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1.
Mol Syndromol ; 8(4): 206-210, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28690487

RESUMO

Cantú syndrome is a very rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by generalized congenital hypertrichosis, neonatal macrosomia, coarse face, cardiomegaly, and occasionally, skeletal abnormalities. The syndrome has been attributed to mutated ABCC9 or KCNJ8 genes. We present a 4-year-old girl with developmental delay, distinctive coarse facial features, and generalized hypertrichosis apparent since birth. The investigation revealed absent ovaries and a hypoplastic uterus which have not been previously described. Conventional karyotyping was normal. DNA sequencing analysis of the ABCC9 gene was performed, and a heterozygous point mutation c.3460C>T (p.Arg1154Trp) was revealed. This missense gain-of-function mutation was located in exon 27 of the ABCC9 gene and has been reported in patients with the full phenotype of Cantú syndrome. However, the absence of the ovaries could be an expansion of the phenotype and not attributed to mutations in other genes important for ovarian development. Unfortunately, it has not been proven so far if the ABCC9 gene is expressed in the ovarian tissue.

2.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(2): 183-191, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27901041

RESUMO

Truncating ASXL3 mutations were first identified in 2013 by Bainbridge et al. as a cause of syndromic intellectual disability in four children with similar phenotypes using whole-exome sequencing. The clinical features - postulated by Bainbridge et al. to be overlapping with Bohring-Opitz syndrome - were developmental delay, severe feeding difficulties, failure to thrive and neurological abnormalities. This condition was included in OMIM as 'Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome' (BRPS, #615485). To date, a total of nine individuals with BRPS have been published in the literature in four reports (Bainbridge et al., Dinwiddie et al, Srivastava et al. and Hori et al.). In this report, we describe six unrelated patients with newly diagnosed heterozygous de novo loss-of-function variants in ASXL3 and concordant clinical features: severe muscular hypotonia with feeding difficulties in infancy, significant motor delay, profound speech impairment, intellectual disability and a characteristic craniofacial phenotype (long face, arched eyebrows with mild synophrys, downslanting palpebral fissures, prominent columella, small alae nasi, high, narrow palate and relatively little facial expression). The majority of key features characteristic for Bohring-Opitz syndrome were absent in our patients (eg, the typical posture of arms, intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, trigonocephaly, typical facial gestalt with nevus flammeus of the forehead and exophthalmos). Therefore we emphasize that BRPS syndrome, caused by ASXL3 loss-of-function variants, is a clinically distinct intellectual disability syndrome with a recognizable phenotype distinguishable from that of Bohring-Opitz syndrome.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Insuficiência de Crescimento/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Insuficiência de Crescimento/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Síndrome
3.
Hum Genet ; 134(6): 553-68, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25724810

RESUMO

Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS) are rare intellectual disability/congenital malformation syndromes that represent distinct entities but show considerable clinical overlap. They are caused by mutations in genes encoding members of the BRG1- and BRM-associated factor (BAF) complex. However, there are a number of patients with the clinical diagnosis of CSS or NCBRS in whom the causative mutation has not been identified. In this study, we performed trio-based whole-exome sequencing (WES) in ten previously described but unsolved individuals with the tentative diagnosis of CSS or NCBRS and found causative mutations in nine out of ten individuals. Interestingly, our WES analysis disclosed overlapping differential diagnoses including Wiedemann-Steiner, Kabuki, and Adams-Oliver syndromes. In addition, most likely causative de novo mutations were identified in GRIN2A and SHANK3. Moreover, trio-based WES detected SMARCA2 and SMARCA4 deletions, which had not been annotated in a previous Haloplex target enrichment and next-generation sequencing of known CSS/NCBRS genes emphasizing the advantages of WES as a diagnostic tool. In summary, we discuss the phenotypic and diagnostic challenges in clinical genetics, establish important differential diagnoses, and emphasize the cardinal features and the broad clinical spectrum of BAF complex disorders and other disorders caused by mutations in epigenetic landscapers.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Exoma , Face/anormalidades , Deformidades Congênitas do Pé/diagnóstico , Deformidades Congênitas do Pé/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/diagnóstico , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Hipotricose/diagnóstico , Hipotricose/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Micrognatismo/diagnóstico , Micrognatismo/genética , Mutação , Pescoço/anormalidades , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , DNA Helicases/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Facies , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 23(6): 753-60, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25138099

