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1.
Brain Sci ; 10(12)2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255604

RESUMO

Depression is a debilitating disorder with high prevalence and socioeconomic cost, but the brain-physiological processes that are altered during depressive states are not well understood. Here, we build on recent findings in macaques that indicate a direct causal relationship between pupil dilation and anterior cingulate cortex mediated arousal during anticipation of reward. We translated these findings to human subjects with concomitant pupillometry/fMRI in a sample of unmedicated participants diagnosed with major depression and healthy controls. We could show that the upregulation and maintenance of arousal in anticipation of reward was disrupted in patients in a symptom-load dependent manner. We could further show that the failure to maintain reward anticipatory arousal showed state-marker properties, as it tracked the load and impact of depressive symptoms independent of prior diagnosis status. Further, group differences of anticipatory arousal and continuous correlations with symptom load were not traceable only at the level of pupillometric responses, but were mirrored also at the neural level within salience network hubs. The upregulation and maintenance of arousal during reward anticipation is a novel translational and well-traceable process that could prove a promising gateway to a physiologically informed patient stratification and targeted interventions.

2.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress exposure as well as psychiatric disorders are often associated with abnormalities in brain structure or connectivity. The co-chaperone FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) is a regulator of the stress system and is associated with a risk to develop stress-related mental illnesses. PURPOSE: To assess the effect of a general FKBP51 knockout on brain structure and connectivity in male mice. STUDY TYPE: Animal study. ANIMAL MODEL: Two cohorts of FKBP51 knockout (51KO) and wildtype (WT) mice. The first cohort was comprised of n = 18 WT and n = 17 51KOs; second cohort n = 10 WT and n = 9 51KOs. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 9.4T/3D gradient echo (VBM), DTI-EPI (DTI). ASSESSMENT: Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). For VBM, all procedures were executed in SPM12. DTI: FMRIB Software Library (FSL) Tract Based Statistics (TBSS) were integrated within DTI-TK, allowing the creation of a mean FA skeleton. A voxelwise statistical analysis was applied between WT and 51KO mice. STATISTICAL TEST: Volumetric differences were collected at a threshold of P < 0.005, and only clusters surviving a familywise error correction on the cluster level (pFWE, cluster <0.05) were further considered. VBM data were analyzed using a two-sample t-test. The Threshold Free Cluster Enhancement (TFCE) method was used to derive uncorrected-P statistical results at a P-level of 0.01. RESULTS: The structural analysis revealed two clusters of significantly larger volumes in the hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray, and dorsal raphe region of WT animals. DTI measurements, however, demonstrated statistically higher fractional anisotropy (FA) values for 51KO animals in locations including the anterior commissure, fornix, and posterior commissure/superior colliculus commissure region. DATA CONCLUSION: This study used in vivo structural MRI and DTI to demonstrate that a lack of FKBP51 leads to alterations in brain architecture and connectivity in male mice. These findings are of particular translational relevance for our understanding of the neuroanatomy underlying the interaction of FKBP5 genetic status, stress susceptibility, and psychiatric disorders. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 1.

3.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 41(14): 4010-4023, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597537

RESUMO

Acute and chronic stress are important factors in the development of mental disorders. Reliable measurement of stress reactivity is therefore pivotal. Critically, experimental induction of stress often involves multiple "hits" and it is an open question whether individual differences in responses to an earlier stressor lead to habituation, sensitization, or simple additive effects on following events. Here, we investigated the effect of the individual cortisol response to intravenous catheter placement (IVP) on subsequent neural, psychological, endocrine, and autonomous stress reactivity. We used an established psychosocial stress paradigm to measure the acute stress response (Stress) and recovery (PostStress) in 65 participants. Higher IVP-induced cortisol responses were associated with lower pulse rate increases during stress recovery (b = -4.8 bpm, p = .0008) and lower increases in negative affect after the task (b = -4.2, p = .040). While the cortisol response to IVP was not associated with subsequent specific stress-induced neural activation patterns, the similarity of brain responses Pre- and PostStress was higher IVP-cortisol responders (t[64] = 2.35, p = .022) indicating faster recovery. In conclusion, preparatory stress induced by IVP reduced reactivity in a subsequent stress task by modulating the latency of stress recovery. Thus, an individually stronger preceding release of cortisol may attenuate a second physiological response and perceived stress suggesting that relative changes, not absolute levels are crucial for stress attribution. Our study highlights that considering the entire trajectory of stress induction during an experiment is important to develop reliable individual biomarkers.

