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1.
BMC Biol ; 17(1): 76, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The selection pressure exercised by antibiotic drugs is an important consideration for the wise stewardship of antimicrobial treatment programs. Treatment decisions are currently based on crude assumptions, and there is an urgent need to develop a more quantitative knowledge base that can enable predictions of the impact of individual antibiotics on the human gut microbiome and resistome. RESULTS: Using shotgun metagenomics, we quantified changes in the gut microbiome in two cohorts of hematological patients receiving prophylactic antibiotics; one cohort was treated with ciprofloxacin in a hospital in Tübingen and the other with cotrimoxazole in a hospital in Cologne. Analyzing this rich longitudinal dataset, we found that gut microbiome diversity was reduced in both treatment cohorts to a similar extent, while effects on the gut resistome differed. We observed a sharp increase in the relative abundance of sulfonamide antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) by 148.1% per cumulative defined daily dose of cotrimoxazole in the Cologne cohort, but not in the Tübingen cohort treated with ciprofloxacin. Through multivariate modeling, we found that factors such as individual baseline microbiome, resistome, and plasmid diversity; liver/kidney function; and concurrent medication, especially virostatic agents, influence resistome alterations. Strikingly, we observed different effects on the plasmidome in the two treatment groups. There was a substantial increase in the abundance of ARG-carrying plasmids in the cohort treated with cotrimoxazole, but not in the cohort treated with ciprofloxacin, indicating that cotrimoxazole might contribute more efficiently to the spread of resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Our study represents a step forward in developing the capability to predict the effect of individual antimicrobials on the human microbiome and resistome. Our results indicate that to achieve this, integration of the individual baseline microbiome, resistome, and mobilome status as well as additional individual patient factors will be required. Such personalized predictions may in the future increase patient safety and reduce the spread of resistance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02058888 . Registered February 10 2014.

3.
Nature ; 572(7768): 254-259, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316209

RESUMO

Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) often achieve remission after therapy, but subsequently die of relapse1 that is driven by chemotherapy-resistant leukaemic stem cells (LSCs)2,3. LSCs are defined by their capacity to initiate leukaemia in immunocompromised mice4. However, this precludes analyses of their interaction with lymphocytes as components of anti-tumour immunity5, which LSCs must escape to induce cancer. Here we demonstrate that stemness and immune evasion are closely intertwined in AML. Using xenografts of human AML as well as syngeneic mouse models of leukaemia, we show that ligands of the danger detector NKG2D-a critical mediator of anti-tumour immunity by cytotoxic lymphocytes, such as NK cells6-9-are generally expressed on bulk AML cells but not on LSCs. AML cells with LSC properties can be isolated by their lack of expression of NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) in both CD34-expressing and non-CD34-expressing cases of AML. AML cells that express NKG2DLs are cleared by NK cells, whereas NKG2DL-negative leukaemic cells isolated from the same individual escape cell killing by NK cells. These NKG2DL-negative AML cells show an immature morphology, display molecular and functional stemness characteristics, and can initiate serially re-transplantable leukaemia and survive chemotherapy in patient-derived xenotransplant models. Mechanistically, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) represses expression of NKG2DLs. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of PARP1 induces NKG2DLs on the LSC surface but not on healthy or pre-leukaemic cells. Treatment with PARP1 inhibitors, followed by transfer of polyclonal NK cells, suppresses leukaemogenesis in patient-derived xenotransplant models. In summary, our data link the LSC concept to immune escape and provide a strong rationale for targeting therapy-resistant LSCs by PARP1 inhibition, which renders them amenable to control by NK cells in vivo.

