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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transfemoral aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a guideline-recommended treatment option for patients with severe aortic valve stenosis. Females and males present with different baseline characteristics, which may influence procedural outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate differences between females and males undergoing transfemoral TAVR across the globe during the last decade. METHODS: The CENTER collaboration was a global patient level dataset of patients undergoing transfemoral TAVR (N= 12,381) from 2007-2018. In this retrospective analysis we examined differences in baseline patient characteristics, 30-day stroke and mortality and in-hospital outcomes between female and male patients. We also assessed for temporal changes in outcomes and predictors for mortality per gender. RESULTS: We included 58% (n=7,120) female and 42% (n=5,261) male patients. Females had higher prevalence of hypertension and glomerular filtration rate <30ml/min/m2, but lower prevalence of all other traditional cardiovascular comorbidities. Both genders had similar rates of 30-day stroke (2.3% vs 2.5%, p=0.53) and mortality (5.9% vs. 5.5%, p=0.17). In contrast, females had a 50% higher risk of life-threatening or major bleeding (6.7% vs 4.4%, p<0.01). Over the study period mortality rates decreased to a greater extent in males than in females (60% vs 50% reduction, both p<0.001), with no reductions in stroke rates over time. CONCLUSIONS: In this global collaboration females and males had similar rates of 30-day mortality and stroke. However, females had higher rates of procedural life-threatening or major bleeding after TAVR. Between 2007 and 2018 mortality rates decreased to a greater extent in males than in females.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to analyze the baseline features and clinical outcomes of patients younger than 80 years undergoing transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) enrolled in the OBservational Study of Effectiveness of SAVR-TAVR procedures for severe Aortic steNosis Treatment (OBSERVANT) real-world study, focusing on variables guiding Heart Team decision toward TAVI. BACKGROUND: Patients treated with TAVI, independently of surgical risk score, are mostly older than 80 years. METHODS: OBSERVANT is a multicenter, observational, prospective cohort study that enrolled patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) who underwent SAVR or TAVI from December 2010 to June 2012 in 93 Italian participating hospitals. For this analysis, baseline characteristics, therapeutic approach and outcomes up to 5 years of follow-up of 4,801 patients under 80 years of age were collected. Patients were stratified by age classes (<65, 65-74, and 75-79 years). RESULTS: Patients <80 years of age with severe symptomatic AS undergoing TAVI (n = 483) had significantly higher Logistic EuroSCORE (10.84% vs. 5.22%, p < .001) and prevalence of comorbidities compared to subjects undergoing SAVR (n = 4,318). The decision to perform TAVI over SAVR was driven by anatomical factors, mainly previous cardiac surgery (odds ratio [OR] 24.73, confidence interval [CI] 12.71-48.10, p < .001) and the presence of porcelain aorta (OR 17.44, CI 6.67-45.55, p < .001), and clinical factors, mainly moderate-severe frailty score (OR 5.49, CI 3.33-9.07, p < .001), oxygen dependency (OR 7.42, CI 2.75-20.04, p < .001) and need for dialytic treatment (OR 5.24, CI 1.54-17.80, p < .008). Among patients undergoing TAVI, those under 65 years had the highest baseline risk profile (despite a low Logistic EuroSCORE) and the highest 5-year mortality compared to those 65-74 and 75-79-year-old (65.22% vs. 48.54% vs. 55.24%, log-rank p = .061). CONCLUSION: Among patients under 80 years of age with symptomatic severe AS, only 10% underwent TAVI. These patients were at higher baseline risk compared to those undergoing SAVR. The decision to perform TAVI was driven by the presence of both anatomical and clinical factors beyond surgical risk scores. Patients under 65 years of age, despite the low Logistic EuroSCORE, had the highest preoperative risk profile and carried the worse outcome.

