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1.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 168(2): 271-6, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25802464

RESUMO

The activity concentrations of (210)Po have been determined in a total of 24 representative diet samples from Seville (south of Spain), inferring from the obtained values the annual intakes of (210)Po by ingestion of the affected population and the corresponding committed effective doses. The annual intakes of (210)Po and, consequently, the corresponding doses of this radionuclide show a high variability in correspondence with the variability in the composition of the analysed samples over time, and their magnitude is comparable with the estimated ones in other regions/countries of the world with similar diet habits (countries where the marine products have a considerable weight in the diets). Committed effective doses by ingestion higher than 0.1 mSv y(-1) have been estimated exclusively for (210)Po, reflecting the importance of this radionuclide and this route of incorporation in the magnitude of the total doses received by the affected population from natural sources.


Assuntos
Dieta , Contaminação Radioativa de Alimentos/análise , Polônio/análise , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioisótopos/análise , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Doses de Radiação , Espanha
4.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 41(10): 795-803, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21689750

RESUMO

The Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata is an important economic pest of potato worldwide. Resistance to organophosphates and carbamates in CPB has been associated in some cases to point mutations in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene Ldace2, an orthologue of Drosophila melanogaster Dmace2. In this paper we report cloning and sequencing of Ldace1, an orthologue of Anopheles gambiae Agace1 that was previously unknown in CPB. The Ldace1 coding enzyme contains all residues conserved in a functionally active AChE. Ldace1 is expressed at higher levels (between 2- and 11-fold) than Ldace2 in embryos, in the four larval instars and in adults. Specific interference of Ldace1 by means of dsRNA injection resulted in a reduction of AChE activity to an approximate 50% compared to control, whilst interference of Ldace2 reduced AChE activity to an approximate 85%. Analysis of zymograms of AChE activity after interference indicates that LdAChE1 is the enzyme predominantly responsible for the activity visualised. Interference of Ldace1 in CPB adults caused a significant increase in mortality (43%) as early as three days post-injection (p.i.), suggesting the essential role of Ldace1. Interference of Ldace2 also caused a significant increase in mortality (29%) compared to control, although at seven days p.i. The effect of the interference of Ldace1 on susceptibility to the organophosphate chlorpyrifos points out that LdAChE1 could be a main target for this insecticide. In the light of our results, studies associating resistance in CPB to mutations in Ldace2 should be reviewed, taking into consideration analysis of the Ldace1 gene.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Besouros/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Inibidores da Colinesterase , Besouros/enzimologia , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Expressão Gênica , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Organofosfatos , Fenótipo , Interferência de RNA , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-79946

RESUMO

El desarrollo y aplicación de las instrucciones previas, como cualquier innovación debería ser cuidadosamente planteado. Si no se hace adecuadamente o se lleva a cabo con precipitación, no será entendida ni por los usuarios ni por los profesionales. Si son consideradas como un proceso y no solo como acto documental; como parte de la ética de la relación clínica y no como acto legal, se convertirán en un recurso fundamental en la relación profesionales de la salud-paciente. El riesgo al que nos enfrentamos es que al igual que ha pasado en algunos casos con el consentimiento informado, transformado en el mero acto de firmar un documento, más o menos elaborado, pero con una utilidad real prácticamente nula, y con el único objetivo de un acto de «medicina defensiva»; los documentos de instrucciones previas, sean entendidos de la misma forma: reduciéndolos a simples documentos firmados, convirtiéndolos en actos de «autonomía defensiva». Esto es, llevados a cabo básicamente por grupos que creen que sus valores y creencias pueden estar en riesgo durante la atención sanitaria, o en previsión de un hipotético encarnizamiento terapéutico. De nada servirán documentos administrativamente muy depurados si el proceso no reúne las características de claridad (entendimiento por parte de todos los involucrados de qué son y para qué sirven), facilidad (establecimiento de procedimientos dialógicos y deliberativos que permitan su cumplimentación y registro de forma sencilla) y utilidad (que cuando sea preciso su uso responda a las expectativas depositadas por el otorgante) (AU)