4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 213, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major research finding in the field of Biological Psychiatry is that symptom-based categories of mental disorders map poorly onto dysfunctions in brain circuits or neurobiological pathways. Many of the identified (neuro) biological dysfunctions are "transdiagnostic", meaning that they do not reflect diagnostic boundaries but are shared by different ICD/DSM diagnoses. The compromised biological validity of the current classification system for mental disorders impedes rather than supports the development of treatments that not only target symptoms but also the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. The Biological Classification of Mental Disorders (BeCOME) study aims to identify biology-based classes of mental disorders that improve the translation of novel biomedical findings into tailored clinical applications. METHODS: BeCOME intends to include at least 1000 individuals with a broad spectrum of affective, anxiety and stress-related mental disorders as well as 500 individuals unaffected by mental disorders. After a screening visit, all participants undergo in-depth phenotyping procedures and omics assessments on two consecutive days. Several validated paradigms (e.g., fear conditioning, reward anticipation, imaging stress test, social reward learning task) are applied to stimulate a response in a basic system of human functioning (e.g., acute threat response, reward processing, stress response or social reward learning) that plays a key role in the development of affective, anxiety and stress-related mental disorders. The response to this stimulation is then read out across multiple levels. Assessments comprise genetic, molecular, cellular, physiological, neuroimaging, neurocognitive, psychophysiological and psychometric measurements. The multilevel information collected in BeCOME will be used to identify data-driven biologically-informed categories of mental disorders using cluster analytical techniques. DISCUSSION: The novelty of BeCOME lies in the dynamic in-depth phenotyping and omics characterization of individuals with mental disorders from the depression and anxiety spectrum of varying severity. We believe that such biology-based subclasses of mental disorders will serve as better treatment targets than purely symptom-based disease entities, and help in tailoring the right treatment to the individual patient suffering from a mental disorder. BeCOME has the potential to contribute to a novel taxonomy of mental disorders that integrates the underlying pathomechanisms into diagnoses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered on June 12, 2019 on ClinicalTrials.gov (TRN: NCT03984084).

5.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 52(3): 739-751, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional T2 *-weighted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is performed with echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences that create substantial acoustic noise. The loud acoustic noise not only affects the activation of the auditory cortex, but may also interfere with resting state and task fMRI experiments. PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel, quiet, T2 *, whole-brain blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD)-fMRI method, termed Looping Star, compared to conventional multislice gradient-echo EPI. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. PHANTOM/SUBJECTS: Glover stability QA phantom; 10 healthy volunteers. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3.0T: gradient echo (GE)-EPI and T2 * Looping Star fMRI. ASSESSMENT: Looping Star fMRI was presented and compared to GE-EPI with a working memory (WM) task and resting state (RS) experiments. Temporal stability and acoustic measurements were obtained for both methods. Functional maps and activation accuracy were compared to evaluate the performance of the novel sequence. STATISTICAL TESTS: Mean and standard deviation values were analyzed for temporal stability and acoustic noise tests. Activation maps were assessed with one-sample t-tests and contrast estimates (CE). Paired t-tests and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) were used to compare fMRI sensitivity and performance. RESULTS: Looping Star presented a 98% reduction in sound pressure compared with GE-EPI, with stable temporal stability (0.09% percent fluctuation), but reduced temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR) (mean difference = 15.9%). The novel method yielded consistent activations for RS and WM (83.4% and 69.5% relative BOLD sensitivity), which increased with task difficulty (mean CE 2-back = 0.56 vs. 0-back = 0.08, P < 0.05). A few differences in spatial activations were found between sequences, leading to a 4-8% lower activation accuracy with Looping Star. DATA CONCLUSION: Looping Star provides a suitable approach for whole-brain coverage with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution and BOLD sensitivity, with only 0.5 dB above ambient noise. From the comparison with GE-EPI, further developments of Looping Star fMRI should target increased sensitivity and spatial specificity for both RS and task experiments. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2. TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2020;52:739-751.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(43): E10206-E10215, 2018 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201713