3.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe aortic stenosis and heart failure have poor prognosis, and their outcomes may be suboptimal even after transcatheter (TAVR) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). METHODS: This is an analysis of the nationwide FinnValve registry, which included patients who underwent primary TAVR or SAVR with a bioprothesis for aortic stenosis. We evaluated the outcome of patients with acute heart failure (AHF) within 60 days prior to TAVR or SAVR. RESULTS: The prevalence of recent AHF was 11.4% (484 of 4241 patients) in the SAVR cohort and 11.3% (210 of 1855 patients) in the TAVR cohort. In the SAVR cohort, AHF was associated with lower 30-day survival (91.3% vs 97.0%; adjusted odds ratio 1.801, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.125-2.882) and 5-year survival (64.0% vs 81.2%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.482, 95% CI 1.207-1.821). SAVR patients with AHF had higher risk of major bleeding, need of mechanical circulatory support, acute kidney injury, prolonged hospital stay, and composite end-point (30-day mortality, stroke and/or acute kidney injury). Patients with AHF had a trend toward lower 30-day survival (crude rates 95.2% vs 97.9%; adjusted odds ratio 2.028, 95% CI 0.908-4.529) as well as significantly lower 5-year survival (crude rates 45.3% vs 58.5%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.530, 95% CI 1.185-1.976) also after TAVR. AHF increased the risk of acute kidney injury, prolonged hospital stay, and composite end-point after TAVR. CONCLUSIONS: Recent AHF is associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity after SAVR and TAVR. These findings suggest that aortic stenosis patients should be referred for invasive treatment before the development of clinically evident heart failure.

4.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(7): e007825, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The OBSERVANT study (Observational Study of Effectiveness of SAVR-TAVI Procedures for Severe Aortic Stenosis Treatment) showed that mortality at 1 year is similar after transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for real-world propensity-matched patients with aortic stenosis at low and intermediate risk. We report the 5-year outcomes of the Italian OBSERVANT study. METHODS AND RESULTS: The unadjusted enrolled population (N=7618) between December 2010 and June 2012 included 5707 patients on SAVR and 1911 patients on TAVR. The propensity score method was applied to select 2 groups with similar baseline characteristics. All outcomes were adjudicated through a linkage with administrative databases. The primary end points of this analysis were death from any cause and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events at 5 years. The matched population had a total of 1300 patients (650 per group). The propensity score method generated a low and intermediate-risk population (mean logistic EuroSCORE 2: 5.1±6.2% versus 4.9±5.1%, SAVR versus transfemoral TAVR; P=0.485). At 5 years, the rate of 5 death from any cause was 35.8% in the surgical group and 48.3% in the transcatheter group (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.12-1.69; P=0.002). Similarly, TAVR was associated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events as compared with SAVR (42.5% versus 54.0%; hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.11-1.63; P=0.003). The cumulative incidence of cerebrovascular events, myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization were similar in the study groups at 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that at 5 years, in a real-world population with severe aortic stenosis and at low and intermediate risk, suggest that SAVR is associated in with lower mortality and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events rates than transfemoral TAVR performed using first-generation devices. These data need to be confirmed in randomized trials using new-generation TAVR devices.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(6): e195742, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199448

RESUMO

Importance: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been shown to be a valid alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients at high operative risk with severe aortic stenosis (AS). However, the evidence of the benefits and harms of TAVR in patients at low operative risk is still scarce. Objective: To compare the short-term and midterm outcomes after TAVR and SAVR in low-risk patients with AS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective comparative effectiveness cohort study used data from the Nationwide Finnish Registry of Transcatheter and Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic Valve Stenosis of patients at low operative risk who underwent TAVR or SAVR with a bioprosthesis for severe AS from January 1, 2008, to November 30, 2017. Low operative risk was defined as a Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality score less than 3% without other comorbidities of clinical relevance. One-to-one propensity score matching was performed to adjust for baseline covariates between the TAVR and SAVR cohorts. Exposures: Primary TAVR or SAVR with a bioprosthesis for AS with or without associated coronary revascularization. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were 30-day and 3-year survival. Results: Overall, 2841 patients (mean [SD] age, 74.0 [6.2] years; 1560 [54.9%] men) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis; TAVR was performed in 325 patients and SAVR in 2516 patients. Propensity score matching produced 304 pairs with similar baseline characteristics. Third-generation devices were used in 263 patients (86.5%) who underwent TAVR. Among these matched pairs, 30-day mortality was 1.3% after TAVR and 3.6% after SAVR (P = .12). Three-year survival was similar in the study cohorts (TAVR, 85.7%; SAVR, 87.7%; P = .45). Interaction tests found no differences in terms of 3-year survival between the study cohorts in patients younger than vs older than 80 years or in patients who received recent aortic valve prostheses vs those who did not. Conclusions and Relevance: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement using mostly third-generation devices achieved similar short- and mid-term survival compared with SAVR in low-risk patients. Further studies are needed to assess the long-term durability of TAVR prostheses before extending their use to low-risk patients.