In our country, there has been a gradual recognition of patients’ rights and their decision autonomy, which has leading to take the form of advance directives through the State Law 41/2002 and the different laws of the Autonomous Regions. But we must emphasize the differences between them.The development and the implementation of the advance directives, as any other innovation, should be carefully planned. If it is not done properly or it is done precipitately, it will not be understood neither the clients/patients nor the health professionals. When the advance directives are considered as a process but not just as a simple document; as part of the ethic in the clinic relationship but not as a legal approach, they will became a key factor in the relationship between health professionals and clients/patients.But we are at the risk to face with the documents of advance directives in the same way what has happened, in some cases, with the informed consent. They can be considered as mere signing documents, without a real value and converting them into simple acts of “defensive medicine”. And they can be considered, mainly, by groups that think their values and believes can be at risk when the health care is delivered. Administratively highly purified documents will not be useful if the process does not meet the following characteristics: clearness (anyone involved in the process must understand what they are and what they are for), simplicity (establishing easy procedures to be carried out and to be recordered) and usefulness (if necessary, their use have to respond to the legitimate expectations of the grantor) (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Testamentos Quanto à Vida/ética , Diretivas Antecipadas/ética , Direitos do Paciente/tendências , Temas Bioéticos , Autonomia Pessoal
8.
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. impr.) ; 36(4): 266-272, abr. 2010. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-79424

RESUMO

En nuestro país, se ha producido un reconocimiento progresivo de los derechos de los pacientes y de su autonomía, desembocando en el derecho a plasmar instrucciones previas, a través de la Ley estatal 41/2002 y de los diferentes desarrollos legislativos de las comunidades autónomas, aunque hay que destacar las diferencias que se aprecian entre ellos. El desarrollo y aplicación de las instrucciones previas, como cualquier innovación debería ser cuidadosamente planteado. Si no se hace adecuadamente o se lleva a cabo con precipitación, no será entendida ni por los usuarios ni por los profesionales. Si son consideradas como un proceso y no solo como acto documental; como parte de la ética de la relación clínica y no como acto legal, se convertirán en un recurso fundamental en la relación profesionales de la salud-paciente. El riesgo al que nos enfrentamos es que al igual que ha pasado en algunos casos con el consentimiento informado, transformado en el mero acto de firmar un documento, más o menos elaborado, pero con una utilidad real prácticamente nula, y con el único objetivo de un acto de «medicina defensiva»; los documentos de instrucciones previas, sean entendidos de la misma forma: reduciéndolos a simples documentos firmados, convirtiéndolos en actos de «autonomía defensiva». Esto es, llevados a cabo básicamente por grupos que creen que sus valores y creencias pueden estar en riesgo durante la atención sanitaria, o en previsión de un hipotético encarnizamiento terapéutico. Resumen: De nada servirán documentos administrativamente muy depurados si el proceso no reúne las características de claridad (entendimiento por parte de todos los involucrados de qué son y para qué sirven), facilidad (establecimiento de procedimientos dialógicos y deliberativos que permitan su cumplimentación y registro de forma sencilla) y utilidad (que cuando sea preciso su uso responda a las expectativas depositadas por el otorgante) (AU)


In our country, there has been a gradual recognition of patients’ rights and their decision autonomy, which has leading to take the form of advance directives through the State Law 41/2002 and the different laws of the Autonomous Regions. But we must emphasize the differences between them. The development and the implementation of the advance directives, as any other innovation, should be carefully planned. If it is not done properly or it is done precipitately, it will not be understood neither the clients/patients nor the health professionals. When the advance directives are considered as a process but not just as a simple document; as part of the ethic in the clinic relationship but not as a legal approach, they will became a key factor in the relationship between health professionals and clients/patients. But we are at the risk to face with the documents of advance directives in the same way what has happened, in some cases, with the informed consent. They can be considered as mere signing documents, without a real value and converting them into simple acts of “defensive medicine”. And they can be considered, mainly, by groups that think their values and believes can be at risk when the health care is delivered. Administratively highly purified documents will not be useful if the process does not meet the following characteristics: clearness (anyone involved in the process must understand what they are and what they are for), simplicity (establishing easy procedures to be carried out and to be recordered) and usefulness (if necessary, their use have to respond to the legitimate expectations of the grantor) (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Bioética/tendências , Testamentos Quanto à Vida/ética , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Autonomia Pessoal , Direitos do Paciente , Legislação como Assunto
9.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 39(12): 913-9, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19900550

