong risk of mental and behavioral disorders. Whether the effects extend to the next generation remains unclear. We examined whether maternal exposure to childhood abuse and neglect in her own childhood were associated with mental and behavioral disorders and psychiatric symptoms in her children, and whether maternal lifetime mental and behavioral disorders or lower education level mediated or added to the effects. Mothers (n = 2252) of the Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction cohort study completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and reported on their education and their 7.0-12.1-year-old children's psychiatric symptoms using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. We identified lifetime mental and behavioral disorder diagnoses for the mothers and diagnoses for their children from birth (2006-2010) until 8.4-12.8 years (12/31/2018) from Care Register for Health Care. We found that maternal exposure to childhood abuse, but not neglect, was associated with higher hazards of mental and behavioral disorders (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.37) in children. These associations were partially mediated by maternal mental and behavioral disorders and education (proportion of effect size mediated: 23.8% and 15.1%, respectively), which together with maternal exposure to childhood abuse added to the hazard of mental and behavioral disorders in children. Similar associations were found for maternal exposure to childhood abuse and neglect with psychiatric symptoms in children. To conclude, maternal exposure to childhood maltreatment is associated with mental and behavioral disorders and psychiatric symptoms in children. Our findings call for interventions to prevent intergenerational transmission.

2.
Clin Epigenetics ; 14(1): 55, 2022 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Panic disorder (PD) is characterized by recurrent panic attacks and higher affection of women as compared to men. The lifetime prevalence of PD is about 2-3% in the general population leading to tremendous distress and disability. Etiologically, genetic and environmental factors, such as stress, contribute to the onset and relapse of PD. In the present study, we investigated epigenome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) in respond to a cumulative, stress-weighted life events score (wLE) in patients with PD and its boundary to major depressive disorder (MDD), frequently co-occurring with symptoms of PD. METHODS: DNAm was assessed by the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In a meta-analytic approach, epigenome-wide DNAm changes in association with wLE were first analyzed in two PD cohorts (with a total sample size of 183 PD patients and 85 healthy controls) and lastly in 102 patients with MDD to identify possible overlapping and opposing effects of wLE on DNAm. Additionally, analysis of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) was conducted to identify regional clusters of association. RESULTS: Two CpG-sites presented with p-values below 1 × 10-05 in PD: cg09738429 (p = 6.40 × 10-06, located in an intergenic shore region in next proximity of PYROXD1) and cg03341655 (p = 8.14 × 10-06, located in the exonic region of GFOD2). The association of DNAm at cg03341655 and wLE could be replicated in the independent MDD case sample indicating a diagnosis independent effect. Genes mapping to the top hits were significantly upregulated in brain and top hits have been implicated in the metabolic system. Additionally, two significant DMRs were identified for PD only on chromosome 10 and 18, including CpG-sites which have been reported to be associated with anxiety and other psychiatric phenotypes. CONCLUSION: This first DNAm analysis in PD reveals first evidence of small but significant DNAm changes in PD in association with cumulative stress-weighted life events. Most of the top associated CpG-sites are located in genes implicated in metabolic processes supporting the hypothesis that environmental stress contributes to health damaging changes by affecting a broad spectrum of systems in the body.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtorno de Pânico , Metilação de DNA , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Feminino , Humanos , Transtorno de Pânico/genética
3.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 215: 173371, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271857

RESUMO

Childhood adversity (CA) as a significant stressor has consistently been associated with the development of mental disorders. The interaction between CA and genetic variants has been proposed to play a substantial role in disease etiology. In this review, we focus on the gene by environment (GxE) paradigm, its background and interpretation and stress the necessity of its implementation in psychiatric research. Further, we discuss the findings supporting GxCA interactions, ranging from candidate gene studies to polygenic and genome-wide approaches, their strengths and limitations. To illustrate potential underlying epigenetic mechanisms by which GxE effects are translated, we focus on results from FKBP5 × CA studies and discuss how molecular evidence can supplement previous GxE findings. In conclusion, while GxE studies constitute a valuable line of investigation, more harmonized GxE studies in large, deep-phenotyped, longitudinal cohorts, and across different developmental stages are necessary to further substantiate and understand reported GxE findings.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Transtornos Mentais , Epigênese Genética/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/genética
4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 27(4): 2126-2135, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35145228

