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1.
J Med Chem ; 62(5): 2265-2285, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785748

RESUMO

Recently, our research group reported the identification of BMS-986104 (2) as a differentiated S1P1 receptor modulator. In comparison to fingolimod (1), a full agonist of S1P1 currently marketed for the treatment of relapse remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), 2 offers several potential advantages having demonstrated improved safety multiples in preclinical evaluations against undesired pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. In clinical trials, 2 was found to exhibit a pharmacokinetic half-life ( T1/2) longer than that of 1, as well as a reduced formation of the phosphate metabolite that is required for activity against S1P1. Herein, we describe our efforts to discover highly potent, partial agonists of S1P1 with a shorter T1/2 and increased in vivo phosphate metabolite formation. These efforts culminated in the discovery of BMS-986166 (14a), which was advanced to human clinical evaluation. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship as well as pulmonary and cardiovascular safety assessments are discussed. Furthermore, efficacy of 14a in multiple preclinical models of autoimmune diseases are presented.

2.
Medchemcomm ; 8(4): 725-729, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108791

RESUMO

Recently, our research group reported the identification of prodrug amino-alcohol 2 as a potent and efficacious S1P1 receptor modulator. This molecule is differentiated preclinically over the marketed drug fingolimod (Gilenya 1), whose active phosphate metabolite is an S1P1 full agonist, in terms of pulmonary and cardiovascular safety. S1P1 partial agonist 2, however, has a long half-life in rodents and was projected to have a long half-life in humans. The purpose of this communication is to disclose highly potent partial agonists of S1P1 with shorter half-lives relative to the clinical compound 2. PK/PD relationships as well as their preclinical pulmonary and cardiovascular safety assessment are discussed.

3.
J Med Chem ; 59(21): 9837-9854, 2016 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27726358

RESUMO

Fingolimod (1) is the first approved oral therapy for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. While the phosphorylated metabolite of fingolimod was found to be a nonselective S1P receptor agonist, agonism specifically of S1P1 is responsible for the peripheral blood lymphopenia believed to be key to its efficacy. Identification of modulators that maintain activity on S1P1 while sparing activity on other S1P receptors could offer equivalent efficacy with reduced liabilities. We disclose in this paper a ligand-based drug design approach that led to the discovery of a series of potent tricyclic agonists of S1P1 with selectivity over S1P3 and were efficacious in a pharmacodynamic model of suppression of circulating lymphocytes. Compound 10 had the desired pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profile and demonstrated maximal efficacy when administered orally in a rat adjuvant arthritis model.


Assuntos
Desenho de Drogas , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/agonistas , Animais , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/imunologia , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/química , Adjuvante de Freund/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/química , Ligantes , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Distribuição Tecidual
4.
J Med Chem ; 59(19): 9173-9200, 2016 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27583770

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the Tec family of kinases. BTK plays an essential role in B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated signaling as well as Fcγ receptor signaling in monocytes and Fcε receptor signaling in mast cells and basophils, all of which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of autoimmune disease. As a result, inhibition of BTK is anticipated to provide an effective strategy for the clinical treatment of autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. This article details the structure-activity relationships (SAR) leading to a novel series of highly potent and selective carbazole and tetrahydrocarbazole based, reversible inhibitors of BTK. Of particular interest is that two atropisomeric centers were rotationally locked to provide a single, stable atropisomer, resulting in enhanced potency and selectivity as well as a reduction in safety liabilities. With significantly enhanced potency and selectivity, excellent in vivo properties and efficacy, and a very desirable tolerability and safety profile, 14f (BMS-986142) was advanced into clinical studies.


Assuntos
Carbazóis/química , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Animais , Carbazóis/farmacocinética , Cristalografia por Raios X , Feminino , Humanos , Isomerismo , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Quinazolinas/química , Quinazolinas/farmacocinética , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 7(3): 283-8, 2016 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26985316

RESUMO

Clinical validation of S1P receptor modulation therapy was achieved with the approval of fingolimod (Gilenya, 1) as the first oral therapy for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. However, 1 causes a dose-dependent reduction in the heart rate (bradycardia), which occurs within hours after first dose. We disclose the identification of clinical compound BMS-986104 (3d), a novel S1P1 receptor modulator, which demonstrates ligand-biased signaling and differentiates from 1 in terms of cardiovascular and pulmonary safety based on preclinical pharmacology while showing equivalent efficacy in a T-cell transfer colitis model.