RESUMO

Ample evidence links dysregulation of the stress response to the risk for psychiatric disorders. However, we lack an integrated understanding of mechanisms that are adaptive during the acute stress response but potentially pathogenic when dysregulated. One mechanistic link emerging from rodent studies is the interaction between stress effectors and neurovascular coupling, a process that adjusts cerebral blood flow according to local metabolic demands. Here, using task-related fMRI, we show that acute psychosocial stress rapidly impacts the peak latency of the hemodynamic response function (HRF-PL) in temporal, insular, and prefrontal regions in two independent cohorts of healthy humans. These latency effects occurred in the absence of amplitude effects and were moderated by regulatory genetic variants of KCNJ2, a known mediator of the effect of stress on vascular responsivity. Further, hippocampal HRF-PL correlated with both cortisol response and genetic variants that influence the transcriptional response to stress hormones and are associated with risk for major depression. We conclude that acute stress modulates hemodynamic response properties as part of the physiological stress response and suggest that HRF indices could serve as endophenotype of stress-related disorders.


Assuntos
Células Endócrinas/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Acoplamento Neurovascular/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
7.
Front Neural Circuits ; 12: 42, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29887796

RESUMO

Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) is a powerful tool for in vivo non-invasive whole-brain mapping of neuronal activity. Mn2+ enters active neurons via voltage-gated calcium channels and increases local contrast in T1-weighted images. Given the property of Mn2+ of axonal transport, this technique can also be used for tract tracing after local administration of the contrast agent. However, MEMRI is still not widely employed in basic research due to the lack of a complete description of the Mn2+ dynamics in the brain. Here, we sought to investigate how the activity state of neurons modulates interneuronal Mn2+ transport. To this end, we injected mice with low dose MnCl2 2. (i.p., 20 mg/kg; repeatedly for 8 days) followed by two MEMRI scans at an interval of 1 week without further MnCl2 injections. We assessed changes in T1 contrast intensity before (scan 1) and after (scan 2) partial sensory deprivation (unilateral whisker trimming), while keeping the animals in a sensory enriched environment. After correcting for the general decay in Mn2+ content, whole brain analysis revealed a single cluster with higher signal in scan 1 compared to scan 2: the left barrel cortex corresponding to the right untrimmed whiskers. In the inverse contrast (scan 2 > scan 1), a number of brain structures, including many efferents of the left barrel cortex were observed. These results suggest that continuous neuronal activity elicited by ongoing sensory stimulation accelerates Mn2+ transport from the uptake site to its projection terminals, while the blockage of sensory-input and the resulting decrease in neuronal activity attenuates Mn2+ transport. The description of this critical property of Mn2+ dynamics in the brain allows a better understanding of MEMRI functional mechanisms, which will lead to more carefully designed experiments and clearer interpretation of the results.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Vibrissas/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/cirurgia , Cloretos/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Compostos de Manganês/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia
8.
Neuroimage ; 178: 11-22, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733957

RESUMO

The reward system may provide an interesting intermediate phenotype for anhedonia in affective disorders. Reward anticipation is characterized by an increase in arousal, and previous studies have linked the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to arousal responses such as dilation of the pupil. Here, we examined pupil dynamics during a reward anticipation task in forty-six healthy human subjects and evaluated its neural correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Pupil size showed a strong increase during monetary reward anticipation, a moderate increase during verbal reward anticipation and a decrease during control trials. For fMRI analyses, average pupil size and pupil change were computed in 1-s time bins during the anticipation phase. Activity in the ventral striatum was inversely related to the pupil size time course, indicating an early onset of activation and a role in reward prediction processing. Pupil dilations were linked to increased activity in the salience network (dorsal ACC and bilateral insula), which likely triggers an increase in arousal to enhance task performance. Finally, increased pupil size preceding the required motor response was associated with activity in the ventral attention network. In sum, pupillometry provides an effective tool for disentangling different phases of reward anticipation, with relevance for affective symptomatology.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Reflexo Pupilar/fisiologia , Recompensa , Adulto , Anedonia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Magn Reson Med ; 80(5): 2155-2172, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573009