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) has an estimated prevalence of 2-3%. Due to its extreme heterogeneity, the genetic basis of ID remains elusive in many cases. Recently, whole exome sequencing (WES) studies revealed that a large proportion of sporadic cases are caused by de novo gene variants. To identify further genes involved in ID, we performed WES in 250 patients with unexplained ID and their unaffected parents and included exomes of 51 previously sequenced child-parents trios in the analysis. Exome analysis revealed de novo intragenic variants in SET domain-containing 5 (SETD5) in two patients. One patient carried a nonsense variant, and the other an 81 bp deletion located across a splice-donor site. Chromosomal microarray diagnostics further identified four de novo non-recurrent microdeletions encompassing SETD5. CRISPR/Cas9 mutation modelling of the two intragenic variants demonstrated nonsense-mediated decay of the resulting transcripts, pointing to a loss-of-function (LoF) and haploinsufficiency as the common disease-causing mechanism of intragenic SETD5 sequence variants and SETD5-containing microdeletions. In silico domain prediction of SETD5, a predicted SET domain-containing histone methyltransferase (HMT), substantiated the presence of a SET domain and identified a novel putative PHD domain, strengthening a functional link to well-known histone-modifying ID genes. All six patients presented with ID and certain facial dysmorphisms, suggesting that SETD5 sequence variants contribute substantially to the microdeletion 3p25.3 phenotype. The present report of two SETD5 LoF variants in 301 patients demonstrates a prevalence of 0.7% and thus SETD5 variants as a relatively frequent cause of ID.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metiltransferases/química , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
5.
Hum Genet ; 134(1): 97-109, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25326669

RESUMO

Recently, de novo heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in beta-catenin (CTNNB1) were described for the first time in four individuals with intellectual disability (ID), microcephaly, limited speech and (progressive) spasticity, and functional consequences of CTNNB1 deficiency were characterized in a mouse model. Beta-catenin is a key downstream component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Somatic gain-of-function mutations have already been found in various tumor types, whereas germline loss-of-function mutations in animal models have been shown to influence neuronal development and maturation. We report on 16 additional individuals from 15 families in whom we newly identified de novo loss-of-function CTNNB1 mutations (six nonsense, five frameshift, one missense, two splice mutation, and one whole gene deletion). All patients have ID, motor delay and speech impairment (both mostly severe) and abnormal muscle tone (truncal hypotonia and distal hypertonia/spasticity). The craniofacial phenotype comprised microcephaly (typically -2 to -4 SD) in 12 of 16 and some overlapping facial features in all individuals (broad nasal tip, small alae nasi, long and/or flat philtrum, thin upper lip vermillion). With this detailed phenotypic characterization of 16 additional individuals, we expand and further establish the clinical and mutational spectrum of inactivating CTNNB1 mutations and thereby clinically delineate this new CTNNB1 haploinsufficiency syndrome.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação/genética , beta Catenina/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Microcefalia/patologia , Fenótipo , Síndrome
6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 95(6): 698-707, 2014 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25434003

RESUMO

Mutations in components of the major spliceosome have been described in disorders with craniofacial anomalies, e.g., Nager syndrome and mandibulofacial dysostosis type Guion-Almeida. The U5 spliceosomal complex of eight highly conserved proteins is critical for pre-mRNA splicing. We identified biallelic mutations in TXNL4A, a member of this complex, in individuals with Burn-McKeown syndrome (BMKS). This rare condition is characterized by bilateral choanal atresia, hearing loss, cleft lip and/or palate, and other craniofacial dysmorphisms. Mutations were found in 9 of 11 affected families. In 8 families, affected individuals carried a rare loss-of-function mutation (nonsense, frameshift, or microdeletion) on one allele and a low-frequency 34 bp deletion (allele frequency 0.76%) in the core promoter region on the other allele. In a single highly consanguineous family, formerly diagnosed as oculo-oto-facial dysplasia, the four affected individuals were homozygous for a 34 bp promoter deletion, which differed from the promoter deletion in the other families. Reporter gene and in vivo assays showed that the promoter deletions led to reduced expression of TXNL4A. Depletion of TXNL4A (Dib1) in yeast demonstrated reduced assembly of the tri-snRNP complex. Our results indicate that BMKS is an autosomal-recessive condition, which is frequently caused by compound heterozygosity of low-frequency promoter deletions in combination with very rare loss-of-function mutations.