6.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(10): 911-920, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare differences in patient characteristics and clinical outcomes of nonagenarians undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) versus patients younger than 90 years of age and to test the predictive accuracy of the logistic EuroSCORE (European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation), the EuroSCORE II, and the STS-PROM (Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality) for mortality after TAVR in nonagenarians. BACKGROUND: The prevalence of severe aortic valve stenosis is increasing due to the rising life expectancy. However, there are limited data evaluating outcomes in patients older than 90 years of age. Moreover, the predictive accuracy of risk scores for mortality has not been evaluated in nonagenarian patients undergoing transfemoral TAVR. METHODS: The CENTER (Cerebrovascular EveNts in Patients Undergoing TranscathetER Aortic Valve Implantation) collaboration (N = 12,381) is an international collaboration consisting of 3 national registries, 6 local or multicenter registries, and 1 prospective clinical study, selected through a systematic online search. The primary endpoint of this study was the difference in 30-day all-cause mortality and stroke after TAVR in nonagenarians versus patients younger than 90 years of age. Secondary endpoints included differences in baseline characteristics, in-hospital outcomes, and the differences in predictive accuracy of the logistic EuroSCORE, the EuroSCORE II, and STS-PROM. RESULTS: A total of 882 nonagenarians and 11,499 patients younger than 90 years of age undergoing transfemoral TAVR between 2007 and 2018 were included. Nonagenarians had considerably fewer comorbidities than their counterparts. Nevertheless, rates of 30-day mortality (9.9% vs. 5.4%; relative risk [RR]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4 to 2.3; p = 0.001), in-hospital stroke (3.0% vs. 1.9%; RR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.3; p = 0.04), major or life-threatening bleeding (8.1% vs. 5.5%; RR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.2; p = 0.004), and new-onset atrial fibrillation (7.9% vs. 5.2%; RR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.2; p = 0.01) were higher in nonagenarians. The STS-PROM adequately estimated mortality in nonagenarians, with an observed-expected mortality ratio of 1.0. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, global, patient-level analysis, mortality after transfemoral TAVR was 2-fold higher in nonagenarians compared with patients younger than 90 years of age, despite the lower prevalence of baseline comorbidities. Moreover, nonagenarians had a higher risk of in-hospital stroke, major or life-threatening bleeding, and new-onset atrial fibrillation. The STS-PROM was the only surgical risk score that accurately predicted the risk of mortality in nonagenarians.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 40(5): 456-465, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590565

RESUMO

Aims: The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of patients undergoing transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with balloon-expandable (BE) valves vs. self-expandable (SE) valves. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a minimally invasive and lifesaving treatment in patients with aortic valve stenosis. Even though BE-valves and SE-valves are both commonly used on a large scale, adequately sized trials comparing clinical outcomes in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis treated with BE-valves compared with SE-valves are lacking. Methods and results: In this CENTER-collaboration, data from 10 registries or clinical trials, selected through a systematic search, were pooled and analysed. Propensity score methodology was used to reduce treatment selection bias and potential confounding. The primary endpoints were mortality and stroke at 30 days follow-up in patients treated with BE-valves compared with SE-valves. Secondary endpoints included clinical outcomes, e.g. bleeding during hospital admission. All outcomes were split for early-generation BE-valves compared with early-generation SE-valves and new-generation BE-valves with new-generation SE-valves. The overall patient population (N = 12 381) included 6239 patients undergoing TAVI with BE-valves and 6142 patients with SE-valves. The propensity matched population had a mean age of 81 ± 7 years and a median STS-PROM score or 6.5% [interquartile range (IQR) 4.0-13.0%]. At 30-day follow-up, the mortality rate was not statistically different in patients undergoing TAVI with BE-valves compared with SE-valves [BE: 5.3% vs. SE: 6.2%, relative risk (RR) 0.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-1.0, P = 0.10]. Stroke occurred less frequently in patients treated with BE-valves (BE: 1.9% vs. SE: 2.6%, RR 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-1.0, P = 0.03). Also, patients treated with BE-valves had a three-fold lower risk of requiring pacemaker implantation (BE: 7.8% vs. SE: 20.3%, RR 0.4; 95% CI 0.3-0.4, P < 0.001). In contrast, patients treated with new-generation BE-valves more frequently experienced major and life-threatening bleedings compared with new-generation SE-valves (BE: 4.8% vs. SE: 2.1%, RR 2.3; 95% CI 1.6-3.3, P < 0.001). Conclusion: In this study, which is the largest study to compare valve types in TAVI, we demonstrated that the incidence of stroke and pacemaker implantation was lower in patients undergoing transfemoral TAVI with BE-valves compared with SE-valves. In contrast, patients treated with new-generation BE-valves more often suffered from major or life-threatening bleedings than patients with new-generation SE-valves. Mortality at 30-days was not statistically different in patients treated with BE-valves compared with SE-valves. This study was a propensity-matched analysis generated from observational data, accordingly current outcomes will have to be confirmed in a large scale randomized controlled trial.

