Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 81
Filtrar
1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 88, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526782

RESUMO

Lasting effects of adversity, such as exposure to childhood adversity (CA) on disease risk, may be embedded via epigenetic mechanisms but findings from human studies investigating the main effects of such exposure on epigenetic measures, including DNA methylation (DNAm), are inconsistent. Studies in perinatal tissues indicate that variability of DNAm at birth is best explained by the joint effects of genotype and prenatal environment. Here, we extend these analyses to postnatal stressors. We investigated the contribution of CA, cis genotype (G), and their additive (G + CA) and interactive (G × CA) effects to DNAm variability in blood or saliva from five independent cohorts with a total sample size of 1074 ranging in age from childhood to late adulthood. Of these, 541 were exposed to CA, which was assessed retrospectively using self-reports or verified through social services and registries. For the majority of sites (over 50%) in the adult cohorts, variability in DNAm was best explained by G + CA or G × CA but almost never by CA alone. Across ages and tissues, 1672 DNAm sites showed consistency of the best model in all five cohorts, with G × CA interactions explaining most variance. The consistent G × CA sites mapped to genes enriched in brain-specific transcripts and Gene Ontology terms related to development and synaptic function. Interaction of CA with genotypes showed the strongest contribution to DNAm variability, with stable effects across cohorts in functionally relevant genes. This underscores the importance of including genotype in studies investigating the impact of environmental factors on epigenetic marks.

2.
Sci Adv ; 7(5)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571131

RESUMO

Chronic activation and dysregulation of the neuroendocrine stress response have severe physiological and psychological consequences, including the development of metabolic and stress-related psychiatric disorders. We provide the first unbiased, cell type-specific, molecular characterization of all three components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, under baseline and chronic stress conditions. Among others, we identified a previously unreported subpopulation of Abcb1b+ cells involved in stress adaptation in the adrenal gland. We validated our findings in a mouse stress model, adrenal tissues from patients with Cushing's syndrome, adrenocortical cell lines, and peripheral cortisol and genotyping data from depressed patients. This extensive dataset provides a valuable resource for researchers and clinicians interested in the organism's nervous and endocrine responses to stress and the interplay between these tissues. Our findings raise the possibility that modulating ABCB1 function may be important in the development of treatment strategies for patients suffering from metabolic and stress-related psychiatric disorders.

3.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420481

RESUMO

DNA methylation profiles of aggressive behavior may capture lifetime cumulative effects of genetic, stochastic, and environmental influences associated with aggression. Here, we report the first large meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of aggressive behavior (N = 15,324 participants). In peripheral blood samples of 14,434 participants from 18 cohorts with mean ages ranging from 7 to 68 years, 13 methylation sites were significantly associated with aggression (alpha = 1.2 × 10-7; Bonferroni correction). In cord blood samples of 2425 children from five cohorts with aggression assessed at mean ages ranging from 4 to 7 years, 83% of these sites showed the same direction of association with childhood aggression (r = 0.74, p = 0.006) but no epigenome-wide significant sites were found. Top-sites (48 at a false discovery rate of 5% in the peripheral blood meta-analysis or in a combined meta-analysis of peripheral blood and cord blood) have been associated with chemical exposures, smoking, cognition, metabolic traits, and genetic variation (mQTLs). Three genes whose expression levels were associated with top-sites were previously linked to schizophrenia and general risk tolerance. At six CpGs, DNA methylation variation in blood mirrors variation in the brain. On average 44% (range = 3-82%) of the aggression-methylation association was explained by current and former smoking and BMI. These findings point at loci that are sensitive to chemical exposures with potential implications for neuronal functions. We hope these results to be a starting point for studies leading to applications as peripheral biomarkers and to reveal causal relationships with aggression and related traits.