Assuntos
Atresia das Cóanas/genética , Surdez/congênito , Deleção de Genes , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/genética , Spliceossomos/genética , Alelos , Pré-Escolar , Atresia das Cóanas/diagnóstico , Surdez/diagnóstico , Surdez/genética , Exossomos/genética , Facies , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Genes Reporter , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Spliceossomos/metabolismo
7.
J Med Genet ; 51(11): 766-772, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25280750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical evaluation of CNVs identified via techniques such as array comparative genome hybridisation (aCGH) involves the inspection of lists of known and unknown duplications and deletions with the goal of distinguishing pathogenic from benign CNVs. A key step in this process is the comparison of the individual's phenotypic abnormalities with those associated with Mendelian disorders of the genes affected by the CNV. However, because often there is not much known about these human genes, an additional source of data that could be used is model organism phenotype data. Currently, almost 6000 genes in mouse and zebrafish are, when knocked out, associated with a phenotype in the model organism, but no disease is known to be caused by mutations in the human ortholog. Yet, searching model organism databases and comparing model organism phenotypes with patient phenotypes for identifying novel disease genes and medical evaluation of CNVs is hindered by the difficulty in integrating phenotype information across species and the lack of appropriate software tools. METHODS: Here, we present an integrated ranking scheme based on phenotypic matching, degree of overlap with known benign or pathogenic CNVs and the haploinsufficiency score for the prioritisation of CNVs responsible for a patient's clinical findings. RESULTS: We show that this scheme leads to significant improvements compared with rankings that do not exploit phenotypic information. We provide a software tool called PhenogramViz, which supports phenotype-driven interpretation of aCGH findings based on multiple data sources, including the integrated cross-species phenotype ontology Uberpheno, in order to visualise gene-to-phenotype relations. CONCLUSIONS: Integrating and visualising cross-species phenotype information on the affected genes may help in routine diagnostics of CNVs.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/fisiologia , Doença/genética , Fenótipo , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Camundongos , Especificidade da Espécie , Peixe-Zebra
8.
Bioinformatics ; 30(22): 3215-22, 2014 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25078397

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) has opened up previously unheard of possibilities for identifying novel disease genes in Mendelian disorders, only about half of which have been elucidated to date. However, interpretation of WES data remains challenging. RESULTS: Here, we analyze protein-protein association (PPA) networks to identify candidate genes in the vicinity of genes previously implicated in a disease. The analysis, using a random-walk with restart (RWR) method, is adapted to the setting of WES by developing a composite variant-gene relevance score based on the rarity, location and predicted pathogenicity of variants and the RWR evaluation of genes harboring the variants. Benchmarking using known disease variants from 88 disease-gene families reveals that the correct gene is ranked among the top 10 candidates in ≥50% of cases, a figure which we confirmed using a prospective study of disease genes identified in 2012 and PPA data produced before that date. We implement our method in a freely available Web server, ExomeWalker, that displays a ranked list of candidates together with information on PPAs, frequency and predicted pathogenicity of the variants to allow quick and effective searches for candidates that are likely to reward closer investigation. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: http://compbio.charite.de/ExomeWalker CONTACT: : peter.robinson@charite.de.


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Exoma , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Algoritmos , Genes , Humanos , Proteínas/genética
10.
Eur J Med Genet ; 56(12): 689-94, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24120487

RESUMO

Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is a severe muscular dystrophy with eye and brain malformations. On a molecular level, WWS is a disorder of the O-linked glycosylation of α-dystroglycan and therefore referred to as one of the dystroglycanopathies. The disease family of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (MDDG) contains a spectrum of severe to mild disorders, designated as MDDG type A to C. WWS, as the most severe manifestation, corresponds to MDDG type A. Defects in the genes POMT1, POMT2, POMGNT1, FKTN, FKRP, LARGE, GTDC2, G3GALNT2, GMPPB, B3GNT1, TMEM5 and COL4A1 and ISPD have been described as causal for several types of MDDG including WWS, but can only be confirmed in about 60-70% of the clinically diagnosed individuals. The proteins encoded by these genes are involved in the posttranslational modification of α-dystroglycan. Mutations in POMT1, POMT2, POMGNT1, FKTN, FKRP, LARGE, GMPPB, TMEM5 and COL4A1 and ISPD lead to a wide spectrum of phenotypes of congenital muscular dystrophies with or without eye and brain abnormalities. Patients with WWS frequently demonstrate a complete lack of psychomotor development, severe eye malformations, cobblestone lissencephaly and a hypoplastic cerebellum and brainstem, seizures, hydrocephalus and poor prognosis. Here, we present a boy with WWS who showed compound heterozygous changes in ISPD and discuss the clinical and radiological phenotype and the molecular genetic findings, including a novel pathogenic mutation in ISPD.