8.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 4(4): 246-257, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939246

RESUMO

Aims: No data exists on inter-institutional differences in terms of adherence to international guidelines regarding the discontinuation of antithrombotics and rates of severe bleeding in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods and results: This is an analysis of 7118 patients from the prospective multicentre European CABG (E-CABG) registry who underwent isolated CABG in 15 European centres. Preoperative pause of P2Y12 receptor antagonists shorter than that suggested by the 2017 ESC guidelines (overall 11.6%) ranged from 0.7% to 24.8% between centres (adjusted P < 0.0001) and increased the rate of severe-massive bleeding [E-CABG bleeding grades 2-3, OR 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-2.17; Universal Definition of Perioperative Bleeding (UDPB) bleeding grades 3-4, OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.16-1.93]. The incidence of resternotomy for bleeding (overall 2.6%) ranged from 0% to 6.9% (adjusted P < 0.0001), and surgical site bleeding (overall 59.6%) ranged from 0% to 84.6% (adjusted P = 0.003). The rate of the UDPB bleeding grades 3-4 (overall 8.4%) ranged from 3.7% to 22.3% (P < 0.0001), and of the E-CABG bleeding grades 2-3 (overall 6.5%) ranged from 0.4% to 16.4% between centres (P < 0.0001). Resternotomy for bleeding (adjusted OR 5.04, 95% CI 2.85-8.92), UDPB bleeding grades 3-4 (adjusted OR 6.61, 95% CI 4.42-9.88), and E-CABG bleeding grades 2-3 (adjusted OR 8.71, 95% CI 5.76-13.15) were associated with an increased risk of hospital/30-day mortality. Conclusions: Adherence to the current guidelines on the early discontinuation of P2Y12 receptor antagonists is of utmost importance to reduce excessive bleeding and early mortality after CABG. Inter-institutional variation should be considered for a correct interpretation of the results in multicentre studies evaluating perioperative bleeding and use of blood products.

9.
Int J Cardiol ; 270: 102-106, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29903519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess clinical outcomes of patients with concomitant severe aortic stenosis (AS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: Data were extracted from the multicenter OBSERVANT study. For the purposes of the present analysis, we included only patients with established stable CAD meeting any of the following inclusion criteria: 1) TAVI patients with CAD undergoing staged PCI or TAVI and PCI in the same session; 2) SAVR patients undergoing combined SAVR and CABG in the same session. RESULTS: After propensity-score matching, a total of 472 patients (236 per group) were identified. Among TAVI patients, PCI was performed prior to the procedure in 217 patients (92.0%), whereas concomitant TAVI and PCI were performed in 19 patients (8.0%). At 3-year, there was no difference in survival between the two groups (KM estimate of freedom from death for SAVR and TAVI patients of 0.742 and 0.650, respectively; log-rank p-value of 0.105). The rate of MACCE was comparable between the two groups (KM estimate of freedom from MACCE for SAVR and TAVI patients of 0.683 and 0.582, respectively; log-rank p-value of 0.115). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with associated severe AS and CAD, percutaneous treatment (TAVR and staged or concomitant PCI) was comparable to surgical treatment (SAVR and concomitant CABG) with respect to the early and mid-term risk of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, stroke and unplanned revascularization.