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The compartmental nature of brain tissue microstructure is typically studied by diffusion MRI, MR relaxometry or their correlation. Diffusion MRI relies on signal representations or biophysical models, while MR relaxometry and correlation studies are based on regularized inverse Laplace transforms (ILTs). Here we introduce a general framework for characterizing microstructure that does not depend on diffusion modeling and replaces ill-posed ILTs with blind source separation (BSS). This framework yields proton density, relaxation times, volume fractions, and signal disentanglement, allowing for separation of the free-water component. THEORY AND METHODS: Diffusion experiments repeated for several different echo times, contain entangled diffusion and relaxation compartmental information. These can be disentangled by BSS using a physically constrained nonnegative matrix factorization. RESULTS: Computer simulations, phantom studies, together with repeatability and reproducibility experiments demonstrated that BSS is capable of estimating proton density, compartmental volume fractions and transversal relaxations. In vivo results proved its potential to correct for free-water contamination and to estimate tissue parameters. CONCLUSION: Formulation of the diffusion-relaxation dependence as a BSS problem introduces a new framework for studying microstructure compartmentalization, and a novel tool for free-water elimination.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adulto , Algoritmos , Química Encefálica/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Bainha de Mielina/química , Imagens de Fantasmas , Água/química
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30619080

RESUMO

Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) results in an impaired health-related quality of life (HrQoL) and cognitive impairment in the attention and memory domain. GHD is assumed to be a frequent finding after brain injury due to traumatic brain injury (TBI), aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) or ischemic stroke. Hence, we set out to investigate the effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in patients with isolated GHD after brain injury on HrQoL, cognition, and abdominal fat composition. In total, 1,408 patients with TBI, SAH or ischemic stroke were screened for inclusion. Of those, 54 patients (age 18-65 years) were eligible, and 51 could be tested for GHD with GHRH-L-arginine. In 6 patients (12%), GHD was detected. All patients with isolated GHD (n = 4 [8%], male, mean age ± SD: 49.0 ± 9.8 years) received GH replacement therapy for 6 months at a daily dose of 0.2-0.5 mg recombinant GH depending on age. Results were compared with an untreated control group of patients without hormonal insufficiencies after brain injury (n = 6, male, mean age ± SD: 49.5 ± 13.6 years). HrQoL as well as mood and sleep quality assessed by self-rating questionnaires (Beck Depression Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) did not differ between baseline and 6 months within each group or between the two groups. Similarly, cognitive performance as assessed by standardized memory and attention tests did not show significant differences within or between groups. Body mass index was higher in the control vs. the GH replacement group at baseline (p = 0.038), yet not different at 6 months and within groups. Visceral-fat-by-total-fat-ratio measurements obtained from magnetic resonance imaging in 2 patients and 5 control subjects exhibited no consistent pattern. In conclusion, this single center study revealed a prevalence of GHD of about 12% (8% with isolated GHD) in brain injury patients which was lower compared with most of the previously reported cohorts. As a consequence, the sample size was insufficient to conclude on a benefit or no benefit of GH replacement in patients with isolated GHD after brain injury. A higher number of patients will be necessary to draw conclusions in future studies. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT01397500.