6.
Bioanalysis ; 8(4): 265-74, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26807991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A target protein-based affinity extraction LC-MS/MS method was developed to enable plasma level determination following ultralow dosing (0.1-3 µg/kg) of an inhibitor of apoptosis proteins molecule. Methodology & results: Affinity extraction (AE) utilizing immobilized target protein BIR2/BIR3 was used to selectively capture the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins molecule from dog plasma and enable removal of background matrix components. Pretreatment of plasma samples using protein precipitation was found to provide an additional sensitivity gain. A LLOQ of 7.8 pM was achieved by combining protein precipitation with AE. The method was used to support an ultralow dose dog toxicity study. CONCLUSION: AE-LC-MS/MS, utilizing target protein, is a highly sensitive methodology for small molecule quantification with potential for broader applicability.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoquinolinas/análise , Limite de Detecção , Oligopeptídeos/análise , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas Imobilizadas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Imobilizadas/química , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/química , Isoquinolinas/química , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Masculino , Oligopeptídeos/química , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
7.
Bioanalysis ; 6(13): 1795-811, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25157486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The disease state can modulate the penetration of large antibody-sized therapeutic molecules into affected tissues. Suitable bioanalytical methods are required for the quantitative analysis of drug tissue levels to enable a better understanding of the parameters influencing drug penetration and target engagement. RESULTS: Described is a sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of human mAb molecules in mouse tissues. By homogenizing tissues directly into serum, a common serum calibration curve can be used for multiple tissues. A generic procedure was used for affinity enrichment. An analytical range of 20 - 20,000 ng/ml was achieved in serum. CONCLUSION: The method described here can be applied for the quantitative analysis of mAb and Fc-fusion therapeutic molecules in a variety of animal tissue matrices.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/sangue , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/análise , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/sangue , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/metabolismo , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Peptídeos/análise , Análise de Regressão , Pele/metabolismo , Tripsina/metabolismo , Ustekinumab
8.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 23(1): 209-12, 2013 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23200244

RESUMO

7-(2H-Tetrazol-5-yl)-1H-indole 3 was found to be a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 attachment but the compound lacked oral bioavailability in rats. The cause of the low exposure was believed to be poor absorption attributed to the acidic nature of the tetrazole moiety and, in an effort to address this liability, three more lipohilic tetrazole analogs, N-acetoxymethyl 4, N-pivaloyloxymethyl 5, and N-methyl 6, were evaluated as potential oral prodrugs in rats. Prodrug 5 was ineffective in improving the plasma concentration of 3 in vivo but compound 4 provided a 15-fold enhancement of the plasma concentration of 3. Most interestingly, oral dosing of analog 6 afforded a substantial increase in the plasma concentration of the parent in rats when compared to dosing of parent. This represents a novel example of a methyl tetrazole that acts as a prodrug for a free NH tetrazole-containing compound.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , HIV-1/metabolismo , Pró-Fármacos/química , Tetrazóis/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacocinética , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Pró-Fármacos/síntese química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacocinética , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tetrazóis/síntese química , Tetrazóis/farmacocinética , Ligação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 23(1): 203-8, 2013 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23200249

RESUMO

As part of the SAR profiling of the indole-oxoacetic piperazinyl benzamide class of HIV-1 attachment inhibitors, substitution at the C7 position of the lead 4-fluoroindole 2 with various 5- and 6-membered heteroaryl moieties was explored. Highly potent (picomolar) inhibitors of pseudotyped HIV-1 in a primary, cell-based assay were identified and select examples were shown to possess nanomolar inhibitory activity against M- and T-tropic viruses in cell culture. These C7-heteroaryl-indole analogs maintained the ligand efficiency (LE) of 2 and were also lipophilic efficient as measured by LLE and LELP. Pharmacokinetic studies of this class of inhibitor in rats showed that several possessed substantially improved IV clearance and half-lives compared to 2. Oral exposure in the rat correlated with membrane permeability as measured in a Caco-2 assay where the highly permeable 1,2,4-oxadiazole analog 13 exhibited the highest exposure.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , HIV-1/metabolismo , Indóis/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacocinética , Células CACO-2 , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Indóis/síntese química , Indóis/farmacocinética , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ligação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 23(1): 198-202, 2013 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23200252

RESUMO

A series of substituted carboxamides at the indole C7 position of the previously described 4-fluoro-substituted indole HIV-1 attachment inhibitor 1 was synthesized and the SAR delineated. Heteroaryl carboxamide inhibitors that exhibited pM potency in the primary cell-based assay against a pseudotype virus expressing a JRFL envelope were identified. The simple methyl amide analog 4 displayed a promising in vitro profile, with its favorable HLM stability and membrane permeability translating into favorable pharmacokinetic properties in preclinical species.