10.
Platelets ; : 1-7, 2018 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676943

RESUMO

The impact of thrombocytopenia on postoperative bleeding and other major adverse events after cardiac surgery is unclear. This issue was investigated in a series of patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) from the prospective, multicenter E-CABG registry. Preoperative thrombocytopenia was defined as preoperative platelet count <150 × 109/L and it was considered moderate-severe when preoperative platelet count was <100 × 109/L. Multilevel mixed-effects regression analysis was performed to adjust the effect of thrombocytopenia on outcomes for baseline and operative covariates as well as for interinstitutional differences in patient-blood management. Among 7189 patients included in this analysis, 599 (8.3%) had preoperative thrombocytopenia. Patient with preoperative thrombocytopenia had an increased chest drainage output at 12 h (mean, 519 vs. 456 mL, adjusted coeff. 39, 95%CI 18-60) and rates of severe-massive bleeding (Universal Definition of Perioperative Bleeding (UDPB) severity grades 3-4: 12.7% vs. 8.1%, adjusted OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.11-1.93; E-CABG bleeding severity grades 2-3: 10.4% vs. 6.1%, adjusted OR 1.78, 95%CI 1.30-2.43). Thrombocytopenia was associated with an increased risk of hospital/30-day death (3.2% vs. 1.9%, adjusted OR 2.02, 95%CI 1.20-3.42), 1-year death (5.7% vs. 3.4%, adjusted HR 1.68, 95%CI 1.16-2.44), deep sternal wound infection (3.5% vs. 2.4%, adjusted OR 1.65, 95%CI 1.02-2.66), acute kidney injury (28.1% vs. 22.2%, OR 1.45, 1.18-1.78), and prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (mean, 3.6 vs 2.8 days, adjusted coeff. 0.74, 95%CI 0.40-1.09). Similar results were observed in a subset of patients with moderate-severe thrombocytopenia (51 patients, 0.7%). In particular, these patients had a markedly higher rate of acute kidney injury (40%, adjusted OR, 1.94, 95%CI 1.05-3.57), resternotomy for bleeding (7.8%, adjusted OR 3.49, 95%CI 1.20-10.21), and severe-massive bleeding (UDPB severity grades 3-4: 23.5%, adjusted OR 3.08, 95%CI 1.52-6.22; E-CABG bleeding severity grades 2-3: 23.5%, adjusted OR 4.43, 95%CI 2.15-9.15) compared to patients with normal preoperative platelet count. Mild preoperative thrombocytopenia is associated with increased risk of severe-massive bleeding, mortality, and other major adverse events after CABG. Such risks are markedly increased in patients with moderate-severe preoperative thrombocytopenia.

11.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 105(6): 1717-1723, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29410264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bilateral internal mammary artery (BIMA) grafting is increasingly used in elderly patients without evidence of its risks or benefits compared with single internal mammary artery (SIMA) grafting. METHODS: In all, 2,899 patients aged 70 years or older (855 [29.5%] underwent BIMA grafting) operated on from January 2015 to December 2016 and included in the prospective multicenter Outcome After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (E-CABG) study were considered in this analysis. RESULTS: One-to-one propensity matching resulted in 804 pairs with similar preoperative risk profile. Propensity score matched analysis showed that BIMA grafting was associated with a nonstatistically significant increased risk of inhospital death (2.7% versus 1.6%, p = 0.117). The BIMA grafting cohort had a significantly increased risk of any sternal wound infection (7.7% versus 5.1%, p = 0.031) as well as higher risk of deep sternal wound infection/mediastinitis (4.0% versus 2.2%, p = 0.048). The BIMA grafting cohort required more frequently extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (1.0% versus 0.1%, p = 0.02), and the intensive care unit stay (mean 3.6 versus 2.6 days, p < 0.001) and inhospital stay (mean 11.3 versus 10.0 days, p < 0.001) were significantly longer compared with the SIMA grafting cohort. Test for interaction showed that urgent operation in patients undergoing BIMA grafting was associated with higher risk of inhospital death (5.6% versus 1.3%, p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral internal mammary artery grafting in elderly patients seems to be associated with a worse early outcome compared with SIMA grafting, particularly in patients undergoing urgent operation. Until more conclusive results are gathered, BIMA grafting should be reserved only for elderly patients with stable coronary artery disease, without significant baseline comorbidities and with long life expectancy.