4.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(7): 2065-2074, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220256

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We assessed the efficacy and safety of an oral antimicrobial regimen for short- and long-term intestinal eradication of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-EC/KP) in immunocompromised patients. METHODS: We performed a randomized (2:1), double-blind multicentre Phase II study in four haematology-oncology departments. Patients colonized with ESBL-EC/KP received a 7 day antimicrobial regimen of oral colistin (2 × 106 IU 4×/day), gentamicin (80 mg 4×/day) and fosfomycin (three administrations of 3 g every 72 h), or placebo. Faecal, throat and urine specimens were collected on day 0, 6 ± 2, 11 ± 2, 28 ± 4 and 42 ± 4 after treatment initiation, and the quantitative burden of ESBL-EC/KP, resistance genes and changes in intestinal microbiota were analysed. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01931592. RESULTS: As the manufacture of colistin powder was suspended worldwide, the study was terminated prematurely. Overall, 29 (18 verum/11 placebo) out of 47 patients were enrolled. The short-term intestinal eradication was marginal at day 6 (verum group 15/18, 83.3% versus placebo 2/11, 18.2%; relative risk 4.58, 95% CI 1.29-16.33; Fisher's exact test P = 0.001) and not evident at later timepoints. Quantitative analysis showed a significant decrease of intestinal ESBL-EC/KP burden on day 6. Sustained intestinal eradication (day 28 + 42) was not achieved (verum, 38.9% versus placebo, 27.3%; P = 0.299). In the verum group, mcr-1 genes were detected in two faecal samples collected after treatment. Microbiome analysis showed a significant decrease in alpha diversity and a shift in beta diversity. CONCLUSIONS: In this prematurely terminated study of a 7 day oral antimicrobial eradication regimen, short-term ESBL-EC/KP suppression was marginal, while an altered intestinal microbiota composition was clearly apparent.

5.
Neoplasia ; 21(7): 653-664, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132676

RESUMO

The ubiquitin-proteasome system is elementary for cellular protein degradation and gained rising attention as a new target for cancer therapy due to promising clinical trials with bortezomib, the first-in class proteasome inhibitor meanwhile approved for multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. Both bortezomib and next-generation proteasome inhibitors mediate their effects by targeting the 20S core particle of the 26S proteasome. The novel small molecule inhibitor b-AP15 affects upstream elements of the ubiquitin-proteasome cascade by suppressing the deubiquitinase activity of both proteasomal regulatory 19S subunits and showed promising anticancer activity in preclinical models. Nonetheless, effects of inhibitors on the ubiquitin-proteasome system are not exclusively restricted to malignant cells: alteration of natural killer cell-mediated immune responses had already been described for drugs targeting either 19S or 20S proteasomal subunits. Moreover, it has been shown that bortezomib impairs dendritic cell (DC) phenotype and function at different levels. In the present study, we comparatively analyzed effects of bortezomib and b-AP15 on monocyte-derived DCs. In line with previous results, bortezomib exposure impaired maturation, antigen uptake, migration, cytokine secretion and immunostimulation, whereas treatment with b-AP15 had no compromising effects on these DC features. Our findings warrant the further investigation of b-AP15 as an alternative to clinically approved proteasome inhibitors in the therapy of malignancies, especially in the context of combinatorial treatment with DC-based immunotherapies.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782988

RESUMO

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) is a frequent cause of nosocomial outbreaks. In the second half of 2015, a sharp increase in the incidence of VREfm was observed at our university medical center. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to analyze the first isolates of VREfm recovered from patients between 2010 and 2016 (n = 773) in order to decipher epidemiological change, outbreak dynamics, and possible transmission routes. VREfm isolates were analyzed using whole-genome sequencing followed by sequence type extraction and phylogenetic analysis. We examined epidemiological data, room occupancy data, and patient transferals and calculated an intensity score for patient-to-patient contact. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of 38 NGS clusters and 110 single clones. The increase of VREfm was caused mainly by the expansion of two newly introduced NGS clusters, comprising VanB-type strains determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) as sequence type 80 (ST80) and ST117. By combining phylogenetic information with epidemiological data, intrahospital transmission could be demonstrated, however to a lesser extent than initially expected based solely on epidemiological data. The outbreak clones were continuously imported from other hospitals, suggesting a change in the epidemiological situation at a regional scale. By tracking intrahospital patient transferals, two major axes could be identified that contributed to the spread of VREfm within the hospital. NGS-based outbreak analysis revealed a dramatic change in the local and regional epidemiology of VREfm, emphasizing the role of health care networks in the spread of VREfm.