RESUMO

Cognitive skills are a strong predictor of a wide range of later life outcomes. Genetic and epigenetic associations across the genome explain some of the variation in general cognitive abilities in the general population and it is plausible that epigenetic associations might arise from prenatal environmental exposures and/or genetic variation early in life. We investigated the association between cord blood DNA methylation at birth and cognitive skills assessed in children from eight pregnancy cohorts within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) Consortium across overall (total N = 2196), verbal (total N = 2206) and non-verbal cognitive scores (total N = 3300). The associations at single CpG sites were weak for all of the cognitive domains investigated. One region near DUSP22 on chromosome 6 was associated with non-verbal cognition in a model adjusted for maternal IQ. We conclude that there is little evidence to support the idea that variation in cord blood DNA methylation at single CpG sites is associated with cognitive skills and further studies are needed to confirm the association at DUSP22.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Criança , Cognição , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
5.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(2): 115, 2022 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113241

RESUMO

The placenta is a central organ during early development, influencing trajectories of health and disease. DNA methylation (DNAm) studies of human placenta improve our understanding of how its function relates to disease risk. However, DNAm studies can be biased by cell type heterogeneity, so it is essential to control for this in order to reduce confounding and increase precision. Computational cell type deconvolution approaches have proven to be very useful for this purpose. For human placenta, however, an assessment of the performance of these estimation methods is still lacking. Here, we examine the performance of a newly available reference-based cell type estimation approach and compare it to an often-used reference-free cell type estimation approach, namely RefFreeEWAS, in placental genome-wide DNAm samples taken at birth and from chorionic villus biopsies early in pregnancy using three independent studies comprising over 1000 samples. We found both reference-free and reference-based estimated cell type proportions to have predictive value for DNAm, however, reference-based cell type estimation outperformed reference-free estimation for the majority of data sets. Reference-based cell type estimations mirror previous histological knowledge on changes in cell type proportions through gestation. Further, CpGs whose variation in DNAm was largely explained by reference-based estimated cell type proportions were in the proximity of genes that are highly tissue-specific for placenta. This was not the case for reference-free estimated cell type proportions. We provide a list of these CpGs as a resource to help researchers to interpret results of existing studies and improve future DNAm studies of human placenta.


Assuntos
Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Placenta/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/prevenção & controle , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Placenta/citologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e049231, 2022 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35105615

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The InTraUterine sampling in early pregnancy (ITU) is a prospective pregnancy cohort study. The overarching aim of ITU is to unravel genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, endocrine, inflammatory and metabolic maternal-placental-fetal mechanisms involved in the programming of health and disease after exposure to prenatal environmental adversity, such as maternal malnutrition, cardiometabolic disorders, infections, medical interventions, mental disorders and psychosocial stress. This paper describes the study protocol, design and baseline characteristics of the cohort. PARTICIPANTS: We included 944 pregnant Finnish women, their partners and children born alive between April 2012 and December 2017. The women were recruited through the national, voluntary trisomy 21 screening between 9+0 and 21+6 gestational weeks. Of the participating women, 543 were screen positive and underwent fetal chromosomal testing. Test result of these women suggested no fetal chromosomal abnormality. Further, we recruited 401 women who were screen negative and who did not undergo fetal chromosomal testing. FINDINGS TO DATE: We have collected chorionic villi and amniotic fluid from the screen-positive women; blood, urine, buccal swabs and diurnal salivary samples from all women; blood and buccal swabs from all partners; and placenta, cord blood and buccal swabs from all newborns for analyses of the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, and endocrine, inflammatory and metabolic markers. These data are coupled with comprehensive phenotypes, including questions on demographic characteristics, health and well-being of the women and their partners during pregnancy and of the women and their children at the child's age of 1.7 and 3 years. Data also come from patient records and nationwide registers covering health, lifestyle and medication data. FUTURE PLANS: Multiple layers of ITU data allow integrative data analyses, which translate to biomarker identification and allow risk stratification and understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in prenatal programming of health and disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Fetais , Placenta , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Epigenetics ; 17(1): 19-31, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331245