12.
Int J Cardiol ; 250: 66-72, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29169764

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for severe aortic stenosis (AS) is the first area of interventional cardiology where women are treated as often as men. In this analysis of the gender specific results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing TAVI with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) we aimed to determine whether gender affects the survival comparison between TAVI and SAVR. We identified all RCTs comparing TAVI versus SAVR for severe AS and reporting 1 and/or 2year survival. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were obtained using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Q statistic and I2. Four RCTs met the criteria, totalling 3758 patients, 1706 women and 2052 men. Amongst females, TAVI recipients had a significantly lower mortality than SAVR recipients, at 1year (OR 0.68; 95%CI 0.50 to 0.94) and at 2years (OR 0.74; 95%CI 0.58 to 0.95). Amongst males there was no difference in mortality between TAVI and SAVR, at 1year (OR 1.09; 95%CI 0.86 to 1.39) or 2years (OR 1.05; 95%CI 0.85 to 1.3). The difference in treatment effect between genders was significant at both 1year (pinteraction=0.02) and 2years (pinteraction=0.04). In women TAVI has a 26 to 31% lower mortality odds than SAVR. In men, there is no difference in mortality between TAVI and SAVR.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Caracteres Sexuais , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/tendências , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Acta Cardiol ; 73(1): 50-59, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28812435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We compared the outcome of anaemic patients undergoing transcatheter (TAVI) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for severe aortic valve stenosis. METHODS: Anaemic patients (haemoglobin <13.0 g/dL in men and <12.0 g/dL in women) undergoing TAVI and SAVR from the OBSERVANT study were the subjects of this analysis. RESULTS: Preoperative anaemia was an independent predictor of 3-year mortality after either TAVI (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.12-1.68) and SAVR (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.37-1.99). Propensity score matching resulted in 302 pairs with similar characteristics. Patients undergoing SAVR had similar 30-d mortality (3.6% versus 3.3%, p = .81) and stroke (1.3% versus 2.0%, p = .53) compared with TAVI. The rates of pacemaker implantation (18.6% versus 3.0%, p < .001), major vascular damage (5.7% versus 0.4%, p < .001) and mild-to-severe paravalvular regurgitation (47.4% versus 9.3%, p < .001) were higher after TAVI, whereas acute kidney injury (50.7% versus 27.9%, p < .001) and blood transfusion (70.0% versus 38.6%, p < .001) were more frequent after SAVR. At 3-year, survival was 74.0% after SAVR and 66.3% after TAVI, respectively (p = .065), and freedom from MACCE was 67.6% after SAVR and 58.7% after TAVI, respectively (p = .049). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that TAVI is not superior to SAVR in patients with anaemia.

14.
Heart Lung Circ ; 2018 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggested that prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) might be more effective than fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to reduce red blood cell (RBC) transfusion requirement after cardiac surgery. METHODS: This is a comparative analysis of 416 patients who received FFP postoperatively and 119 patients who received PCC with or without FFP after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). RESULTS: Mixed-effects regression analyses adjusted for multiple covariates and participating centres showed that PCC significantly decreased RBC transfusion (67.2% vs. 87.5%, adjusted OR 0.319, 95%CI 0.136-0.752) and platelet transfusion requirements (11.8% vs. 45.2%, adjusted OR 0.238, 95%CI 0.097-0.566) compared with FFP. The PCC cohort received a mean of 2.7±3.7 (median, 2.0, IQR 4) units of RBC and the FFP cohort received a mean of 4.9±6.3 (median, 3.0, IQR 4) units of RBC (adjusted coefficient, -1.926, 95%CI -3.357-0.494). The use of PCC increased the risk of KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) acute kidney injury (41.4% vs. 28.2%, adjusted OR 2.300, 1.203-4.400), but not of KDIGO acute kidney injury stage 3 (6.0% vs. 8.0%, OR 0.850, 95%CI 0.258-2.796) when compared with the FFP cohort. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the use of PCC compared with FFP may reduce the need of blood transfusion after CABG.

