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Semin Thromb Hemost ; 45(8): 793-801, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614388


Patients with cirrhosis are not only at an increased risk of bleeding but also at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We sought to determine the clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes after VTE in patients with cirrhosis. We used the data from RIETE (Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbolica), an international registry of patients with VTE, to compare the outcomes in patients with and without cirrhosis. Main outcomes included all-cause mortality, pulmonary embolism (PE)-related mortality, recurrent VTE, and bleeding. Among 43,611 patients with acute VTE, 187 (0.4%) had cirrhosis. Of these, 184 (98.4%) received anticoagulation for a median of 109 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 43-201 days), most commonly with enoxaparin (median dose: 1.77 [IQR: 1.38-2.00] mg/kg/day). Compared with patients without cirrhosis, those with cirrhosis had a higher rate of all-cause mortality (10.7 vs. 3.4%; odds ratio [OR]: 3.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.03-5.46) and fatal bleeding (2.1 vs. 0.2%; OR: 13.94; 95% CI: 3.65-37.90) but similar rates of fatal PE (0.5 vs. 0.5%; OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.03-6.70). Patients with cirrhosis had a higher rate of all-cause mortality per 100 patient-years of follow-up (58.9 vs. 16.0; hazard ratio [HR]: 3.70; 95% CI: 2.69-4.91). One-year hazard ratio of clinically relevant bleeding (HR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.91-4.27), fatal bleeding (HR: 8.51; 95% CI: 3.5-20.7), or recurrent VTE (HR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.00-4.36) was higher in patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is a challenging comorbidity in patients with VTE. Most patients were treated with anticoagulation and had an elevated risk of recurrence, similar risk of fatal PE, and a very high risk of bleeding including fatal bleeds.

TH Open ; 2(2): e210-e217, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249944


Background The natural history of patients with lung cancer and venous thromboembolism (VTE) has not been consistently evaluated. Methods We used the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad TromboEmbólica) database to assess the clinical characteristics, time course, and outcomes during anticoagulation of lung cancer patients with acute, symptomatic VTE. Results As of May 2017, a total of 1,725 patients were recruited: 1,208 (70%) presented with pulmonary embolism (PE) and 517 with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Overall, 865 patients (50%) were diagnosed with cancer <3 months before, 1,270 (74%) had metastases, and 1,250 (72%) had no additional risk factors for VTE. During anticoagulation (median, 93 days), 166 patients had symptomatic VTE recurrences (recurrent DVT: 86, PE: 80), 63 had major bleeding (intracranial 11), and 870 died. The recurrence rate was twofold higher than the major bleeding rate during the first month, and over threefold higher beyond the first month. Fifty-seven patients died of PE and 15 died of bleeding. Most fatal PEs (84%) and most fatal bleeds (67%) occurred within the first month of therapy. Nine patients with fatal PE (16%) died within the first 24 hours. Of 72 patients dying of PE or bleeding, 15 (21%) had no metastases and 29 (40%) had the VTE shortly after surgery or immobility. Conclusion Active surveillance on early signs and/or symptoms of VTE in patients with recently diagnosed lung cancer and prescription of prophylaxis in those undergoing surgery or during periods of immobilization might likely help prevent VTE better, detect it earlier, and treat it more efficiently.