RESUMO

Altered maternal haemoglobin levels during pregnancy are associated with pre-clinical and clinical conditions affecting the fetus. Evidence from animal models suggests that these associations may be partially explained by differential DNA methylation in the newborn with possible long-term consequences. To test this in humans, we meta-analyzed the epigenome-wide associations of maternal haemoglobin levels during pregnancy with offspring DNA methylation in 3,967 newborn cord blood and 1,534 children and 1,962 adolescent whole-blood samples derived from 10 cohorts. DNA methylation was measured using Illumina Infinium Methylation 450K or MethylationEPIC arrays covering 450,000 and 850,000 methylation sites, respectively. There was no statistical support for the association of maternal haemoglobin levels with offspring DNA methylation either at individual methylation sites or clustered in regions. For most participants, maternal haemoglobin levels were within the normal range in the current study, whereas adverse perinatal outcomes often arise at the extremes. Thus, this study does not rule out the possibility that associations with offspring DNA methylation might be seen in studies with more extreme maternal haemoglobin levels.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epigenoma , Epigenômica , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas/genética , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
8.
Am J Psychiatry ; 179(5): 375-387, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A fine-tuned balance of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation is essential for organ formation, with disturbances influencing many health outcomes. In utero, glucocorticoids have been linked to brain-related negative outcomes, with unclear underlying mechanisms, especially regarding cell-type-specific effects. An in vitro model of fetal human brain development, induced human pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cerebral organoids, was used to test whether cerebral organoids are suitable for studying the impact of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure on the developing brain. METHODS: The GR was activated with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone, and the effects were mapped using single-cell transcriptomics across development. RESULTS: The GR was expressed in all cell types, with increasing expression levels through development. Not only did its activation elicit translocation to the nucleus and the expected effects on known GR-regulated pathways, but also neurons and progenitor cells showed targeted regulation of differentiation- and maturation-related transcripts. Uniquely in neurons, differentially expressed transcripts were significantly enriched for genes associated with behavior-related phenotypes and disorders. This human neuronal glucocorticoid response profile was validated across organoids from three independent hiPSC lines reprogrammed from different source tissues from both male and female donors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that excessive glucocorticoid exposure could interfere with neuronal maturation in utero, leading to increased disease susceptibility through neurodevelopmental processes at the interface of genetic susceptibility and environmental exposure. Cerebral organoids are a valuable translational resource for exploring the effects of glucocorticoids on early human brain development.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Receptores de Glucocorticoides , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dexametasona/metabolismo , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Masculino , Organoides/metabolismo , Gravidez , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética
9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 46, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35105872

RESUMO

Interaction of genetic predispositions and environmental factors via epigenetic mechanisms have been hypothesized to play a central role in Panic Disorder (PD) aetiology and therapy. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), including exposure interventions, belong to the most efficient treatments of PD although its biological mechanism of action remains unknown. For the first time, we explored the dynamics and magnitude of DNA-methylation and immune cell-type composition during CBT (n = 38) and the therapeutic exposure intervention (n = 21) to unravel their biological correlates and identify possible biomarkers of therapy success. We report transient regulation of the CD4 + T-Cells, Natural Killers cells, Granulocytes during exposure and a significant change in the proportions of CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells and B-Cells and Granulocytes during therapy. In an epigenome-wide association study we identified cg01586609 located in a CpG island and annotated to the serotonin receptor 3 A (HTR3A) to be differentially methylated during fear exposure and regulated at gene expression level with significant differences between remitters and non-remitters (p = 0.028). We moreover report cg01699630 annotated to ARG1 to undergo long lasting methylation changes during therapy (paired t test, genome-wide adj.p value = 0.02). This study reports the first data-driven biological candidates for epigenetically mediated effects of acute fear exposure and CBT in PD patients. Our results provide evidence of changes in the serotonin receptor 3 A methylation and expression during fear exposure associated with different long-term CBT trajectories and outcome, making it a possible candidate in the search of markers for therapy success. Finally, our results add to a growing body of evidence showing immune system changes associated with PD.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno de Pânico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Ilhas de CpG , DNA , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Transtorno de Pânico/genética , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Transtorno de Pânico/terapia
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22511, 2021 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795372