7.
J Vis Exp ; (142)2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582586

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the expansion of malignant B cell clones and represents the most common leukemia in western countries. The majority of CLL patients show an indolent course of the disease as well as an anergic phenotype of their leukemia cells, referring to a B cell receptor unresponsive to external stimulation. We have recently shown that the transcription factor NFAT2 is a crucial regulator of anergy in CLL. A major challenge in the analysis of the role of a transcription factor in different diseases is the identification of its specific target genes. This is of great significance for the elucidation of pathogenetic mechanisms and potential therapeutic interventions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a classic technique to demonstrate protein-DNA interactions and can, therefore, be used to identify direct target genes of transcription factors in mammalian cells. Here, ChIP was used to identify LCK as a direct target gene of NFAT2 in human CLL cells. DNA and associated proteins are crosslinked using formaldehyde and subsequently sheared by sonication into DNA fragments of approximately 200-500 base pairs (bp). Cross-linked DNA fragments associated with NFAT2 are then selectively immunoprecipitated from cell debris using an αNFAT2 antibody. After purification, associated DNA fragments are detected via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). DNA sequences with evident enrichment represent regions of the genome which are targeted by NFAT2 in vivo. Appropriate shearing of the DNA and the selection of the required antibody are particularly crucial for the successful application of this method. This protocol is ideal for the demonstration of direct interactions of NFAT2 with target genes. Its major limitation is the difficulty to employ ChIP in large-scale assays analyzing the target genes of multiple transcription factors in intact organisms.


Assuntos
Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina/métodos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/genética , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética
8.
Neoplasia ; 20(11): 1150-1160, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300827

RESUMO

OX40 and its ligand are members of the TNF/TNF receptor superfamily, which includes various molecules influencing cellular signaling and function of both tumor and immune cells. The ability of OX40 to promote proliferation and differentiation of activated T cells fueled present attempts to modulate this immune checkpoint to reinforce antitumor immunity. While we recently found evidence for the involvement of OX40 in pathophysiology of acute myeloid leukemia including natural killer (NK) cell immunosurveillance, less is known on its role in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In the present study, OX40 expression on ALL cells was significantly associated with positivity for the adverse risk factor BCR-ABL. In line, signaling via OX40 increased metabolic activity of primary ALL cells and resulted in release of cytokines involved in disease pathophysiology. Furthermore, interaction of ALL-expressed OX40 with its cognate ligand on NK cells stimulated ALL cell lysis. The data presented thus not only identify the yet unknown involvement of OX40/OX40L in ALL pathophysiology and NK cell immunosurveillance but also point to the necessity to thoroughly consider the consequences of modulating the OX40/OX40L molecule system beyond its effects on T cells when developing OX40-targeting approaches for cancer immunotherapy.

10.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 67(6): 935-947, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556699

RESUMO

The first therapeutic proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has clinical efficacy in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) which resulted in its incorporation in treatment algorithms for this disease. Impairment of proteasomal function by bortezomib is mediated via inhibition of the 20S core particle. However, proteasome function can also be modified by targeting upstream components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Recently, b-AP15 has been identified as a small molecule achieving proteasome inhibition by targeting the deubiquitinase (DUB) activity of the 19S regulatory subunit and was found to inhibit cancer cell growth in preclinical analyses. In the present study, both direct antitumor effects and the possibility to induce natural killer group 2 member D ligands (NKG2DL) to reinforce NK cell immunity with b-AP15 were investigated to provide a rational basis for clinical evaluation of this novel DUB inhibitor in MCL. Treatment with b-AP15 resulted in reduced viability as well as induction of apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which could be attributed to caspase activation in MCL cells. In addition, treatment with b-AP15 differentially induced NKG2DL expression and subsequent NK cell lysis of MCL cells. These results indicate that the DUB inhibitor b-AP15 displays substantial antitumor activity in human MCL and suggest that b-AP15 might be a novel therapeutic option in the treatment of MCL that warrants clinical investigation.