Assuntos
Amidas/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , HIV-1/metabolismo , Indóis/química , Amidas/síntese química , Amidas/farmacocinética , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cães , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Meia-Vida , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Conformação Molecular , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ligação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Bioanalysis ; 4(16): 2059-65, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22946921

RESUMO

In the last several years, dried blood spot (DBS) sampling has re-emerged and attracted a great interest in the pharmaceutical industry as a microsampling technology for drug discovery and development studies. Although significant progress has been made to understand strengths and weaknesses of the technique, many organizations are still at the evaluation stage and experimental observations have resulted in more questions being raised as to whether there is a real future for this technology in pharmaceutical research, especially in support of pharmacokinetic studies. This article summarizes recently gained knowledge against the originally projected advantages of this technique, discusses some practical challenges that need to be overcome before DBS can be widely applied in drug development studies, and highlights some specific study types where DBS can be applied with a good benefit:risk ratio. The authors hope this article can stimulate further discussions about what are the next steps for DBS.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/tendências , Preparações Farmacêuticas/sangue , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Farmacocinética , Plasma/química , Ligação Proteica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
12.
Bioanalysis ; 4(9): 1057-64, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22612686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & METHOD: The small sample volumes characteristic to dried blood spot (DBS) sampling enabled us to right-shift the linear dynamic range of an LC-MS/MS plasma assay tenfold and eliminate the need for extensive sample dilution in support of three discovery toxicology studies in which both plasma and DBS samples were collected. With the right-shifted DBS assay range, no DBS study samples required dilution, while all of the plasma samples were diluted 5-50-fold. RESULTS: DBS standard curves from 78-80,000 nM were linear, the performance of the curve and QC samples was within acceptable discovery-assay criteria and individual plasma and DBS data were comparable. Linear correlations of C(max) and AUC derived from DBS and plasma data resulted in R(2) > 0.9. CONCLUSION: This bioanalytical strategy represents a benefit to the bioanalyst that can expedite the return of data and minimize the potential for error and variability that can result from extensive dilutions of study samples.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/normas , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/normas , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Espectrometria de Massas/normas , Plasma/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Cães , Macaca fascicularis , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Controle de Qualidade , Ratos
13.
Bioanalysis ; 4(5): 511-28, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22409550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: UHPLC coupled with orthogonal acceleration hybrid quadrupole-TOF (Q-TOF)-MS is an emerging technique offering new strategies for the efficient screening of new chemical entities and related molecules at the early discovery stage within the pharmaceutical industry. In the first part of this article, we examine the main instrumental parameters that are critical for the integration of UHPLC-Q-TOF technology to existing bioanalytical workflows, in order to provide simultaneous quantitative and qualitative bioanalysis of samples generated following in vivo studies. MATERIAL & METHODS: Three modern Q-TOF mass spectrometers, including Bruker maXis™, Agilent 6540 and Sciex TripleTOF™ 5600, all interfaced with UHPLC systems, are evaluated in the second part of the article. The scope of this work is to demonstrate the potential of Q-TOF for the analysis of typical small molecules, therapeutic peptides (molecular weight <6000 Da), and enzymatically (i.e., trypsin, chymotrypsin and pepsin) cleaved peptides from larger proteins. RESULTS & DISCUSSION: This work focuses mainly on full-scan TOF data obtained under ESI conditions, the major mode of TOF operation in discovery bioanalytical research, where the compounds are selected based on their pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic behaviors using animal models prior to selecting a few desirable candidates for further development. Finally, important emerging TOF technologies that could potentially benefit bioanalytical research in the semi-quantification of metabolites without synthesized standards are discussed. Particularly, the utility of captive spray ionization coupled with TripleTOF 5600 was evaluated for improving sensitivity and providing normalized MS response for drugs and their metabolites. The workflow proposed compromises neither the efficiency, nor the quality of pharmacokinetic data in support of early drug discovery programs.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas/instrumentação , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas , Cafeína/análise , Cafeína/química , Peptídeos/análise , Peptídeos/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/análise , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Software
14.