RESUMO

Cyclorrhapha insect genomes contain a single acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene while other insects contain at least two ace genes (ace1 and ace2). In this study we tested the hypothesis that the two ace paralogous from Blattella germanica have different contributions to AChE activity, using RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown each one individually. Paralogous-specific depletion of Bgace transcripts was evident in ganglia of injected cockroaches, although the effects at the protein level were less pronounced. Using spectrophotometric and zymogram measurements, we obtained evidence that BgAChE1 represents 65-75% of the total AChE activity in nerve tissue demonstrating that ace1 encodes a predominant AChE. A significant increase in sensitivity of Bgace1-interfered cockroaches was observed after 48 h of exposure to chlorpyrifos. In contrast, Bgace2 knockdown had a negligible effect on mortality to this organophosphate. These results point out a key role, qualitative and/or quantitative, of AChE1 as target of organophosphate insecticides in this species. Silencing the expression of Bgace1 but not Bgace2 also produced an increased mortality in insects when synergized with lambda-cyhalothrin, a situation which resembles the synergistic effects observed between organophosphates and pyrethroids. Gene silencing of ace genes by RNAi offers an exciting approach for examining a possible functional differentiation in ace paralogous.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Blattellidae/enzimologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Interferência de RNA , Animais , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Resistência a Inseticidas
10.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 67(4): 381-4, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17949650

RESUMO

We present the case of a 4-day-old newborn with serious dehydration, polypnea, hypertonus and lethargy. Blood analysis showed severe metabolic acidosis with ketonemia, ketonuria and elevation of the GAP anion. Urine analysis revealed increased excretion of 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyrate acid, tiglycine, and 2-methylacetoacetate acid. Neonatal onset of mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (T2) deficiency is exceptional. Most patients have no clinical symptoms in the neonatal period. This entity should be considered in patients with acute metabolic acidosis and ketosis with normal glycemia and aciduria. The urine contains large amounts of 2-methylacetoacetate and its decarboxylation products. In the neonatal period, this inherited disorder of metabolism can produce severe hydroelectrolyte disorders in the form of a gradual process or acute episodes, which can occasionally be fatal.


Assuntos
Acetil-CoA C-Acetiltransferase/deficiência , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Isoleucina/metabolismo , Corpos Cetônicos/metabolismo , Masculino
11.
An. pediatr. (2003, Ed. impr.) ; 67(4): 381-384, oct. 2007. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-056416

RESUMO

Presentamos el caso de un recién nacido de cuatro días de vida con deshidratación grave, polipnea, hipertonía y letargia. Los exámenes complementarios revelaron una acidosis metabólica grave con cetonemia, cetonuria y aumento del anión GAP. El análisis de orina reveló una excreción aumentada de ácido 2-metil-3-hidroxibutirato, tiglicina y 2-metilacetoacetato. El inicio neonatal del déficit de acetoacetil-CoA tiolasa (T2) es muy infrecuente. En la mayoría de los casos, los pacientes no presentan clínica en el período neonatal. Debemos pensar en esta entidad cuando un paciente presente una acidosis metabólica aguda, cetosis con glucemia normal y aciduria. La orina presenta aumento de las concentraciones de 2-metilacetoacetato y sus productos de descarboxilación. Este error innato del metabolismo en período neonatal puede producir graves alteraciones hidroelectrolíticas en forma de un proceso gradual o agudo que ocasionalmente puede causar la muerte del paciente


We present the case of a 4-day-old newborn with serious dehydration, polypnea, hypertonus and lethargy. Blood analysis showed severe metabolic acidosis with ketonemia, ketonuria and elevation of the GAP anion. Urine analysis revealed increased excretion of 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyrate acid, tiglycine, and 2-methylacetoacetate acid. Neonatal onset of mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (T2) deficiency is exceptional. Most patients have no clinical symptoms in the neonatal period. This entity should be considered in patients with acute metabolic acidosis and ketosis with normal glycemia and aciduria. The urine contains large amounts of 2-methylacetoacetate and its decarboxylation products. In the neonatal period, this inherited disorder of metabolism can produce severe hydroelectrolyte disorders in the form of a gradual process or acute episodes, which can occasionally be fatal