11.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 67(5): 775-783, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29468363

RESUMO

In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), the translocation t(9;22) results in the fusion protein BCR-ABL (breakpoint cluster region-abelson murine leukemia), a tyrosine kinase mediating oncogenic signaling which is successfully targeted by treatment with BCR-ABL inhibitors like imatinib. However, BCR-ABL inhibitors may also affect antitumor immunity. For instance, it was reported that imatinib impairs the function of dendritic cells (DCs) that play a central role in initiating and sustaining T cell responses. Meanwhile, second generation BCR-ABL inhibitors like nilotinib, which inhibits BCR-ABL with enhanced potency have become standard of treatment, at least in patients with BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations. In this study we analyzed the influence of therapeutic concentrations of nilotinib on human monocyte-derived DCs and compared its effects to imatinib. We found that both tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) comparably and significantly impaired differentiation of monocytes to DCs as revealed by curtated downregulation of CD14 and reduced upregulation of CD1a and CD83. This was only partially restored after withdrawal of the TKI. Moreover, both TKI significantly reduced activation-induced IL-12p70 and C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL) 3 secretion, while divergent TKI effects for CCL2 and CCL5 were observed. In contrast, only nilotinib significantly impaired the migratory capacity of DCs and their capacity to induce T-cell immune responses in MLRs. Our results indicate that imatinib and nilotinib may differ significantly with regard to their influence on antitumor immunity. Thus, for future combinatory approaches and particularly stop studies in CML treatment, choice of the most suitable BCR-ABL inhibitor requires careful consideration.

12.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 6(2): 209-221, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321210

RESUMO

The TNF receptor family member OX40 promotes activation and proliferation of T cells, which fuels efforts to modulate this immune checkpoint to reinforce antitumor immunity. Besides T cells, NK cells are a second cytotoxic lymphocyte subset that contributes to antitumor immunity, particularly in leukemia. Accordingly, these cells are being clinically evaluated for cancer treatment through multiple approaches, such as adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded polyclonal NK cells (pNKC). Here, we analyzed whether and how OX40 and its ligand (OX40L) influence NK-cell function and antileukemia reactivity. We report that OX40 is expressed on leukemic blasts in a substantial percentage of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and that OX40 can, after stimulation with agonistic OX40 antibodies, mediate proliferation and release of cytokines that act as growth and survival factors for the leukemic cells. We also demonstrate that pNKC differentially express OX40L, depending on the protocol used for their generation. OX40L signaling promoted NK-cell activation, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity, and disruption of OX40-OX40L interaction impaired pNKC reactivity against primary AML cells. Together, our data implicate OX40/OX40L in disease pathophysiology of AML and in NK-cell immunosurveillance. Our findings indicate that effects of the OX40-OX40L receptor-ligand system in other immune cell subsets and also malignant cells should be taken into account when developing OX40-targeted approaches for cancer immunotherapy. Cancer Immunol Res; 6(2); 209-21. ©2018 AACR.