RESUMO

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) is a lipid-driven inflammatory disease and one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Lipid deposits in the arterial wall lead to the formation of plaques that involve lipid oxidation, cellular necrosis, and complement activation, resulting in inflammation and thrombosis. The present study found that homozygous deletion of the CFHR1 gene, which encodes the plasma complement protein factor H-related protein 1 (FHR-1), was protective in two cohorts of patients with ACVD, suggesting that FHR-1 accelerates inflammation and exacerbates the disease. To test this hypothesis, FHR-1 was isolated from human plasma and was found to circulate on extracellular vesicles and to be deposited in atherosclerotic plaques. Surface-bound FHR-1 induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and tissue factor in both monocytes and neutrophils. Notably, plasma concentrations of FHR-1, but not of factor H, were significantly (p < 0.001) elevated in patients with ACVD, and correlated with the expression of the inflammation markers C-reactive protein, apolipoprotein serum amyloid protein A, and neopterin. FHR-1 expression also significantly correlated with plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (p < 0.0001) but not high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Taken together, these findings suggest that FHR-1 is associated with ACVD.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento C3b/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Idoso , Cardiologia , Deleção Cromossômica , Ativação do Complemento , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento C3b/biossíntese , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento C3b/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Homozigoto , Humanos , Inflamação , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose , Oxigênio/química , Deleção de Sequência
11.
Neurobiol Stress ; 15: 100394, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies reporting accelerated ageing in children with affective disorders or maltreatment exposure have relied on algorithms for estimating epigenetic age derived from adult samples. These algorithms have limited validity for epigenetic age estimation during early development. We here use a pediatric buccal epigenetic (PedBE) clock to predict DNA methylation-based ageing deviation in children with and without internalizing disorder and assess the moderating effect of maltreatment exposure. We further conduct a gene set enrichment analysis to assess the contribution of glucocorticoid signaling to PedBE clock-based results. METHOD: DNA was isolated from saliva of 158 children [73 girls, 85 boys; mean age (SD) = 4.25 (0.8) years] including children with internalizing disorder and maltreatment exposure. Epigenetic age was estimated based on DNA methylation across 94 CpGs of the PedBE clock. Residuals of epigenetic age regressed against chronological age were contrasted between children with and without internalizing disorder. Maltreatment was coded in 3 severity levels and entered in a moderation model. Genome-wide dexamethasone-responsive CpGs were derived from an independent sample and enrichment of these CpGs within the PedBE clock was identified. RESULTS: Children with internalizing disorder exhibited significant acceleration of epigenetic ageing as compared to children without internalizing disorder (F1,147 = 6.67, p = .011). This association was significantly moderated by maltreatment severity (b = 0.49, 95% CI [0.073, 0.909], t = 2.322, p = .022). Children with internalizing disorder who had experienced maltreatment exhibited ageing acceleration relative to children with no internalizing disorder (1-2 categories: b = 0.50, 95% CI [0.170, 0.821], t = 3.008, p = .003; 3 or more categories: b = 0.99, 95% CI [0.380, 1.593], t = 3.215, p = .002). Children with internalizing disorder who were not exposed to maltreatment did not show epigenetic ageing acceleration. There was significant enrichment of dexamethasone-responsive CpGs within the PedBE clock (OR = 4.36, p = 1.65*10-6). Among the 94 CpGs of the PedBE clock, 18 (19%) were responsive to dexamethasone. CONCLUSION: Using the novel PedBE clock, we show that internalizing disorder is associated with accelerated epigenetic ageing in early childhood. This association is moderated by maltreatment severity and may, in part, be driven by glucocorticoids. Identifying developmental drivers of accelerated epigenetic ageing after maltreatment will be critical to devise early targeted interventions.