Bioanalysis ; 4(1): 29-40, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22191592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in the pharmaceutical industry today in both development of therapeutic proteins as viable biopharmaceutical agents as well as the implementation of microsampling techniques, such as dried blood spots (DBS), as an alternative to current sample collection and handling procedures for biological samples generated in drug discovery and development studies. We have demonstrated that these two techniques can be integrated by developing bioanalytical methods that simultaneously determine the concentrations of unique therapeutic protein constructs, using LC-MS-based detection of multiple surrogate peptides following direct trypsin digestion of DBS. RESULTS: Bioanalytical methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of two structurally different therapeutic proteins (PEGylated-Adnectin™-1, MW 11,144 amu and an Fc-fusion protein, MW 67,082 amu) in a single DBS sample using LC-MS-based detection of multiple peptides generated from different regions of the proteins following trypsin digestion. The same methodology was applied to the analysis of DBS samples collected following dosing of a third unique protein (PEGylated-Adnectin-2) to mice. Although these initial DBS methods were slightly less sensitive than those developed specifically for each individual protein in plasma or serum, the generic digestion procedure yielded sufficient accuracy, precision and an extended linear dynamic range to justify their further evaluation in pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and toxicological studies of selected therapeutic proteins following dosing in preclinical discovery studies. Additionally, DBS samples may offer a convenient, generic platform approach for direct enzymatic digestion and sample preparation for LC-MS-based quantitation of proteins. DBS samples prepared for two of the therapeutic proteins were also stable for at least 2 weeks when stored at room temperature. CONCLUSION: Although the same clarification and interpretation of DBS results will be required (e.g., blood vs plasma levels, hematocrit effects on DBS determinations and red blood cell partitioning) as for small-molecules, there still remains the potential to further develop and expand this strategy with appropriate proteins of interest. While additional studies will be required to validate this approach in specific applications, we have demonstrated the feasibility of using DBS sampling to directly quantify structurally different types of therapeutic proteins in blood in discovery studies and present the potential to simultaneously measure other proteins, such as biomarkers, to augment and integrate data generated from in vivo studies.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Peptídeos/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tripsina/química , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Tripsina/metabolismo
15.
Bioanalysis ; 2(8): 1415-22, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21083342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prodrugs that exhibit ex vivo instability owing to high levels of esterases in rodent blood, plasma and serum present challenges in the accurate determination of drug exposure in samples from pharmacokinetic, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic, efficacy and toxicology studies in drug discovery. Ensuring the stability of analytes in sample collection, handling, analysis and storage must be established for program progression. Current protocols for the stabilization of prodrugs include the immediate quenching of whole blood with acetonitrile or methanol to stop enzyme activity, or the addition of an esterase inhibitor such as phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride to the blood collection tubes before serum or plasma is generated. Dried blood spots (DBS) sampling may offer an alternative prodrug stabilization method for sample collection and storage from rodent studies in drug discovery. RESULTS: Two different prodrugs of the same parent compound that were known to exhibit ex vivo instability in rodent blood were selected for the evaluation of DBS for analyte stabilization. Each prodrug was spiked separately into fresh rat EDTA whole blood and prepared three ways: from liquid whole blood, prepared and analyzed as lysate; from whole blood spotted onto Whatman 903(®) Protein Saver untreated cards (903 cards); and from whole blood spotted onto Whatman FTA(®) Elute Micro treated cards, currently known as DMPK-B cards (FTA cards). Samples were extracted by filtration-assisted protein precipitation at 0, 2, 5 and 24 h and 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after spiking and analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS. CONCLUSIONS: For these two prodrugs, stability on DBS cards was observed in rat EDTA whole blood for at least 21 days at room temperature as determined by loss of prodrug and appearance of parent. The Whatman FTA Elute cards, treated with reagents that lyse cells, did not offer more stability for the investigated compounds than the Whatman 903 Protein Saver untreated cards.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Esterases , Pró-Fármacos/química , Animais , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/instrumentação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dessecação , Ácido Edético/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Esterases/antagonistas & inibidores , Esterases/metabolismo , Indicadores e Reagentes/química , Pró-Fármacos/análise , Pró-Fármacos/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
J Pharm Sci ; 99(4): 2135-52, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19780144