15.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 18(6 Suppl 1): 14S-26S, 2017 06.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28652629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for the treatment of severe symptomatic aortic stenosis in the last decade in Italy has led to a gradually increasing use of TAVI procedures also in patients potentially eligible for aortic valve replacement (AVR). For this subset of patients, the OBSERVANT study (2011-2012) evaluated the short- and medium term outcome of TAVI vs AVR, at least for the first generations of TAVI devices, but failed to gather information on all the technological innovations occurred in recent years. The launch of a phase II of the study will allow to recruit a new series of TAVI, with different risk profiles compared with the historical OBSERVANT TAVI cohort, in order to assess whether and how much the use of new-generation devices mitigate the differences in outcomes recorded in the OBSERVANT study. METHODS: OBSERVANT II is an observational multicenter, prospective, cohort study collecting data on patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis undergoing TAVI in Italian hospitals since December 15, 2016, for at least 12 months. For each patient, data on demographic characteristics, health status, type of intervention and presence of comorbidities will be collected. Mortality and incidence of in-hospital major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) within 36 months of intervention will be the primary adverse outcome. Secondary outcomes will include 30-day mortality and the incidence of MACCE at 12 and 24 months. The statistical hypotheses were formulated considering the results from the OBSERVANT study. Testing these hypotheses will require the recruitment of at least 823 new TAVI. The risk/propensity-adjustment techniques will be used to comparatively evaluate the effectiveness of TAVI vs AVR. EXPECTED RESULTS: Safety and efficacy profiles of the new-generation TAVI prosthesis; comparative effectiveness of the new TAVI prosthesis as compared to TAVI procedures of the OBSERVANT historical cohort; comparative effectiveness of the new TAVI prosthesis as compared to AVR procedures of the OBSERVANT historical cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The results of OBSERVANT II will provide information on the effectiveness of TAVI employing new-generation devices and will be a valuable support to give professionals and policy makers evidence-based results useful for decision-making processes.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/instrumentação , Determinação de Ponto Final , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Itália , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Seleção de Pacientes , Controle de Qualidade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 51(5): 906-912, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28204140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The prognostic impact of failed mitral valve repair (FMR) on in-hospital outcome after redo mitral valve surgery has not been thoroughly investigated. METHODS: Hospital outcomes after redo mitral valve surgery because of an FMR in patients from nine European centres were reported. Logistic regressions identified predictors of mortality in combined or isolated redo mitral valve operations. Hospital outcome was compared between propensity-matched cohorts with FMR and native mitral valves in the context of redo surgery and FMR versus failed prostheses. RESULTS: A total of 246 patients with FMR yielded a 6.5% mortality rate at redo surgery. FMR per se did not impact mortality at multivariable analysis ( P = 0.64). A preoperative Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) score ≥2 chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) (OR 15.2, P < 0.01), left ventricular ejection fraction <30% (odds ratio (OR) 21.5, P = 0.005), major injury to cardiovascular structures at re-entry (OR 27.2, P < 0.01) or injury to patent left internal mammary artery-coronary artery bypass graft (OR 7.6, P = 0.03) predicted mortality in the whole FMR population. GOLD ≥ 2 COPD (OR 12.3, P = 0.049), age at surgery (OR 1.15 for each incremental year, P = 0.049) and cardiopulmonary bypass duration (OR 1.02, P = 0.022) predicted mortality in isolated redo mitral valve surgery for FMR. The fourth (> 68 years = 13.8% mortality) and the fifth quintiles of age (≥73.4 years = 14.8%) reported the highest mortality (OR 3.8 and 4.2 respectively, P = 0.002) in this subgroup. Propensity-matched cohorts of FMR and native mitral valves in the context of redo surgery showed no differences in terms of mortality ( P = 0.69) and major morbidity (acute myocardial infarction P = 0.31, stroke P = 0.65, acute kidney injury P = 1.0), whereas more perioperative dialysis ( P = 0.04) and transfusions ( P = 0.02) were noted in propensity-matched failed prostheses compared to FMR. CONCLUSIONS: A failed mitral repair does not impact hospital outcome of redo surgery. Given the role of severe left ventricular dysfunction and advanced age on hospital mortality rates, an early indication for redo surgery may improve outcome.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Reoperação , Idoso , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Reoperação/mortalidade , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Heart Vessels ; 32(2): 157-165, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27251569

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of nonagenarians after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) from the OBSERVANT study and to pool the results of the literature on this topic. Aortic stenosis is the most common acquired valvular heart disease in the Western countries, and its prevalence is linked to the phenomenon of population aging. TAVR can be considered as a wise approach to treat nonagenarians, but data on its safety and effectiveness are scarce. Data on 80 patients aged >90 years who underwent TAVR from OBSERVANT study were analyzed. A systematic review and meta-analysis of published data were performed. Thirty-day mortality in the OBSERVANT series was 6.3 %. None of these patients experienced stroke. Permanent pacemaker implantation was necessary in 20 % of patients. Paravalvular regurgitation was observed in 57.5 %. Survival at 1, 2, and 3 years was 79.6, 71.9, and 61.5 %. Ten series provided data on 1227 nonagenarians who underwent TAVR. Pooled 30-day mortality rate was 7.1 %, stroke 2.8 %, vascular access complication 8.8 %, and permanent pacemaker implantation 10.6 %. Paravalvular regurgitation was observed in 60.1 % of patients. Pooled 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 79.2, 68.2, and 55.6 %. Transapical TAVR was associated with a significantly higher risk of early mortality compared with transfemoral TAVR. The results of OBSERVANT study and aggregate data meta-analysis suggest that in nonagenarians, TAVR is associated with low postoperative morbidity and excellent intermediate survival. Transapical TAVR in these very elderly is associated with high postoperative mortality.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Thromb Haemost ; 117(3): 445-456, 2017 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27904903