4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414500

RESUMO

Maternal anxiety during pregnancy is associated with adverse foetal, neonatal, and child outcomes, but biological mechanisms remain unclear. Altered foetal DNA methylation (DNAm) has been proposed as a potential underlying mechanism. In the current study, we performed a meta-analysis to examine the associations between maternal anxiety, measured prospectively during pregnancy, and genome-wide DNAm from umbilical cord blood. Sixteen non-overlapping cohorts from 12 independent longitudinal studies of the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium participated, resulting in a combined dataset of 7243 mother-child dyads. We examined prenatal anxiety in relation to genome-wide DNAm and differentially methylated regions. We observed no association between the general symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy or pregnancy-related anxiety, and DNAm at any of the CpG sites, after multiple-testing correction. Furthermore, we identify no differentially methylated regions associated with maternal anxiety. At the cohort-level, of the 21 associations observed in individual cohorts, none replicated consistently in the other cohorts. In conclusion, contrary to some previous studies proposing cord blood DNAm as a promising potential mechanism explaining the link between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and adverse outcomes in offspring, we found no consistent evidence for any robust associations between maternal anxiety and DNAm in cord blood. Larger studies and analysis of DNAm in other tissues may be needed to establish subtle or subgroup-specific associations between maternal anxiety and the foetal epigenome.

5.
Epigenetics ; : 1-13, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331245

RESUMO

Altered maternal haemoglobin levels during pregnancy are associated with pre-clinical and clinical conditions affecting the fetus. Evidence from animal models suggests that these associations may be partially explained by differential DNA methylation in the newborn with possible long-term consequences. To test this in humans, we meta-analyzed the epigenome-wide associations of maternal haemoglobin levels during pregnancy with offspring DNA methylation in 3,967 newborn cord blood and 1,534 children and 1,962 adolescent whole-blood samples derived from 10 cohorts. DNA methylation was measured using Illumina Infinium Methylation 450K or MethylationEPIC arrays covering 450,000 and 850,000 methylation sites, respectively. There was no statistical support for the association of maternal haemoglobin levels with offspring DNA methylation either at individual methylation sites or clustered in regions. For most participants, maternal haemoglobin levels were within the normal range in the current study, whereas adverse perinatal outcomes often arise at the extremes. Thus, this study does not rule out the possibility that associations with offspring DNA methylation might be seen in studies with more extreme maternal haemoglobin levels.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 398, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184255

RESUMO

Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder with a substantial genetic component. However, the extent to which epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the etiology of the disorder is unknown. We performed epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) Consortium to identify DNA methylation sites associated with ADHD symptoms at two methylation assessment periods: birth and school age. We examined associations of both DNA methylation in cord blood with repeatedly assessed ADHD symptoms (age 4-15 years) in 2477 children from 5 cohorts and of DNA methylation at school age with concurrent ADHD symptoms (age 7-11 years) in 2374 children from 9 cohorts, with 3 cohorts participating at both timepoints. CpGs identified with nominal significance (p < 0.05) in either of the EWAS were correlated between timepoints (ρ = 0.30), suggesting overlap in associations; however, top signals were very different. At birth, we identified nine CpGs that predicted later ADHD symptoms (p < 1 × 10-7), including ERC2 and CREB5. Peripheral blood DNA methylation at one of these CpGs (cg01271805 in the promoter region of ERC2, which regulates neurotransmitter release) was previously associated with brain methylation. Another (cg25520701) lies within the gene body of CREB5, which previously was associated with neurite outgrowth and an ADHD diagnosis. In contrast, at school age, no CpGs were associated with ADHD with p < 1 × 10-7. In conclusion, we found evidence in this study that DNA methylation at birth is associated with ADHD. Future studies are needed to confirm the utility of methylation variation as biomarker and its involvement in causal pathways.