13.
Mycoses ; 61(4): 256-260, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178247

RESUMO

Isavuconazole is a novel antifungal drug approved for the treatment of adults with invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. While azoles as a class effect are known to prolong QTc interval, clinical trials have shown that isavuconazole administration may cause shortening in a dose-related manner. Here, we assessed the effects of isavuconazole on the length of QTc interval. The objective of the study was to describe changes in the QTc interval induced by isavuconazole treatment. A total of 26 adult patients from 7 hospitals were included. Patients received isavuconazole for the treatment of invasive fungal infection and, in 1 case, for prophylaxis due to QTc prolongation under fluconazole. Twelve-channel electrocardiograms (ECGs) were performed before and during treatment. Out of 26 patients, 24 showed shortening of QTc interval. In patients with QTc shortening, QTc during isavuconazole treatment showed a mean decrease of 7.4 ± 5.8% (36.5 ± 38.8 ms, range 7-202; P = .004), compared to pre-isavuconazole ECG. One patient with available long-term follow-up showed further decrease in QTc on days 55 and 110. Apart from 1 case report, these are the first data outside controlled clinical trials showing QTc shortening. Knowledge about cardiac effects of isavuconazole will serve to better manage the use of concomitant medications.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilos/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Triazóis/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Nitrilos/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Triazóis/administração & dosagem
14.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 859, 2017 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29126393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas putida is a Gram-negative, non-fermenting bacterium frequently encountered in various environmental niches. P. putida rarely causes disease in humans, though serious infections and outbreaks have been reported from time to time. Some have suggested that P. putida functions as an exchange platform for antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), and thus represents a serious concern in the spread of ARGs to more pathogenic organisms within a hospital. Though poorly understood, the frequency of ARG exchange between P. putida and the more virulent Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its clinical relevance are particularly important for designing efficient infection control strategies, such as deciding whether high-risk patients colonized with a multidrug resistant but typically low pathogenic P. putida strain should be contact isolated or not. RESULTS: In this study, 21,373 screening samples (stool, rectal and throat swab) were examined to determine the presence of P. putida in a high-risk group of haemato-oncology patients during a 28-month period. A total of 89 P. putida group strains were isolated from 85 patients, with 41 of 89 (46.1%) strains harbouring the metallo-beta-lactamase gene bla VIM. These 41 clinical isolates, plus 18 bla VIM positive environmental P. putida isolates, and 17 bla VIM positive P. aeruginosa isolates, were characterized by whole genome sequencing (WGS). We constructed a maximum-likelihood tree to separate the 59 bla VIM positive P. putida group strains into eight distinct phylogenetic clusters. Bla VIM-1 was present in 6 clusters while bla VIM-2 was detected in 4 clusters. Five P. putida group strains contained both, bla VIM-1 and bla VIM-2 genes. In contrast, all P. aeruginosa strains belonged to a single genetic cluster and contained the same ARGs. Apart from bla VIM-2 and sul genes, no other ARGs were shared between P. aeruginosa and P. putida. Furthermore, the bla VIM-2 gene in P. aeruginosa was predicted to be only chromosomally located. CONCLUSION: These data provide evidence that no exchange of comprehensive ARG harbouring mobile genetic elements had occurred between P. aeruginosa and P. putida group strains during the study period, thus eliminating the need to implement enhanced infection control measures for high-risk patients colonized with a bla VIM positiv P. putida group strains in our clinical setting.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Meio Ambiente , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genômica , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas putida/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Pseudomonas putida/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas putida/fisiologia
15.
Ann Hematol ; 96(5): 817-827, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28247058

RESUMO

Disease relapse after one or more allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCT) represents a therapeutic challenge with all options bearing a significant morbidity and mortality. Haploidentical HCT may induce more pronounced anti-leukemic effects and was evaluated at our center in 25 consecutive patients with disease relapse after preceding HCT receiving haploidentical grafts after in vitro T cell depletion. Overall survival at 1 and 2 years was 32 and 14%, respectively. Of note, patients with complete remission (CR) before haploidentical HCT had a very favorable overall survival of 41.7% at 2 years. Cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality was 36 and 40% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. With a cumulative incidence for relapse of 36 and 45.6% at 1 and 2 years, disease-free survival (DFS) was 28 and 14.4%, respectively. Here also, patients with CR before haploidentical HCT had a favorable DFS of 42% at 2 years. Only very limited acute (11 patients (44%) with a median grade 1) and chronic graft versus host disease (GvHD) (5 patients (11%), limited grade only) was observed. The main complications and causes of death comprised-besides relapse-infections and bleeding complications. Hence, haploidentical HCT can achieve long-term survival comparable to second transplantation with matched or mismatched donors for patients with otherwise deleterious prognosis and should be considered as a treatment option for patients experiencing disease relapse after previous allogeneic HCT.


