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1.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2105285, 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35322587

RESUMO

Self-reporting implantable medical devices are the future of cardiovascular healthcare. Cardiovascular complications such as blocked arteries that lead to the majority of heart attacks and strokes are frequently treated with inert metal stents that reopen affected vessels. Stents frequently re-block after deployment due to a wound response called in-stent restenosis (ISR). Herein, an implantable miniaturized sensor and telemetry system are developed that can detect this process, discern the different cell types associated with ISR, distinguish sub plaque components as demonstrated with ex vivo samples, and differentiate blood from blood clot, all on a silicon substrate making it suitable for integration onto a vascular stent. This work shows that microfabricated sensors can provide clinically relevant information in settings closer to physiological conditions than previous work with cultured cells.

2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1953): 20210525, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157871

RESUMO

Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a disruptive form of pollution, impacting physiological and behavioural processes that may scale up to population and community levels. Evidence from terrestrial habitats show that the severity and type of impact depend on the wavelength and intensity of ALAN; however, research on marine organisms is still limited. Here, we experimentally investigated the effect of different ALAN colours on marine primary producers. We tested the effect of green (525 nm), red (624 nm) and broad-spectrum white LED ALAN, compared to a dark control, on the green microalgae Tetraselmis suesica and a diatom assemblage. We show that green ALAN boosted chlorophyll production and abundance in T. suesica. All ALAN wavelengths affected assemblage biomass and diversity, with red and green ALAN having the strongest effects, leading to higher overall abundance and selective dominance of specific diatom species, some known to cause harmful algal blooms. Our findings show that green and red ALAN should be used with caution as alternative LED colours in coastal areas, where there might be a need to strike a balance between the effects of green and red light on marine primary producers with the benefit they appear to bring to other organisms.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Fitoplâncton , Ecossistema , Luz
3.
Foods ; 8(7)2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284456

RESUMO

Beetroot is a root vegetable rich in different bioactive components, such as vitamins, minerals, phenolics, carotenoids, nitrate, ascorbic acids, and betalains, that can have a positive effect on human health. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the pulsed electric field (PEF) at different electric field strengths (4.38 and 6.25 kV/cm), pulse number 10-30, and energy input 0-12.5 kJ/kg as a pretreatment method on the extraction of betalains from beetroot. The obtained results showed that the application of PEF pre-treatment significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the efficiency of extraction of bioactive compounds from beetroot. The highest increase in the content of betalain compounds in the red beet's extract (betanin by 329%, vulgaxanthin by 244%, compared to the control sample), was noted for 20 pulses of electric field at 4.38 kV/cm of strength. Treatment of the plant material with a PEF also resulted in an increase in the electrical conductivity compared to the non-treated sample due to the increase in cell membrane permeability, which was associated with leakage of substances able to conduct electricity, including mineral salts, into the intercellular space.

4.
Molecules ; 23(2)2018 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29462977

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of selected compounds from the polyol group, as well as other saccharides, on the osmotic dehydration process of apples. The following alternative solutions were examined: erythritol, xylitol, maltitol, inulin and oligofructose. Efficiency of the osmotic dehydration process was evaluated based on the kinetics of the process, and through comparison of the results obtained during the application of a sucrose solution. This innovative research utilizes alternative solutions in osmotic pretreatment, which until now, have not been commonly used in fruit processing by researchers worldwide. Results indicate that erythritol and xylitol show stronger or similar efficiency to sucrose; however, the use of inulin, as well as oligofructose, was not satisfactory due to the insufficient, small osmotic driving forces of the process, and the low values of mass transfer parameters.


Assuntos
Dessecação , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Osmose , Polímeros/farmacologia , Cinética , Soluções , Água
5.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 18(2): 240-250, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29091345

RESUMO

This study sets out a novel method to determine dispersal distances in lichens. Direct measurement of dispersal often remains difficult for lichens and other small inconspicuous species because of the need to track microscopic reproductive propagules, which even if they can be captured, cannot be identified using traditional morphological approaches. A low-cost device (<£200) was developed to trap the reproductive propagules of lichens, capable of sampling around 0.1 m3 of air per minute. In parallel, molecular techniques were developed to enable species-specific detection of propagules caught by the devices, with identification using novel species-specific primers and optimization of a standard DNA extraction and nested PCR protocol. The methods were tested for both their sensitivity and specificity against a suite of lichen epiphytes, differing in their reproductive mechanisms, dispersal structures and rarity. Sensitivity tests showed that the molecular techniques could detect a single asexual propagule (soredium or isidium), or as few as 10 sexual spores. As proof of concept, propagule traps were deployed into a wooded landscape where the target epiphytes were present. Extractions from deployed propagule traps were sequenced, showing that the method was able to detect the presence of the target species in the atmosphere. As far as we are aware, this is the first attempt to use mechanized propagule traps in combination with DNA diagnostics to detect dispersal of lichens. The tests carried out here point the way for future dispersal studies of lichen epiphytes and other passively dispersed microscopic organisms including fungi or bryophytes.


Assuntos
Fungos/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Líquens/genética , Dispersão Vegetal , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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