Assuntos
Deleção de Genes , Genes Recessivos , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Síndrome de Walker-Warburg/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Walker-Warburg/diagnóstico
11.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 8: 146, 2013 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24053514

RESUMO

X-linked intellectual disability type Nascimento (MIM #300860), caused by mutations in UBE2A (MIM *312180), is characterized by craniofacial dysmorphism (synophrys, prominent supraorbital ridges, deep-set, almond-shaped eyes, depressed nasal bridge, prominent columella, hypoplastic alae nasi, and macrostomia), skin anomalies (hirsutism, myxedematous appearance, onychodystrophy), micropenis, moderate to severe intellectual disability (ID), motor delay, impaired/absent speech, and seizures. Hitherto only five familial point mutations and four different deletions including UBE2A have been reported in the literature.We present eight additional individuals from five families with UBE2A associated ID - three males from a consanguineous family, in whom we identified a small deletion of only 7.1 kb encompassing the first three exons of UBE2A, two related males with a UBE2A missense mutation in exon 4, a patient with a de novo nonsense mutation in exon 6, and two sporadic males with larger deletions including UBE2A. All affected male individuals share the typical clinical phenotype, all carrier females are unaffected and presented with a completely skewed X inactivation in blood. We conclude that 1.) X-linked intellectual disability type Nascimento is a clinically very distinct entity that might be underdiagnosed to date. 2.) So far, all females carrying a familial UBE2A aberration have a completely skewed X inactivation and are clinically unaffected. This should be taken in to account when counselling those families. 3.) The coverage of an array should be checked carefully prior to analysis since not all arrays have a sufficient resolution at specific loci, or alternative quantitative methods should be applied not to miss small deletions.


Assuntos
Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/diagnóstico , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/genética , Adulto Jovem
12.
Hum Mol Genet ; 22(25): 5121-35, 2013 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23906836

RESUMO

Chromatin remodeling complexes are known to modify chemical marks on histones or to induce conformational changes in the chromatin in order to regulate transcription. De novo dominant mutations in different members of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex have recently been described in individuals with Coffin-Siris (CSS) and Nicolaides-Baraitser (NCBRS) syndromes. Using a combination of whole-exome sequencing, NGS-based sequencing of 23 SWI/SNF complex genes, and molecular karyotyping in 46 previously undescribed individuals with CSS and NCBRS, we identified a de novo 1-bp deletion (c.677delG, p.Gly226Glufs*53) and a de novo missense mutation (c.914G>T, p.Cys305Phe) in PHF6 in two individuals diagnosed with CSS. PHF6 interacts with the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation (NuRD) complex implicating dysfunction of a second chromatin remodeling complex in the pathogenesis of CSS-like phenotypes. Altogether, we identified mutations in 60% of the studied individuals (28/46), located in the genes ARID1A, ARID1B, SMARCB1, SMARCE1, SMARCA2, and PHF6. We show that mutations in ARID1B are the main cause of CSS, accounting for 76% of identified mutations. ARID1B and SMARCB1 mutations were also found in individuals with the initial diagnosis of NCBRS. These individuals apparently belong to a small subset who display an intermediate CSS/NCBRS phenotype. Our proposed genotype-phenotype correlations are important for molecular screening strategies.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Face/anormalidades , Deformidades Congênitas do Pé/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Hipotricose/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Micrognatismo/genética , Pescoço/anormalidades , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Exoma/genética , Face/patologia , Facies , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas do Pé/patologia , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/patologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Hipotricose/patologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Micrognatismo/patologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Pescoço/patologia , Proteína SMARCB1 , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
13.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 8: 110, 2013 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23879989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in EFTUD2 were proven to cause a very distinct mandibulofacial dysostosis type Guion-Almeida (MFDGA, OMIM #610536). Recently, gross deletions and mutations in EFTUD2 were determined to cause syndromic esophageal atresia (EA), as well. We set forth to find further conditions caused by mutations in the EFTUD2 gene (OMIM *603892). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed exome sequencing in two familial cases with clinical features overlapping with MFDGA and EA, but which were previously assumed to represent distinct entities, a syndrome with esophageal atresia, hypoplasia of zygomatic complex, microcephaly, cup-shaped ears, congenital heart defect, and intellectual disability in a mother and her two children [AJMG 143A(11):1135-1142, 2007] and a supposedly autosomal recessive oto-facial syndrome with midline malformations in two sisters [AJMG 132(4):398-401, 2005]. While the analysis of our exome data was in progress, a recent publication made EFTUD2 mutations highly likely in these families. This hypothesis could be confirmed with exome as well as with Sanger sequencing. Also, in three further sporadic patients, clinically overlapping to these two families, de novo mutations within EFTUD2 were identified by Sanger sequencing. Our clinical and molecular workup of the patients discloses a broad phenotypic spectrum, and describes for the first time an instance of germline mosaicism for an EFTUD2 mutation. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features of the eight patients described here further broaden the phenotypic spectrum caused by EFTUD2 mutations or deletions. We here show, that it not only includes mandibulofacial dysostosis type Guion-Almeida, which should be reclassified as an acrofacial dysostosis because of thumb anomalies (present in 12/35 or 34% of patients) and syndromic esophageal atresia [JMG 49(12). 737-746, 2012], but also the two new syndromes, namely oto-facial syndrome with midline malformations published by Mégarbané et al. [AJMG 132(4): 398-401, 2005] and the syndrome published by Wieczorek et al. [AJMG 143A(11): 1135-1142, 2007] The finding of mild phenotypic features in the mother of one family that could have been overlooked and the possibility of germline mosaicism in apparently healthy parents in the other family should be taken into account when counseling such families.