Assuntos
Haplótipos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Depleção Linfocítica , Adolescente , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/imunologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia/complicações , Leucemia/diagnóstico , Leucemia/mortalidade , Leucemia/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Recidiva , Retratamento , Terapia de Salvação , Linfócitos T , Doadores de Tecidos , Quimeras de Transplante , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cell Commun Signal ; 13: 19, 2015 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25889792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APC) with the unique ability to activate naïve T cells and to initiate and maintain primary immune responses. Immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory stimuli on DC such as the cytokine IL-10 suppress the activity of the transcription factor NF-κB what results in downregulation of costimulatory molecules, MHC and cytokine production. Glycoprotein NMB (GPNMB) is a transmembrane protein, which acts as a coinhibitory molecule strongly inhibiting T cell responses if present on APC. Interestingly, its expression on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) is dramatically upregulated upon treatment with IL-10 but also by the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) imatinib, nilotinib or dasatinib used for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for GPNMB overexpression are yet unknown. RESULTS: The immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 and the BCR-ABL TKI imatinib or nilotinib, that were examined here, concordantly inhibit the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, thereby activating the downstream serine/threonine protein kinase GSK3ß, and subsequently the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) that is phosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus. Treatment of moDC with a small molecule inhibitor of MITF activity reduced the expression of GPNMB at the level of mRNA and protein, indicating that GPNMB expression is in fact facilitated by MITF activation. In line with these findings, PI3K/Akt inhibition was found to result in GPNMB overexpression accompanied by reduced stimulatory capacity of moDC in mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) with allogeneic T cells that could be restored by addition of the GPNMB T cell ligand syndecan-4 (SD-4). CONCLUSIONS: In summary, imatinib, nilotinib or IL-10 congruently inhibit the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway thereby activating MITF in moDC, resulting in a tolerogenic phenotype. These findings extend current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms balancing activating and inhibitory signals in human DC and may facilitate the targeted manipulation of T cell responses in the context of DC-based immunotherapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/biossíntese , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib , Interleucina-10/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia
19.
J Transl Med ; 9: 151, 2011 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21910911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active dendritic cell (DC) immunization protocols are rapidly gaining interest as therapeutic options in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here we present for the first time a GMP-compliant 3-day protocol for generation of monocyte-derived DCs using different synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in intensively pretreated patients with AML. METHODS: Four different maturation cocktails were compared for their impact on cell recovery, phenotype, cytokine secretion, migration, and lymphocyte activation in 20 AML patients and 25 healthy controls. RESULTS: Maturation cocktails containing the TLR7/8 agonists R848 or CL075, with and without the addition of the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C), induced DCs that had a positive costimulatory profile, secreted high levels of IL-12(p70), showed chemotaxis to CCR7 ligands, had the ability to activate NK cells, and efficiently stimulated antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that this approach translates into biologically improved DCs, not only in healthy controls but also in AML patients. This data supports the clinical application of TLR-matured DCs in patients with AML for activation of innate and adaptive immune responses.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Receptores Toll-Like/agonistas , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CCL19/farmacologia , Quimiotaxia/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Indução de Remissão , Fatores de Tempo , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cancer Res ; 66(11): 5910-8, 2006 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16740731

RESUMO

A phase I trial was conducted to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a dendritic cell-based vaccination in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Autologous mature dendritic cells derived from peripheral blood monocytes were pulsed with the HLA-A2-binding MUC1 peptides (M1.1 and M1.2). For the activation of CD4(+) T-helper lymphocytes, dendritic cells were further incubated with the PAN-DR-binding peptide PADRE. Dendritic cell vaccinations were done s.c. every 2 weeks for four times and repeated monthly until tumor progression. After five dendritic cell injections, patients additionally received three injections weekly of low-dose interleukin-2 (1 million IE/m(2)). The induction of vaccine-induced T-cell responses was monitored using enzyme-linked immunospot and Cr release assays. Twenty patients were included. The treatment was well tolerated with no severe side effects. In six patients, regression of the metastatic sites was induced after vaccinations with three patients achieving an objective response (one complete response, two partial responses, two mixed responses, and one stable disease). Additional four patients were stable during the treatment for up to 14 months. MUC1 peptide-specific T-cell responses in vivo were detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the six patients with objective responses. Interestingly, in patients responding to the treatment, T-cell responses to antigens not used for vaccinations, such as adipophilin, telomerase, or oncofetal antigen, could be detected, indicating that epitope spreading might occur. This study shows that MUC1 peptide-pulsed dendritic cells can induce clinical and immunologic responses in patients with metastatic RCC.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Mucinas/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Feminino , Antígeno HLA-A2/imunologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Vacinas Antimaláricas/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucina-1 , Linfócitos T/imunologia
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