11.
Neuroimage ; 169: 374-382, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29277401

RESUMO

Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) exploits the biophysical similarity of Ca2+ and Mn2+ to map the brain's activity in vivo. However, to what extent different Ca2+ channels contribute to the enhanced signal that MEMRI provides and how Mn2+ dynamics influence Mn2+ brain accumulation after systemic administration of MnCl2 are not yet fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that mice lacking the L-type Ca2+ channel 1.2 (Cav1.2) in the CNS show approximately 50% less increase in MEMRI contrast after repeated systemic MnCl2 injections, as compared to control mice. In contrast, genetic deletion of L-type Ca2+ channel 1.3 (Cav1.3) did not reduce signal. Brain structure- or cell type-specific deletion of Cav1.2 in combination with voxel-wise MEMRI analysis revealed a preferential accumulation of Mn2+ in projection terminals, which was confirmed by local MnCl2 administration to defined brain areas. Taken together, we provide unequivocal evidence that Cav1.2 represents an important channel for neuronal Mn2+ influx after systemic injections. We also show that after neuronal uptake, Mn2+ preferentially accumulates in projection terminals.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Cloretos/administração & dosagem , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Compostos de Manganês/administração & dosagem , Manganês/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tálamo/metabolismo
12.
Brain Struct Funct ; 223(3): 1379-1389, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29138923

RESUMO

Participants of the annual World Memory Championships regularly demonstrate extraordinary memory feats, such as memorising the order of 52 playing cards in 20 s or 1000 binary digits in 5 min. On a cognitive level, memory athletes use well-known mnemonic strategies, such as the method of loci. However, whether these feats are enabled solely through the use of mnemonic strategies or whether they benefit additionally from optimised neural circuits is still not fully clarified. Investigating 23 leading memory athletes, we found volumes of their right hippocampus and caudate nucleus were stronger correlated with each other compared to matched controls; both these volumes positively correlated with their position in the memory sports world ranking. Furthermore, we observed larger volumes of the right anterior hippocampus in athletes. Complementing these structural findings, on a functional level, fMRI resting state connectivity of the anterior hippocampus to both the posterior hippocampus and caudate nucleus predicted the athletes rank. While a competitive interaction between hippocampus and caudate nucleus is often observed in normal memory function, our findings suggest that a hippocampal-caudate nucleus cooperation may enable exceptional memory performance. We speculate that this cooperation reflects an integration of the two memory systems at issue-enabling optimal combination of stimulus-response learning and map-based learning when using mnemonic strategies as for example the method of loci.


Assuntos
Núcleo Caudado/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Neuroimage ; 156: 65-77, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28483719

RESUMO

Standard T2* weighted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) performed with echo-planar imaging (EPI) suffers from signal loss in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) due to macroscopic field inhomogeneity. However, this region is of special interest to affective neuroscience and psychiatry. The Multi-echo EPI (MEPI) approach has several advantages over EPI but its performance against EPI in the vmPFC has not yet been examined in a study with sufficient statistical power using a task specifically eliciting activity in this region. We used a fear conditioning task with MEPI to compare the performance of MEPI and EPI in vmPFC and control regions in 32 healthy young subjects. We analyzed activity associated with short (12ms), standard (29ms) and long (46ms) echo times, and a voxel-wise combination of these three echo times. Behavioral data revealed successful differentiation of the conditioned versus safety stimulus; activity in the vmPFC was shown by the contrast "safety stimulus > conditioned stimulus" as in previous research and proved significantly stronger with the combined MEPI than standard single-echo EPI. Then, we aimed to demonstrate that the additional cluster extent (ventral extension) detected in the vmPFC with MEPI reflects activation in a relevant cluster (i.e., not just non-neuronal noise). To do this, we used resting state data from the same subjects to show that the time-course of this region was both connected to bilateral amygdala and the default mode network. Overall, we demonstrate that MEPI (by means of the weighted sum combination approach) outperforms standard EPI in vmPFC; MEPI performs always at least as good as the best echo time for a given brain region but provides all necessary echo times for an optimal BOLD sensitivity for the whole brain. This is relevant for affective neuroscience and psychiatry given the critical role of the vmPFC in emotion regulation.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Imagem Ecoplanar/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Condicionamento Clássico , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Neuron ; 93(5): 1227-1235.e6, 2017 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28279356