RESUMO

Severe perioperative bleeding after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is associated with poor outcome. An additive score for prediction of severe bleeding was derived (n=2494) and validated (n=1250) in patients from the E-CABG registry. Severe bleeding was defined as E-CABG bleeding grades 2-3 (transfusion of >4 units of red blood cells or reoperation for bleeding). The overall incidence of severe bleeding was 6.4 %. Preoperative anaemia (3 points), female gender (2 points), eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m2 (3 points), potent antiplatelet drugs discontinued less than five days (2 points), critical preoperative state (5 points), acute coronary syndrome (2 points), use of low-molecular-weight heparin/fondaparinux/unfractionated heparin (1 point) were independent predictors of severe bleeding. The WILL-BLEED score was associated with increasing rates of severe bleeding in both the derivation and validation cohorts (scores 0-3: 2.9 % vs 3.4 %; scores 4-6: 6.8 % vs 7.5 %; scores>6: 24.6 % vs 24.2 %, both p<0.0001). The WILL-BLEED score had a better discriminatory ability (AUC 0.725) for prediction of severe bleeding compared to the ACTION (AUC 0.671), CRUSADE (AUC 0.642), Papworth (AUC 0.605), TRUST (AUC 0.660) and TRACK (AUC 0.640) bleeding scores. The net reclassification index and integrated discrimination improvement using the WILL-BLEED score as opposed to the other bleeding scores were significant (p<0.0001). The decision curve analysis demonstrated a net benefit with the WILL-BLEED score compared to the other bleeding scores. In conclusion, the WILL-BLEED risk score is a simple risk stratification method which allows the identification of patients at high risk of severe bleeding after CABG.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 30(5): 1238-43, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27495961

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcomes of monitored anesthesia care (MAC) compared with general anesthesia (GA) in patients undergoing transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). DESIGN: Secondary analysis from the observational and prospective OBSERVANT (OBservational Study of Effectiveness of avR-taVi procedures for severe Aortic steNosis Treatment) study. SETTING: Multicenter study, including Italian hospitals performing TAVR interventions. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand four hundred ninety-four patients with severe and symptomatic aortic stenosis. INTERVENTIONS: Transfemoral TAVR under general or local anesthesia. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A propensity score procedure was applied, and 310 pairs were matched with similar baseline characteristics (EuroSCORE II: local anesthesia 6.6±5.9% v general anesthesia 7.0±7.7%, p = 0.430). MAC was associated with similar 30-day mortality compared with GA (3.9% v 4.8%, p = 0.564). TAVR was performed under MAC without any increased risk of other adverse events. The risk of paravalvular regurgitation≥mild was similar between the study groups (MAC 49.5% v general anesthesia 57.0%, p = 0.858). Two patients receiving on MAC had severe paravalvular regurgitation, whereas this complication was not observed after GA. Permanent pacemaker implantation was 19.1% in the MAC group v 14.8% in the GA group (p = 0.168). Mean intensive care unit stay was 3.5 days for the GA group v 2.9 days for the MAC group (p = 0.086). A similar 3-year survival rate was observed (MAC 69.4% v GA 69.9%, p = 0.966). CONCLUSIONS: Transfemoral TAVR can be performed under MAC with similar immediate and late outcomes as compared with GA. A possible risk of severe paravalvular regurgitation and pacemaker implantation with TAVR under MAC requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/métodos , Anestesia Local/métodos , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Int J Surg ; 32: 50-7, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27343820

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study was planned to investigate the impact of severe bleeding and blood transfusion on the development of stroke after coronary surgery. METHODS: This cohort study includes 2357 patients undergoing isolated CABG from the prospective European Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (E-CABG) registry. Severity of bleeding was categorized according to the Universal Definition of Perioperative Bleeding (UDPB), E-CABG and PLATO definitions. RESULTS: Thirty patients (1.3%) suffered postoperative stroke. The amount of transfused red blood cell (RBC) (OR 1.10, 95%CI 1.03-1.18), preoperative use of unfractioned heparin (OR 4.49, 95%CI 1.91-10.60), emergency operation (OR 3.97, 95%CI 1.47-10.74), diseased ascending aorta (OR 4.62, 95%CI 1.37-15.65) and use of cardiopulmonary bypass (p = 0.043, OR 4.85, 95%CI 1.05-22.36) were independent predictors of postoperative stroke. Adjusted analysis showed that UDPB classes 3-4 (crude rate: 3.6% vs. 1.0%; adjusted OR 2.66, 95%CI 1.05-6.73), E-CABG bleeding grades 2-3 (crudes rate: 6.3% vs. 0.9%; adjusted OR 5.91, 95%CI 2.43-14.36), and PLATO life-threatening bleeding (crude rate: 2.5% vs. 0.6%, adjusted OR 3.70, 95%CI 1.59-8.64) were associated with an increased risk of stroke compared with no or moderate bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding and blood transfusion are associated with an increased risk of stroke after CABG, which is highest in patients with severe bleeding.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/complicações , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Heparina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
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