7.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 105, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation has been shown to be associated with adiposity in adulthood. However, whether similar DNA methylation patterns are associated with childhood and adolescent body mass index (BMI) is largely unknown. More insight into this relationship at younger ages may have implications for future prevention of obesity and its related traits. METHODS: We examined whether DNA methylation in cord blood and whole blood in childhood and adolescence was associated with BMI in the age range from 2 to 18 years using both cross-sectional and longitudinal models. We performed meta-analyses of epigenome-wide association studies including up to 4133 children from 23 studies. We examined the overlap of findings reported in previous studies in children and adults with those in our analyses and calculated enrichment. RESULTS: DNA methylation at three CpGs (cg05937453, cg25212453, and cg10040131), each in a different age range, was associated with BMI at Bonferroni significance, P < 1.06 × 10-7, with a 0.96 standard deviation score (SDS) (standard error (SE) 0.17), 0.32 SDS (SE 0.06), and 0.32 BMI SDS (SE 0.06) higher BMI per 10% increase in methylation, respectively. DNA methylation at nine additional CpGs in the cross-sectional childhood model was associated with BMI at false discovery rate significance. The strength of the associations of DNA methylation at the 187 CpGs previously identified to be associated with adult BMI, increased with advancing age across childhood and adolescence in our analyses. In addition, correlation coefficients between effect estimates for those CpGs in adults and in children and adolescents also increased. Among the top findings for each age range, we observed increasing enrichment for the CpGs that were previously identified in adults (birth Penrichment = 1; childhood Penrichment = 2.00 × 10-4; adolescence Penrichment = 2.10 × 10-7). CONCLUSIONS: There were only minimal associations of DNA methylation with childhood and adolescent BMI. With the advancing age of the participants across childhood and adolescence, we observed increasing overlap with altered DNA methylation loci reported in association with adult BMI. These findings may be compatible with the hypothesis that DNA methylation differences are mostly a consequence rather than a cause of obesity.

8.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079133

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies highlight associations of C-reactive protein (CRP), a general marker of inflammation, and interleukin 6 (IL-6), a cytokine-stimulating CRP production, with individual depressive symptoms. However, it is unclear whether inflammatory activity is associated with individual depressive symptoms and to what extent metabolic dysregulation underlies the reported associations. Objective: To explore the genetic overlap and associations between inflammatory activity, metabolic dysregulation, and individual depressive symptoms. GWAS Data Sources: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data of European individuals, including the following: CRP levels (204 402 individuals); 9 individual depressive symptoms (3 of which did not differentiate between underlying diametrically opposite symptoms [eg, insomnia and hypersomnia]) as measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (up to 117 907 individuals); summary statistics for major depression, including and excluding UK Biobank participants, resulting in sample sizes of 500 199 and up to 230 214 individuals, respectively; insomnia (up to 386 533 individuals); body mass index (BMI) (up to 322 154 individuals); and height (up to 253 280 individuals). Design: In this genetic correlation and 2-sample mendelian randomization (MR) study, linkage disequilibrium score (LDSC) regression was applied to infer single-nucleotide variant-based heritability and genetic correlation estimates. Two-sample MR tested potential causal associations of genetic variants associated with CRP levels, IL-6 signaling, and BMI with depressive symptoms. The study dates were November 2019 to April 2020. Results: Based on large GWAS data sources, genetic correlation analyses revealed consistent false discovery rate (FDR)-controlled associations (genetic correlation range, 0.152-0.362; FDR P = .006 to P < .001) between CRP levels and depressive symptoms that were similar in size to genetic correlations of BMI with depressive symptoms. Two-sample MR analyses suggested that genetic upregulation of IL-6 signaling was associated with suicidality (estimate [SE], 0.035 [0.010]; FDR plus Bonferroni correction P = .01), a finding that remained stable across statistical models and sensitivity analyses using alternative instrument selection strategies. Mendelian randomization analyses did not consistently show associations of higher CRP levels or IL-6 signaling with other depressive symptoms, but higher BMI was associated with anhedonia, tiredness, changes in appetite, and feelings of inadequacy. Conclusions and Relevance: This study reports coheritability between CRP levels and individual depressive symptoms, which may result from the potentially causal association of metabolic dysregulation with anhedonia, tiredness, changes in appetite, and feelings of inadequacy. The study also found that IL-6 signaling is associated with suicidality. These findings may have clinical implications, highlighting the potential of anti-inflammatory approaches, especially IL-6 blockade, as a putative strategy for suicide prevention.