RESUMO

Memory skills strongly differ across the general population; however, little is known about the brain characteristics supporting superior memory performance. Here we assess functional brain network organization of 23 of the world's most successful memory athletes and matched controls with fMRI during both task-free resting state baseline and active memory encoding. We demonstrate that, in a group of naive controls, functional connectivity changes induced by 6 weeks of mnemonic training were correlated with the network organization that distinguishes athletes from controls. During rest, this effect was mainly driven by connections between rather than within the visual, medial temporal lobe and default mode networks, whereas during task it was driven by connectivity within these networks. Similarity with memory athlete connectivity patterns predicted memory improvements up to 4 months after training. In conclusion, mnemonic training drives distributed rather than regional changes, reorganizing the brain's functional network organization to enable superior memory performance.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Descanso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neuroimage ; 147: 186-197, 2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27915119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fear conditioning and extinction are prevailing experimental and etiological models for normal and pathological anxiety. Pupil dilations in response to conditioned stimuli are increasingly used as a robust psychophysiological readout of fear learning, but their neural correlates remain unknown. We aimed at identifying the neural correlates of pupil responses to threat and safety cues during a fear learning task. METHODS: Thirty-four healthy subjects underwent a fear conditioning and extinction paradigm with simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and pupillometry. After a stringent preprocessing and artifact rejection procedure, trial-wise pupil responses to threat and safety cues were entered as parametric modulations to the fMRI general linear models. RESULTS: Trial-wise magnitude of pupil responses to both conditioned and safety stimuli correlated positively with activity in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), thalamus, supramarginal gyrus and insula for the entire fear learning task, and with activity in the dACC during the fear conditioning phase in particular. Phasic pupil responses did not show habituation, but were negatively correlated with tonic baseline pupil diameter, which decreased during the task. Correcting phasic pupil responses for the tonic baseline pupil diameter revealed thalamic activity, which was also observed in an analysis employing a linear (declining) time modulation. CONCLUSION: Pupil dilations during fear conditioning and extinction provide useful readouts to track fear learning on a trial-by-trial level, particularly with simultaneous fMRI. Whereas phasic pupil responses reflect activity in brain regions involved in fear learning and threat appraisal, most prominently in dACC, tonic changes in pupil diameter may reflect changes in general arousal.


Assuntos
Medo/psicologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Reflexo Pupilar/fisiologia , Adulto , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Condicionamento Psicológico , Sinais (Psicologia) , Extinção Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(26): E3755-63, 2016 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27274066

RESUMO

Exposure to chronic stress is frequently accompanied by cognitive and affective disorders in association with neurostructural adaptations. Chronic stress was previously shown to trigger Alzheimer's-like neuropathology, which is characterized by Tau hyperphosphorylation and missorting into dendritic spines followed by memory deficits. Here, we demonstrate that stress-driven hippocampal deficits in wild-type mice are accompanied by synaptic missorting of Tau and enhanced Fyn/GluN2B-driven synaptic signaling. In contrast, mice lacking Tau [Tau knockout (Tau-KO) mice] do not exhibit stress-induced pathological behaviors and atrophy of hippocampal dendrites or deficits of hippocampal connectivity. These findings implicate Tau as an essential mediator of the adverse effects of stress on brain structure and function.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Espinhas Dendríticas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fosforilação , Estresse Fisiológico , Sinapses/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/genética
17.
Neuroimage ; 139: 189-201, 2016 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27291493

RESUMO

Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is increasingly applied for the development of functional biomarkers in brain disorders. Recent studies have revealed spontaneous vigilance drifts during the resting state, involving changes in brain activity and connectivity that challenge the validity of uncontrolled rs-fMRI findings. In a combined rs-fMRI/eye tracking study, the pupil size of 32 healthy subjects after 2h of sleep restriction was recorded as an indirect index for activity of the locus coeruleus, the brainstem's noradrenergic arousal center. The spontaneous occurrence of pupil dilations, but not pupil size per se, was associated with increased activity of the salience network, thalamus and frontoparietal regions. In turn, spontaneous constrictions of the pupil were associated with increased activity in visual and sensorimotor regions. These results were largely replicated in a sample of 36 healthy subjects who did not undergo sleep restriction, although in this sample the correlation between thalamus and pupil dilation fell below whole-brain significance. Our data show that spontaneous pupil fluctuations during rest are indeed associated with brain circuitry involved in tonic alertness and vigilance. Pupillometry is an effective method to control for changes in tonic alertness during rs-fMRI.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
18.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 35(5): 1344-1351, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27071165