RESUMO

Optimizing pharmacokinetic properties to improve oral exposure is a common theme in modern drug discovery. In the present work, in vitro Caco-2 permeability and microsomal half-life screens were utilized in an effort to guide the structure-activity relationship in order to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of novel HIV-1 attachment inhibitors. The relevance of the in vitro screens to in vivo pharmacokinetic properties was first demonstrated with a number of program compounds at the early stage of lead optimization. The Caco-2 permeability, tested at 200 microM, was quantitatively predictive of in vivo oral absorption, with complete absorption occurring at a Caco-2 permeability of 100 nm/s or higher. The liver microsomal half-life screen, conducted at 1 microM substrate concentration, can readily differentiate low-, intermediate-, and high-clearance compounds in rats, with a nearly 1:1 correlation in 12 out of 13 program compounds tested. Among the >100 compounds evaluated, BMS-488043 emerged as a lead, exhibiting a Caco-2 permeability of 178 nm/s and a microsomal half-life predictive of a low clearance (4 mL/min/kg) in humans. These in vitro characteristics translated well to the in vivo setting. The oral bioavailability of BMS-488043 in rats, dogs, and monkeys was 90%, 57%, and 60%, respectively. The clearance was low in all three species tested, with a terminal half-life ranging from 2.4 to 4.7 h. Furthermore, the oral exposure of BMS-488043 was significantly improved (6- to 12-fold in rats and monkeys) compared to the prototype compound BMS-378806 that had a suboptimal Caco-2 permeability (51 nm/s) and microsomal half-life. More importantly, the improvements in preclinical pharmacokinetics translated well to humans, leading to a >15-fold increase in the human oral exposure of BMS-488043 than BMS-378806 and enabling a clinical proof-of-concept for this novel class of anti-HIV agents. The current studies demonstrated the valuable role of in vitro ADME screens in improving oral pharmacokinetics at the lead optimization stage.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/metabolismo , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacocinética , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Inibidores da Fusão de HIV/metabolismo , Inibidores da Fusão de HIV/farmacocinética , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Piperazinas/metabolismo , Piperazinas/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Células CACO-2 , Cães , Inibidores da Fusão de HIV/química , Meia-Vida , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Masculino , Piperazinas/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
J Med Chem ; 52(23): 7778-87, 2009 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19769332

RESUMO

Azaindole derivatives derived from the screening lead 1-(4-benzoylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethane-1,2-dione (1) were prepared and characterized to assess their potential as inhibitors of HIV-1 attachment. Systematic replacement of each of the unfused carbon atoms in the phenyl ring of the indole moiety by a nitrogen atom provided four different azaindole derivatives that displayed a clear SAR for antiviral activity and all of which displayed marked improvements in pharmaceutical properties. Optimization of these azaindole leads resulted in the identification of two compounds that were advanced to clinical studies: (R)-1-(4-benzoyl-2-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-(4-methoxy-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)ethane-1,2-dione (BMS-377806, 3) and 1-(4-benzoylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-(4,7-dimethoxy-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-c]pyridin-3-yl)ethane-1,2-dione (BMS-488043, 4). In a preliminary clinical study, 4 administered as monotherapy for 8 days, reduced viremia in HIV-1-infected subjects, providing proof of concept for this mechanistic class.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/fisiologia , Indóis/química , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Ligação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacocinética , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Piperazinas/química , Piperazinas/farmacocinética , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
J Med Chem ; 49(13): 3766-9, 2006 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16789733

RESUMO

Substituted 3-((2-(pyridin-2-ylamino)thiazol-5-ylmethyl)amino)benzamides were identified as potent and selective inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) kinase activity. The enzyme kinetics associated with the VEGFR-2 inhibition of 14 (Ki=49+/-9 nM) confirmed that the aminothiazole-based analogues are competitive with ATP. Analogue 14 demonstrated excellent kinase selectivity, favorable pharmacokinetic properties in multiple species, and robust in vivo efficacy in human lung and colon carcinoma xenograft models.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/síntese química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/síntese química , Tiazóis/síntese química , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Aminopiridinas/farmacocinética , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacocinética , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Proliferação de Células , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Modelos Moleculares , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazóis/farmacocinética , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Veias Umbilicais/citologia , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/química , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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