9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057169

RESUMO

Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a learning disorder affecting the ability to read, with a heritability of 40-60%. A notable part of this heritability remains unexplained, and large genetic studies are warranted to identify new susceptibility genes and clarify the genetic bases of dyslexia. We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 2274 dyslexia cases and 6272 controls, testing associations at the single variant, gene, and pathway level, and estimating heritability using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. We also calculated polygenic scores (PGSs) based on large-scale GWAS data for different neuropsychiatric disorders and cortical brain measures, educational attainment, and fluid intelligence, testing them for association with dyslexia status in our sample. We observed statistically significant (p < 2.8 × 10-6) enrichment of associations at the gene level, for LOC388780 (20p13; uncharacterized gene), and for VEPH1 (3q25), a gene implicated in brain development. We estimated an SNP-based heritability of 20-25% for DD, and observed significant associations of dyslexia risk with PGSs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (at pT = 0.05 in the training GWAS: OR = 1.23[1.16; 1.30] per standard deviation increase; p = 8 × 10-13), bipolar disorder (1.53[1.44; 1.63]; p = 1 × 10-43), schizophrenia (1.36[1.28; 1.45]; p = 4 × 10-22), psychiatric cross-disorder susceptibility (1.23[1.16; 1.30]; p = 3 × 10-12), cortical thickness of the transverse temporal gyrus (0.90[0.86; 0.96]; p = 5 × 10-4), educational attainment (0.86[0.82; 0.91]; p = 2 × 10-7), and intelligence (0.72[0.68; 0.76]; p = 9 × 10-29). This study suggests an important contribution of common genetic variants to dyslexia risk, and novel genomic overlaps with psychiatric conditions like bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and cross-disorder susceptibility. Moreover, it revealed the presence of shared genetic foundations with a neural correlate previously implicated in dyslexia by neuroimaging evidence.

10.
Depress Anxiety ; 37(9): 862-875, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal depression carries adverse effects on maternal health and child development, but genetic underpinnings remain unclear. We investigated the polygenic risk of perinatal depressive symptoms. METHODS: About 742 women from the prospective Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction cohort were genotyped and completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale 14 times during the prenatal period and twice up to 12 months postpartum. Polygenic risk scores for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and cross-disorder were calculated using multiple p-value thresholds. RESULTS: Polygenic risk scores for major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and cross-disorder, but not bipolar disorder, were associated with higher prenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms (0.8%-1% increase per one standard deviation increase in polygenic risk scores). Prenatal depressive symptoms accounted for and mediated the associations between the polygenic risk scores and postpartum depressive symptoms (effect size proportions-mediated: 52.2%-88.0%). Further, the polygenic risk scores were associated with 1.24-1.45-fold odds to belong to the group displaying consistently high compared with consistently low depressive symptoms through out the prenatal and postpartum periods. CONCLUSIONS: Polygenic risk scores for major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and cross-disorder in non-perinatal populations generalize to perinatal depressive symptoms and may afford to identify women for timely preventive interventions.

11.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(6): 309-330, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681593

RESUMO

It is imperative to understand the specific and shared etiologies of major depression and cardio-metabolic disease, as both traits are frequently comorbid and each represents a major burden to society. This study examined whether there is a genetic association between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits and if this association is stratified by age at onset for major depression. Polygenic risk scores analysis and linkage disequilibrium score regression was performed to examine whether differences in shared genetic etiology exist between depression case control status (N cases = 40,940, N controls = 67,532), earlier (N = 15,844), and later onset depression (N = 15,800) with body mass index, coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in 11 data sets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Generation Scotland, and UK Biobank. All cardio-metabolic polygenic risk scores were associated with depression status. Significant genetic correlations were found between depression and body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes. Higher polygenic risk for body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes was associated with both early and later onset depression, while higher polygenic risk for stroke was associated with later onset depression only. Significant genetic correlations were found between body mass index and later onset depression, and between coronary artery disease and both early and late onset depression. The phenotypic associations between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits may partly reflect their overlapping genetic etiology irrespective of the age depression first presents.