RESUMO

Numerous scientific fields rely on elaborate but partly suboptimal data processing pipelines. An example is diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion MRI), a non-invasive microstructure assessment method with a prominent application in neuroimaging. Advanced diffusion models providing accurate microstructural characterization so far have required long acquisition times and thus have been inapplicable for children and adults who are uncooperative, uncomfortable, or unwell. We show that the long scan time requirements are mainly due to disadvantages of classical data processing. We demonstrate how deep learning, a group of algorithms based on recent advances in the field of artificial neural networks, can be applied to reduce diffusion MRI data processing to a single optimized step. This modification allows obtaining scalar measures from advanced models at twelve-fold reduced scan time and detecting abnormalities without using diffusion models. We set a new state of the art by estimating diffusion kurtosis measures from only 12 data points and neurite orientation dispersion and density measures from only 8 data points. This allows unprecedentedly fast and robust protocols facilitating clinical routine and demonstrates how classical data processing can be streamlined by means of deep learning.


Assuntos
Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Magn Reson Med ; 76(6): 1684-1696, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26822349

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an approach to characterizing the non-Gaussian fraction of water diffusion in biological tissue. However, DKI is highly susceptible to the low signal-to-noise ratio of diffusion-weighted images, causing low precision and a significant bias due to Rician noise distribution. Here, we evaluate precision and bias using weighted linear least squares fitting of different acquisition schemes including several multishell schemes, a diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) scheme, as well as a compressed sensing reconstruction of undersampled DSI scheme. METHODS: Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the three-dimensional distribution of the apparent kurtosis coefficient (AKC). Experimental data were acquired from one healthy volunteer with multiple repetitions, using the same acquisition schemes as for the simulations. RESULTS: The angular distribution of the bias and precision were very inhomogeneous. While axial kurtosis was significantly overestimated, radial kurtosis was underestimated. The precision of radial kurtosis was up to 10-fold lower than axial kurtosis. CONCLUSION: The noise bias behavior of DKI is highly complex and can cause overestimation as well as underestimation of the AKC even within one voxel. The acquisition scheme with three shells, suggested by Poot et al, provided overall the best performance. Magn Reson Med 76:1684-1696, 2016. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Química Encefálica , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
J Psychiatr Res ; 68: 261-9, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26228428

RESUMO

Although mental disorders as major depression are highly prevalent worldwide their underlying causes remain elusive. Despite the high heritability of depression and a clear genetic contribution to the disease, the identification of genetic risk factors for depression has been very difficult. The first published candidate to reach genome-wide significance in depression was SLC6A15, a neuronal amino acid transporter. With a reported 1,42 fold increased risk of suffering from depression associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a regulatory region of SLC6A15, the polymorphism was also found to affect hippocampal morphology, integrity, and hippocampus-dependent memory. However, the function of SLC6A15 in the brain is so far largely unknown. To address this question, we investigated if alterations in SLC6A15 expression, either using a full knockout or a targeted hippocampal overexpression, affect hippocampal neurochemistry and consequently behavior. We could show that a lack of SLC6A15 reduced hippocampal tissue levels of proline and other neutral amino acids. In parallel, we observed a decreased overall availability of tissue glutamate and glutamine, while at the same time the basal tone of extracellular glutamate in the hippocampus was increased. By contrast, SLC6A15 overexpression increased glutamate/glutamine tissue concentrations. These neurochemical alterations could be linked to behavioral abnormalities in sensorimotor gating, a key translational endophenotype relevant for many psychiatric disorders. Overall, our data supports SLC6A15 as a crucial factor controlling amino acid content in the hippocampus, thereby likely interfering with glutamatergic transmission and behavior. These findings emphasize SLC6A15 as pivotal risk factor for vulnerability to psychiatric diseases.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Filtro Sensorial/fisiologia , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/genética , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/metabolismo , Animais , Hipocampo/anatomia & histologia , Hipocampo/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Prolina/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transdução de Sinais
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