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Coenzima A-Transferases/deficiência , Coenzima A-Transferases/genética , Hipoglicemia/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/enzimologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Corpos Cetônicos/sangue , Infusões Intravenosas , Hipoglicemia/enzimologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 67(3): 240-2, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17785162

RESUMO

Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS) causes almost 10% of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHOM). These entities are frequently located in long bones (femur, tibia and humerus), and only 6-8% of all AHOM are located in the pelvis. This uncommon localization delays diagnosis and can lead to inappropriate management, with negative effects on outcomes. We present the case of a 6-year-old boy with high fever, pain in the right hip and difficulty in walking due to pelvic AHOM and septic shock caused by GAS. We also provide a review of the literature.


Assuntos
Articulação do Quadril , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus pyogenes , Criança , Humanos , Masculino
13.
An. pediatr. (2003, Ed. impr.) ; 67(3): 240-242, sept. 2007. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-055791

RESUMO

El estreptococo betahemolítico del grupo A (SGA) es causante de aproximadamente un 10 % de las osteomielitis de diseminación hematógena (OMDH). Dentro de éstas son frecuentes las localizaciones en huesos largos (fémur, tibia y húmero), siendo las situadas en pelvis inusuales, sólo entre el 6-8% del total de OMDH. Esta rara localización conlleva un diagnóstico tardío y en ocasiones un tratamiento inicial erróneo con una peor evolución clínica y pronóstico final. Presentamos a continuación un paciente varón de 6 años con un cuadro de fiebre elevada, dolor en cadera derecha y dificultad para caminar, que fue una osteomielitis pélvica por SGA asociada a shock séptico y revisamos la literatura especializada


Group A Beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS) causes almost 10 % of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHOM). These entities are frequently located in long bones (femur, tibia and humerus), and only 6-8% of all AHOM are located in the pelvis. This uncommon localization delays diagnosis and can lead to inappropriate management, with negative effects on outcomes. We present the case of a 6-year-old boy with high fever, pain in the right hip and difficulty in walking due to pelvic AHOM and septic shock caused by GAS. We also provide a review of the literature


Assuntos
Masculino , Criança , Humanos , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Infecção Pélvica/diagnóstico , Infecção Pélvica/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico
14.
Rev. esp. pediatr. (Ed. impr.) ; 62(6): 518-519, nov.-dic. 2006. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-114303

RESUMO

La fractura de fémur es una infrecuente lesión obstétrica, se caracteriza por presentarse por diferentes causas ya sean maternas, obstétricas o del feto. Las manifestaciones clínicas pueden pasar desapercibidas en un primer momento, basándose el diagnostico en la sospecha clínica y confirmándose el diagnostico en la sospecha clínica y confirmándose mediante la radiografía. El tratamiento consisten en la inmovilización de la extremidad durante unas 4 semanas, el pronóstico de la lesión es excelente. Prestamos un caso clínico de una fractura de fémur en un recién nacido por cesárea en una gestación gemelar por presentación podálica del primer gemelo (AU)


Fémur fracture is an infrequent obstetrical injury. It is characterterized to appear for different causes: maternal, obstetrical or fetus related. Clinical manifestations of the injury could be unnoticed at a first moment. Diagnose is based in clinical suspicion and confirmed by x-ray. The treatment consists in the immobilization of the extremity during 4 weeks, prognosis is excellent. We present a clinical case of a femur fracture in a new born by a cesarean in a gemelar gestaction caused by a podalic presentation of the first neonate (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Fraturas do Fêmur/congênito , Extração Obstétrica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Imobilização
16.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 19(8): 904-13, 2006 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16903356

RESUMO

Recombination is a frequent phenomenon in RNA viruses whose net result is largely influenced by selective pressures. RNA silencing in plants acts as a defense mechanism against viruses and can be used to engineer virus resistance. Here, we have investigated the influence of RNA silencing as a selective pressure to favor recombinants of PVX-HCT, a chimeric Potato virus X (PVX) vector carrying the helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) gene from Plum pox virus (PPV). All the plants from two lines expressing a silenced HC-Pro transgene were completely resistant to PPV. However a significant proportion became infected with PVX-HCT. Analysis of viral RNAs accumulating in silenced plants revealed that PVX-HCT escaped silencing-based resistance by removal of the HC-Pro sequences that represented preferential targets for transgene-promoted silencing. The virus vector also tended to lose the HC-Pro insert when infecting transgenic plants containing a nonsilenced HC-Pro transgene or wild-type (wt) Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Nevertheless, loss of HC-Pro sequences was faster in nonsilenced transgenic plants than in wt plants, suggesting the transgene plays a role in promoting a higher selective pressure in favor of recombinant virus versions. These results indicate that the outcome of recombination processes depends on the strength of selection pressures applied to the virus.