Assuntos
Atresia Esofágica/patologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Disostose Mandibulofacial/patologia , Mutação , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Atresia Esofágica/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Disostose Mandibulofacial/genética , Fenótipo , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5 , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 161A(2): 295-300, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23307537

RESUMO

We present two previously unreported and unrelated female patients, one with the tentative diagnosis of acromegaloid facial appearance (AFA), the other with the tentative diagnosis of hypertrichosis with acromegaloid facial appearance (HAFF) with or without gingival hyperplasia. Main clinical features of HAFF were generalized hypertrichosis terminalis and coarse facial features. In both patients, pregnancy was complicated by polyhydramnios, and both had hyperbilirubinemia and persistent fetal circulation. Development was normal in one patient and slightly delayed in the other. At 13 years, both had round faces with full cheeks, thick scalp hair and eyebrows, a low frontal hairline, hirsutism, hyperextensible joints and deep palmar creases. One of them additionally showed gingival hypertrophy and epicanthus, the other one was macrocephalic at birth and at the age of 13 years and suffered from repeated swelling of the soft tissue. Array analysis excluded a 17q24.2-q24.3 microdeletion, which has been reported in patients with hypertrichosis terminalis with or without gingival hyperplasia. Sequencing of the mutational hotspots of the ABCC9 gene revealed two different de novo missense mutations in the two patients. Recently, identical mutations have been found recurrently in patients with Cantú syndrome. Therefore, we propose that ABCC9 mutations lead to a spectrum of phenotypes formerly known as Cantú syndrome, HAFF and AFA, which may not be clearly distinguishable by clinical criteria, and that all patients with clinical signs belonging to this spectrum should be revisited and offered ABCC9 mutation analysis.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Cardiomegalia/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/diagnóstico , Hipertricose/diagnóstico , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/diagnóstico , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/genética , Receptores de Droga/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Acromegalia/genética , Adolescente , Cardiomegalia/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Facies , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Humanos , Hipertricose/genética , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Fenótipo , Receptores Sulfonilureia
16.
Neurosci Lett ; 434(3): 293-8, 2008 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18314270

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in the development and maintenance of inflammatory and neuropathic pain conditions. The mechanisms by which TNF-alpha elicits pain behavior are still incompletely understood. Numerous studies suggest that TNF-alpha sensitizes primary afferent neurons. Most recently, it was shown that TNF-alpha induced an enhancement of TTX-R Na(+) current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells. In the present study, we have tested the effect of acute application of TNF-alpha on voltage-gated potassium, calcium and sodium channel currents as well as its influence on membrane conductance in isolated rat DRG neurons. We report that voltage-gated potassium channel currents of nociceptive DRG neurons are not influenced by TNF-alpha (100 ng/ml), while voltage-gated calcium channel currents were decreased voltage-dependently by -7.73+/-6.01% (S.D.), and voltage-activated sodium channels currents were increased by +5.62+/-4.27%, by TNF-alpha. In addition, TNF-alpha induced a significant increase in IV ramps at a potential of +20 mV, which did not exist when the experiments were conducted in a potassium-free solution, indicating that this effect is mainly the result of a change in potassium conductance. These different actions of TNF-alpha might help to explain how it sensitizes primary afferent neurons after nerve injury and thus facilitates pain.


Assuntos
Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Ativação do Canal Iônico/fisiologia , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Neurônios Aferentes/metabolismo , Nociceptores/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Canais de Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Gânglios Espinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia , Ativação do Canal Iônico/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais Iônicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Neurônios Aferentes/efeitos dos fármacos , Nociceptores/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Potássio/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Canais de Sódio/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Sódio/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
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