12.
Nat Genet ; 53(9): 1311-1321, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493871

RESUMO

Characterizing genetic influences on DNA methylation (DNAm) provides an opportunity to understand mechanisms underpinning gene regulation and disease. In the present study, we describe results of DNAm quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analyses on 32,851 participants, identifying genetic variants associated with DNAm at 420,509 DNAm sites in blood. We present a database of >270,000 independent mQTLs, of which 8.5% comprise long-range (trans) associations. Identified mQTL associations explain 15-17% of the additive genetic variance of DNAm. We show that the genetic architecture of DNAm levels is highly polygenic. Using shared genetic control between distal DNAm sites, we constructed networks, identifying 405 discrete genomic communities enriched for genomic annotations and complex traits. Shared genetic variants are associated with both DNAm levels and complex diseases, but only in a minority of cases do these associations reflect causal relationships from DNAm to trait or vice versa, indicating a more complex genotype-phenotype map than previously anticipated.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Epigênese Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Transcriptoma/genética
13.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 165, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids (GCs) play a pivotal role in fetal programming. Antenatal treatment with synthetic GCs (sGCs) in individuals in danger of preterm labor is common practice. Adverse short- and long-term effects of antenatal sGCs have been reported, but their effects on placental epigenetic characteristics have never been systematically studied in humans. RESULTS: We tested the association between exposure to the sGC betamethasone (BET) and placental DNA methylation (DNAm) in 52 exposed cases and 84 gestational-age-matched controls. We fine-mapped associated loci using targeted bisulfite sequencing. The association of placental DNAm with gene expression and co-expression analysis on implicated genes was performed in an independent cohort including 494 placentas. Exposure to BET was significantly associated with lower placenta DNAm at an enhancer of FKBP5. FKBP5 (FK506-binding protein 51) is a co-chaperone that modulates glucocorticoid receptor activity. Lower DNAm at this enhancer site was associated with higher expression of FKBP5 and a co-expressed gene module. This module is enriched for genes associated with preeclampsia and involved in inflammation and immune response. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that BET exposure during pregnancy associates with few but lasting changes in placental DNAm and may promote a gene expression profile associated with placental dysfunction and increased inflammation. This may represent a pathway mediating GC-associated negative long-term consequences and health outcomes in offspring.


Assuntos
Betametasona/efeitos adversos , Betametasona/uso terapêutico , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação de DNA/genética , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/genética , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/tratamento farmacológico , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Betametasona/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 371, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226490

RESUMO

This study explores potential associations between the methylation of promoter-associated CpG sites of the toll-like receptor (TLR)-family, plasma levels of pro-inflammatory proteins and depressive symptoms in young female psychiatric patients. Ratings of depressive symptoms and blood samples were obtained from 92 young women seeking psychiatric care. Methylation of 32 promoter-associated CpG sites in TLR1 to TLR10 was analysed using the Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC BeadChip. Expression levels of 91 inflammatory proteins were determined by proximity extension assay. Statistical correlations between depressive state, TLR1-10 methylation and inflammatory proteins were investigated. Four additional cohorts were studied to evaluate the generalizability of the findings. In the discovery cohort, methylation grade of cg05429895 (TLR4) in blood was inversely correlated with depressive symptoms score in young adults. After correction for multiple testing, plasma levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 1ß (MIP-1ß/CCL4) were associated with both TLR4 methylation and depressive symptom severity. A similar inverse association between TLR4 methylation in blood and affective symptoms score was also found in a cohort of 148 both males and females (<40 years of age) from the Danish Twin Registry. These findings were not, however, replicated in three other external cohorts; which differed from the first two cohorts by a higher age and mixed ethnicities, thus limiting the generalizability of our findings. However, TLR4 methylation inversely correlated with TLR4 mRNA expression in the Danish Twin Study indicating a functional significance of methylation at this particular CpG. Higher depression scores in young Scandinavian adults was associated with decreased methylation of TLR4 in blood.


Assuntos
Depressão , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neurobiol Stress ; 15: 100336, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095363

RESUMO

Childhood maltreatment (CM) is an established major risk factor for a number of negative health outcomes later in life. While epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation (DNAm), have been proposed as a means of embedding this environmental risk factor, little is known about its timing and trajectory, especially in very young children. It is also not clear whether additional environmental adversities, often experienced by these children, converge on similar DNAm changes. Here, we calculated a cumulative adversity score, which additionally to CM includes socioeconomic status (SES), other life events, parental psychopathology and epigenetic biomarkers of prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption. We investigated the effects of CM alone as well as the adversity score on longitudinal DNAm trajectories in the Berlin Longitudinal Child Study. This is a cohort of 173 children aged 3-5 years at baseline of whom 86 were exposed to CM. These children were followed-up for 2 years with extensive psychometric and biological assessments as well as saliva collection at 5 time points providing genome-wide DNAm levels. Overall, only a few DNAm patterns were stable over this timeframe, but less than 10 DNAm regions showed significant changes. At baseline, neither CM nor the adversity score associated with DNAm changes. However, in 6 differentially methylated regions (DMRs), CM and the adversity score significantly moderated DNAm trajectories over time. A number of these DMRs have previously been associated with adverse prenatal exposures. In our study, children exposed to CM also presented with epigenetic signatures indicative of increased prenatal exposure to tobacco and alcohol, as compared to non-CM exposed children. These epigenetic signatures of prenatal exposure strongly correlate with DNAm regions associated with CM and the adversity score. Finally, weighted correlation network analysis revealed a module of CpGs exclusively associated with CM. While our study identifies DNAm loci specifically associated with CM, especially within long non-coding RNAs, the majority of associations were found with the adversity score with convergent association with indicators of adverse prenatal exposures. This study highlights the importance of mapping not only of the epigenome but also the exposome and extending the observational timeframe to well before birth.