12.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 60, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal inflammation has been proposed as an important mediating factor in several adverse pregnancy outcomes. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory cytokine easily measured in blood. It has clinical value due to its reliability as a biomarker for systemic inflammation and can indicate cellular injury and disease severity. Elevated levels of CRP in adulthood are associated with alterations in DNA methylation. However, no studies have prospectively investigated the relationship between maternal CRP levels and newborn DNA methylation measured by microarray in cord blood with reasonable epigenome-wide coverage. Importantly, the timing of inflammation exposure during pregnancy may also result in different effects. Thus, our objective was to evaluate this prospective association of CRP levels measured during multiple periods of pregnancy and in cord blood at delivery which was available in one cohort (i.e., Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction trial), and also to conduct a meta-analysis with available data at one point in pregnancy from three other cohorts from the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics consortium (PACE). Secondarily, the impact of maternal randomization to low dose aspirin prior to pregnancy on methylation was assessed. RESULTS: Maternal CRP levels were not associated with newborn DNA methylation regardless of gestational age of measurement (i.e., CRP at approximately 8, 20, and 36 weeks among 358 newborns in EAGeR). There also was no association in the meta-analyses (all p > 0.5) with a larger sample size (n = 1603) from all participating PACE cohorts with available CRP data from first trimester (< 18 weeks gestation). Randomization to aspirin was not associated with DNA methylation. On the other hand, newborn CRP levels were significantly associated with DNA methylation in the EAGeR trial, with 33 CpGs identified (FDR corrected p < 0.05) when both CRP and methylation were measured at the same time point in cord blood. The top 7 CpGs most strongly associated with CRP resided in inflammation and vascular-related genes. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal CRP levels measured during each trimester were not associated with cord blood DNA methylation. Rather, DNA methylation was associated with CRP levels measured in cord blood, particularly in gene regions predominately associated with angiogenic and inflammatory pathways. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00467363, Registered April 30, 2007, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00467363.

14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 213, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major research finding in the field of Biological Psychiatry is that symptom-based categories of mental disorders map poorly onto dysfunctions in brain circuits or neurobiological pathways. Many of the identified (neuro) biological dysfunctions are "transdiagnostic", meaning that they do not reflect diagnostic boundaries but are shared by different ICD/DSM diagnoses. The compromised biological validity of the current classification system for mental disorders impedes rather than supports the development of treatments that not only target symptoms but also the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. The Biological Classification of Mental Disorders (BeCOME) study aims to identify biology-based classes of mental disorders that improve the translation of novel biomedical findings into tailored clinical applications. METHODS: BeCOME intends to include at least 1000 individuals with a broad spectrum of affective, anxiety and stress-related mental disorders as well as 500 individuals unaffected by mental disorders. After a screening visit, all participants undergo in-depth phenotyping procedures and omics assessments on two consecutive days. Several validated paradigms (e.g., fear conditioning, reward anticipation, imaging stress test, social reward learning task) are applied to stimulate a response in a basic system of human functioning (e.g., acute threat response, reward processing, stress response or social reward learning) that plays a key role in the development of affective, anxiety and stress-related mental disorders. The response to this stimulation is then read out across multiple levels. Assessments comprise genetic, molecular, cellular, physiological, neuroimaging, neurocognitive, psychophysiological and psychometric measurements. The multilevel information collected in BeCOME will be used to identify data-driven biologically-informed categories of mental disorders using cluster analytical techniques. DISCUSSION: The novelty of BeCOME lies in the dynamic in-depth phenotyping and omics characterization of individuals with mental disorders from the depression and anxiety spectrum of varying severity. We believe that such biology-based subclasses of mental disorders will serve as better treatment targets than purely symptom-based disease entities, and help in tailoring the right treatment to the individual patient suffering from a mental disorder. BeCOME has the potential to contribute to a novel taxonomy of mental disorders that integrates the underlying pathomechanisms into diagnoses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered on June 12, 2019 on ClinicalTrials.gov (TRN: NCT03984084).