Assuntos
Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/virologia , Potexvirus/genética , Interferência de RNA , Recombinação Genética , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/anatomia & histologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Vírus Eruptivo da Ameixa/genética , Potexvirus/patogenicidade , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Seleção Genética , Tabaco/anatomia & histologia , Tabaco/fisiologia , Tabaco/virologia , Transgenes , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/fisiologia
18.
Rev. esp. pediatr. (Ed. impr.) ; 61(5): 394-395, sept.-oct. 2005. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-60122

RESUMO

En el diagnóstico diferencial de la urticaria aguda hay que tener en cuenta el síndrome de Baboon, una dermatosis sistémica por inyección, ingestión o inhalación de diferentes sustancias, siendo la más frecuente la inhalación de vapores de mercurio. Aportamos un caso clínico de síndrome de Baboon por inhalación de vapores de mercurio (AU)


In the differential diagnosis of acute urticaria we must keep in mind the Baboon Syndrome, la systemic dermatosis caused by injection (inoculation), ingestion or inhalation of different substances, being the most usual the mercury vapors inhalation. We report a case of Baboon Syndrome by mercury vapors inhalation (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Urticária/diagnóstico , Urticária/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Mercúrio/efeitos adversos , Hidroxizina/uso terapêutico , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Dermatopatias/complicações , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Exantema/complicações , Exantema/diagnóstico , Exantema/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/complicações , Prurido/diagnóstico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico
19.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 5(1): 29-35, 2004 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20565579

RESUMO

SUMMARY A comparative analysis of the synergistic interaction between PVX and either PVY or TEV potyviruses was performed in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum plants. In each PVX/potyvirus combination, doubly infected plants developed much more severe symptoms than singly infected ones. However, while PVX accumulation increased in doubly infected N. tabacum plants compared with singly infected plants, the accumulation of PVX did not vary drastically in doubly infected N. benthamiana plants with respect to single infected ones. These findings suggest that the relationship between viral titre enhancement and synergism in PVX/potyvirus infections is host dependent. Since PVX and potyviruses contain suppressors of a plant antiviral defence system mediated by gene silencing, differences observed in the response of these two related hosts to PVX/potyvirus interactions might reflect the effect of these viruses on host specific antiviral defences.

20.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 16(2): 149-58, 2003 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12575749

RESUMO

Specific post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of target genes can be induced in a variety of organisms by providing homologous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules. In plants, PTGS is part of a defense mechanism against virus infection. We have previously shown and patented that direct delivery to nontransgenic plants of dsRNA derived from viral sequences specifically interfere with virus infection. Here, we show that transient expression of constructs encoding hairpin RNA homologous to a rapidly replicating plant tobamovirus also interferes with virus multiplication in a sequence-dependent manner. A three-day lag period between delivery of hairpin RNA and virus into the same tissues completely block virus infectivity. Several hallmarks characteristic of PTGS were associated with viral interference mediated by hairpin RNA: high level of sequence identity between the hairpin RNA and the target RNA, presence of siRNAs in extracts derived from leaves infiltrated with hairpin RNA, and helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of potyviruses, a suppressor of PTGS, overcame interference. No evidence for a mobile silencing suppression signal induced by transient expression of HC-Pro was observed. The approach described here has the potential to be used as a versatile tool for studying the onset of PTGS in cases involving virus infection, in opposition to dsRNA-transgenic plants, which allow primarily for the study of PTGS maintenance.


Assuntos
Inativação Gênica/fisiologia , Vírus de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/fisiologia , Interferência Viral , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Plantas/virologia , Vírus Eruptivo da Ameixa/genética , Vírus Eruptivo da Ameixa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/química , RNA Viral/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Replicação Viral/genética
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