16.
Brain Behav Immun ; 95: 256-268, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About every fourth patient with major depressive disorder (MDD) shows evidence of systemic inflammation. Previous studies have shown inflammation-depression associations of multiple serum inflammatory markers and multiple specific depressive symptoms. It remains unclear, however, if these associations extend to genetic/lifetime predisposition to higher inflammatory marker levels and what role metabolic factors such as Body Mass Index (BMI) play. It is also unclear whether inflammation-symptom associations reflect direct or indirect associations, which can be disentangled using network analysis. METHODS: This study examined associations of polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for immuno-metabolic markers (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor [TNF]-α, BMI) with seven depressive symptoms in one general population sample, the UK Biobank study (n = 110,010), and two patient samples, the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS, n = 1058) and Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D, n = 1143) studies. Network analysis was applied jointly for these samples using fused graphical least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (FGL) estimation as primary analysis and, individually, using unregularized model search estimation. Stability of results was assessed using bootstrapping and three consistency criteria were defined to appraise robustness and replicability of results across estimation methods, network bootstrapping, and samples. RESULTS: Network analysis results displayed to-be-expected PRS-PRS and symptom-symptom associations (termed edges), respectively, that were mostly positive. Using FGL estimation, results further suggested 28, 29, and six PRS-symptom edges in MARS, STAR*D, and UK Biobank samples, respectively. Unregularized model search estimation suggested three PRS-symptom edges in the UK Biobank sample. Applying our consistency criteria to these associations indicated that only the association of higher CRP PRS with greater changes in appetite fulfilled all three criteria. Four additional associations fulfilled at least two consistency criteria; specifically, higher CRP PRS was associated with greater fatigue and reduced anhedonia, higher TNF-α PRS was associated with greater fatigue, and higher BMI PRS with greater changes in appetite and anhedonia. Associations of the BMI PRS with anhedonia, however, showed an inconsistent valence across estimation methods. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic predisposition to higher systemic inflammatory markers are primarily associated with somatic/neurovegetative symptoms of depression such as changes in appetite and fatigue, consistent with previous studies based on circulating levels of inflammatory markers. We extend these findings by providing evidence that associations are direct (using network analysis) and extend to genetic predisposition to immuno-metabolic markers (using PRSs). Our findings can inform selection of patients with inflammation-related symptoms into clinical trials of immune-modulating drugs for MDD.


Assuntos
Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Depressão/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/genética , Herança Multifatorial
17.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 82, 2021 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational age is a useful proxy for assessing developmental maturity, but correct estimation of gestational age is difficult using clinical measures. DNA methylation at birth has proven to be an accurate predictor of gestational age. Previous predictors of epigenetic gestational age were based on DNA methylation data from the Illumina HumanMethylation 27 K or 450 K array, which have subsequently been replaced by the Illumina MethylationEPIC 850 K array (EPIC). Our aims here were to build an epigenetic gestational age clock specific for the EPIC array and to evaluate its precision and accuracy using the embryo transfer date of newborns from the largest EPIC-derived dataset to date on assisted reproductive technologies (ART). METHODS: We built an epigenetic gestational age clock using Lasso regression trained on 755 randomly selected non-ART newborns from the Norwegian Study of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (START)-a substudy of the Norwegian Mother, Father, and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). For the ART-conceived newborns, the START dataset had detailed information on the embryo transfer date and the specific ART procedure used for conception. The predicted gestational age was compared to clinically estimated gestational age in 200 non-ART and 838 ART newborns using MM-type robust regression. The performance of the clock was compared to previously published gestational age clocks in an independent replication sample of 148 newborns from the Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restrictions (PREDO) study-a prospective pregnancy cohort of Finnish women. RESULTS: Our new epigenetic gestational age clock showed higher precision and accuracy in predicting gestational age than previous gestational age clocks (R2 = 0.724, median absolute deviation (MAD) = 3.14 days). Restricting the analysis to CpGs shared between 450 K and EPIC did not reduce the precision of the clock. Furthermore, validating the clock on ART newborns with known embryo transfer date confirmed that DNA methylation is an accurate predictor of gestational age (R2 = 0.767, MAD = 3.7 days). CONCLUSIONS: We present the first EPIC-based predictor of gestational age and demonstrate its robustness and precision in ART and non-ART newborns. As more datasets are being generated on the EPIC platform, this clock will be valuable in studies using gestational age to assess neonatal development.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Idade Gestacional , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Estudos de Coortes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Noruega , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 97, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic clocks have been used to indicate differences in biological states between individuals of same chronological age. However, so far, only few studies have examined epigenetic aging in newborns-especially regarding different gestational or perinatal tissues. In this study, we investigated which birth- and pregnancy-related variables are most important in predicting gestational epigenetic age acceleration or deceleration (i.e., the deviation between gestational epigenetic age estimated from the DNA methylome and chronological gestational age) in chorionic villus, placenta and cord blood tissues from two independent study cohorts (ITU, n = 639 and PREDO, n = 966). We further characterized the correspondence of epigenetic age deviations between these tissues. RESULTS: Among the most predictive factors of epigenetic age deviations in single tissues were child sex, birth length, maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal mental disorders until childbirth, delivery mode and parity. However, the specific factors related to epigenetic age deviation and the direction of association differed across tissues. In individuals with samples available from more than one tissue, relative epigenetic age deviations were not correlated across tissues. CONCLUSION: Gestational epigenetic age acceleration or deceleration was not related to more favorable or unfavorable factors in one direction in the investigated tissues, and the relative epigenetic age differed between tissues of the same person. This indicates that epigenetic age deviations associate with distinct, tissue specific, factors during the gestational and perinatal period. Our findings suggest that the epigenetic age of the newborn should be seen as a characteristic of a specific tissue, and less as a general characteristic of the child itself.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Idade Gestacional , Placenta/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
19.
Sci Adv ; 7(5)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571131

RESUMO

Chronic activation and dysregulation of the neuroendocrine stress response have severe physiological and psychological consequences, including the development of metabolic and stress-related psychiatric disorders. We provide the first unbiased, cell type-specific, molecular characterization of all three components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, under baseline and chronic stress conditions. Among others, we identified a previously unreported subpopulation of Abcb1b+ cells involved in stress adaptation in the adrenal gland. We validated our findings in a mouse stress model, adrenal tissues from patients with Cushing's syndrome, adrenocortical cell lines, and peripheral cortisol and genotyping data from depressed patients. This extensive dataset provides a valuable resource for researchers and clinicians interested in the organism's nervous and endocrine responses to stress and the interplay between these tissues. Our findings raise the possibility that modulating ABCB1 function may be important in the development of treatment strategies for patients suffering from metabolic and stress-related psychiatric disorders.

20.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 88, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526782

RESUMO

Lasting effects of adversity, such as exposure to childhood adversity (CA) on disease risk, may be embedded via epigenetic mechanisms but findings from human studies investigating the main effects of such exposure on epigenetic measures, including DNA methylation (DNAm), are inconsistent. Studies in perinatal tissues indicate that variability of DNAm at birth is best explained by the joint effects of genotype and prenatal environment. Here, we extend these analyses to postnatal stressors. We investigated the contribution of CA, cis genotype (G), and their additive (G + CA) and interactive (G × CA) effects to DNAm variability in blood or saliva from five independent cohorts with a total sample size of 1074 ranging in age from childhood to late adulthood. Of these, 541 were exposed to CA, which was assessed retrospectively using self-reports or verified through social services and registries. For the majority of sites (over 50%) in the adult cohorts, variability in DNAm was best explained by G + CA or G × CA but almost never by CA alone. Across ages and tissues, 1672 DNAm sites showed consistency of the best model in all five cohorts, with G × CA interactions explaining most variance. The consistent G × CA sites mapped to genes enriched in brain-specific transcripts and Gene Ontology terms related to development and synaptic function. Interaction of CA with genotypes showed the strongest contribution to DNAm variability, with stable effects across cohorts in functionally relevant genes. This underscores the importance of including genotype in studies investigating the impact of environmental factors on epigenetic marks.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Adulto , Epigenômica , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
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