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 9942-9951, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321835

RESUMO

Genetic variants within complement factor H (CFH), a major alternative complement pathway regulator, are associated with the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other complementopathies. This is explained with the reduced binding of CFH or its splice variant factor H-like protein 1 (FHL-1) to self-ligands or altered self-ligands (e.g., malondialdehyde [MDA]-modified molecules) involved in homeostasis, thereby causing impaired complement regulation. Considering the critical role of CFH in inhibiting alternative pathway activation on MDA-modified surfaces, we performed an unbiased genome-wide search for genetic variants that modify the ability of plasma CFH to bind MDA in 1,830 individuals and characterized the mechanistic basis and the functional consequences of this. In a cohort of healthy individuals, we identified rs1061170 in CFH and the deletion of CFHR3 and CFHR1 as dominant genetic variants that modify CFH/FHL-1 binding to MDA. We further demonstrated that FHR1 and FHR3 compete with CFH for binding to MDA-epitopes and that FHR1 displays the highest affinity toward MDA-epitopes compared to CFH and FHR3. Moreover, FHR1 bound to MDA-rich areas on necrotic cells and prevented CFH from mediating its cofactor activity on MDA-modified surfaces, resulting in enhanced complement activation. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation as to why the deletion of CFHR3 and CFHR1 is protective in AMD and highlight the importance of genetic variants within the CFH/CFHR3/CFHR1 locus in the recognition of altered-self in tissue homeostasis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento C3b/genética , Degeneração Macular/genética , Idoso , Fator H do Complemento/genética , Epitopos/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ligação Proteica
16.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 25, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth and shorter duration of pregnancy are associated with increased morbidity in neonatal and later life. As the epigenome is known to have an important role during fetal development, we investigated associations between gestational age and blood DNA methylation in children. METHODS: We performed meta-analysis of Illumina's HumanMethylation450-array associations between gestational age and cord blood DNA methylation in 3648 newborns from 17 cohorts without common pregnancy complications, induced delivery or caesarean section. We also explored associations of gestational age with DNA methylation measured at 4-18 years in additional pediatric cohorts. Follow-up analyses of DNA methylation and gene expression correlations were performed in cord blood. DNA methylation profiles were also explored in tissues relevant for gestational age health effects: fetal brain and lung. RESULTS: We identified 8899 CpGs in cord blood that were associated with gestational age (range 27-42 weeks), at Bonferroni significance, P < 1.06 × 10- 7, of which 3343 were novel. These were annotated to 4966 genes. After restricting findings to at least three significant adjacent CpGs, we identified 1276 CpGs annotated to 325 genes. Results were generally consistent when analyses were restricted to term births. Cord blood findings tended not to persist into childhood and adolescence. Pathway analyses identified enrichment for biological processes critical to embryonic development. Follow-up of identified genes showed correlations between gestational age and DNA methylation levels in fetal brain and lung tissue, as well as correlation with expression levels. CONCLUSIONS: We identified numerous CpGs differentially methylated in relation to gestational age at birth that appear to reflect fetal developmental processes across tissues. These findings may contribute to understanding mechanisms linking gestational age to health effects.

17.
Int J Bipolar Disord ; 8(1): 9, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stressful life events influence the course of affective disorders, however, the mechanisms by which they bring about phenotypic change are not entirely known. METHODS: We explored the role of DNA methylation in response to recent stressful life events in a cohort of bipolar patients from the longitudinal PsyCourse study (n = 96). Peripheral blood DNA methylomes were profiled at two time points for over 850,000 methylation sites. The association between impact ratings of stressful life events and DNA methylation was assessed, first by interrogating methylation sites in the vicinity of candidate genes previously implicated in the stress response and, second, by conducting an exploratory epigenome-wide association analysis. Third, the association between epigenetic aging and change in stress and symptom measures over time was investigated. RESULTS: Investigation of methylation signatures over time revealed just over half of the CpG sites tested had an absolute difference in methylation of at least 1% over a 1-year period. Although not a single CpG site withstood correction for multiple testing, methylation at one site (cg15212455) was suggestively associated with stressful life events (p < 1.0 × 10-5). Epigenetic aging over a 1-year period was not associated with changes in stress or symptom measures. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate epigenome-wide methylation across time in bipolar patients and in relation to recent, non-traumatic stressful life events. Limited and inconclusive evidence warrants future longitudinal investigations in larger samples of well-characterized bipolar patients to give a complete picture regarding the role of DNA methylation in the course of bipolar disorder.

18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23280-23285, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399550

RESUMO

Prenatal stress exposure is associated with risk for psychiatric disorders later in life. This may be mediated in part via enhanced exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs), which are known to impact neurogenesis. We aimed to identify molecular mediators of these effects, focusing on long-lasting epigenetic changes. In a human hippocampal progenitor cell (HPC) line, we assessed the short- and long-term effects of GC exposure during neurogenesis on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles. GC exposure induced changes in DNAm at 27,812 CpG dinucleotides and in the expression of 3,857 transcripts (false discovery rate [FDR] ≤ 0.1 and absolute fold change [FC] expression ≥ 1.15). HPC expression and GC-affected DNAm profiles were enriched for changes observed during human fetal brain development. Differentially methylated sites (DMSs) with GC exposure clustered into 4 trajectories over HPC differentiation, with transient as well as long-lasting DNAm changes. Lasting DMSs mapped to distinct functional pathways and were selectively enriched for poised and bivalent enhancer marks. Lasting DMSs had little correlation with lasting expression changes but were associated with a significantly enhanced transcriptional response to a second acute GC challenge. A significant subset of lasting DMSs was also responsive to an acute GC challenge in peripheral blood. These tissue-overlapping DMSs were used to compute a polyepigenetic score that predicted exposure to conditions associated with altered prenatal GCs in newborn's cord blood DNA. Overall, our data suggest that early exposure to GCs can change the set point of future transcriptional responses to stress by inducing lasting DNAm changes. Such altered set points may relate to differential vulnerability to stress exposure later in life.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipocampo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Epigenetics ; 15(1-2): 1-11, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318318

RESUMO

Polygenic approaches often access more variance of complex traits than is possible by single variant approaches. For genotype data, genetic risk scores (GRS) are widely used for risk prediction as well as in association and interaction studies. Recently, interest has been growing in transferring GRS approaches to DNA methylation data (methylation risk scores, MRS), which can be used 1) as biomarkers for environmental exposures, 2) in association analyses in which single CpG sites do not achieve significance, 3) as dimension reduction approach in interaction and mediation analyses, and 4) to predict individual risks of disease or treatment success. Most GRS approaches can directly be transferred to methylation data. However, since methylation data is more sensitive to confounding, e.g. by age and tissue, it is more complex to find appropriate external weights. In this review, we will outline the adaption of current GRS approaches to methylation data and highlight occurring challenges.

20.
Diabetes Care ; 43(1): 98-105, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring. Growing evidence suggests that the epigenome may play a role, but most previous studies have been small and adjusted for few covariates. The current study meta-analyzed the association between maternal GDM and cord blood DNA methylation in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven pregnancy cohorts (3,677 mother-newborn pairs [317 with GDM]) contributed results from epigenome-wide association studies, using DNA methylation data acquired by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Associations between GDM and DNA methylation were examined using robust linear regression, with adjustment for potential confounders. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were performed using METAL. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified by taking the intersection of results obtained using two regional approaches: comb-p and DMRcate. RESULTS: Two DMRs were identified by both comb-p and DMRcate. Both regions were hypomethylated in newborns exposed to GDM in utero compared with control subjects. One DMR (chr 1: 248100345-248100614) was located in the OR2L13 promoter, and the other (chr 10: 135341870-135342620) was located in the gene body of CYP2E1. Individual CpG analyses did not reveal any differentially methylated loci based on a false discovery rate-adjusted P value threshold of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal GDM was associated with lower cord blood methylation levels within two regions, including the promoter of OR2L13, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorder, and the gene body of CYP2E1, which is upregulated in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Future studies are needed to understand whether these associations are causal and possible health consequences.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Diabetes Gestacional , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Epigenoma/fisiologia , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA