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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(7): 2457-2463, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149522

RESUMO

The simplest molecular dimer, H2-H2, poses a challenge to both experiment and theory as a system with a multidimensional energy surface that supports only a single weakly bound quantum state. Here, we provide a direct experimental image of the structure of hydrogen dimers [(H2)2, H2-D2, and (D2)2] obtained via femtosecond laser-induced Coulomb explosion imaging. Our results indicate that hydrogen dimers are not restricted to a particular geometry but rather occur as a mixture of all possible configurations. The measured intermolecular distance distributions were used to deduce the isotropic intermolecular potential as well as the binding energies of the dimers.

2.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(30): 6491-6495, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329435

RESUMO

The investigation of the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) in the strong field regime (800 nm, 6.9 × 1013 W/cm2) on methyloxirane (MOX) reveals a flip of the sign of PECD between different fragmentation channels. This finding is of great importance for future experiments and applications in chemistry or pharmacy using PECD in the strong field regime as analysis method. We suggest that the observed sign change of PECD is not caused by ionization from different orbitals but by effectively selecting differently oriented nonisotropic subsamples of molecules via the fragmentation channel.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1, 2019 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602773

RESUMO

Wave-particle duality is an inherent peculiarity of the quantum world. The double-slit experiment has been frequently used for understanding different aspects of this fundamental concept. The occurrence of interference rests on the lack of which-way information and on the absence of decoherence mechanisms, which could scramble the wave fronts. Here, we report on the observation of two-center interference in the molecular-frame photoelectron momentum distribution upon ionization of the neon dimer by a strong laser field. Postselection of ions, which are measured in coincidence with electrons, allows choosing the symmetry of the residual ion, leading to observation of both, gerade and ungerade, types of interference.

4.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 72(6): 384-388, 2018 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29941073

RESUMO

It is a particularly challenging task in stereochemistry to determine the absolute configuration of chiral molecules, i.e. to assign to a given sample the microscopic enantiomeric structure. In recent years, Coulomb Explosion Imaging (CEI) has been shown to yield directly the absolute configuration of small molecules in the gas phase. This contribution describes the experimental basics of this approach, highlights the most significant results and discusses limitations. A short discussion on extending Coulomb Explosion Imaging beyond analytic aspects to fundamental questions of molecular chirality concludes this review.

5.
J Vis Exp ; (126)2017 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28872134

RESUMO

This article shows how the COLTRIMS (Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) or the "reaction microscope" technique can be used to distinguish between enantiomers (stereoisomers) of simple chiral species on the level of individual molecules. In this approach, a gaseous molecular jet of the sample expands into a vacuum chamber and intersects with femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. The high intensity of the pulses leads to fast multiple ionization, igniting a so-called Coulomb Explosion that produces several cationic (positively charged) fragments. An electrostatic field guides these cations onto time- and position-sensitive detectors. Similar to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, the arrival time of each ion yields information on its mass. As a surplus, the electrostatic field is adjusted in a way that the emission direction and the kinetic energy after fragmentation lead to variations in the time-of-flight and in the impact position on the detector. Each ion impact creates an electronic signal in the detector; this signal is treated by high-frequency electronics and recorded event by event by a computer. The registered data correspond to the impact times and positions. With these data, the energy and the emission direction of each fragment can be calculated. These values are related to structural properties of the molecule under investigation, i.e. to the bond lengths and relative positions of the atoms, allowing to determine molecule by molecule the handedness of simple chiral species and other isomeric features.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Halogenados/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Estereoisomerismo
6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(13): 2780-2786, 2017 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28582620

RESUMO

Most large molecules are chiral in their structure: they exist as two enantiomers, which are mirror images of each other. Whereas the rovibronic sublevels of two enantiomers are almost identical (neglecting a minuscular effect of the weak interaction), it turns out that the photoelectric effect is sensitive to the absolute configuration of the ionized enantiomer. Indeed, photoionization of randomly oriented enantiomers by left or right circularly polarized light results in a slightly different electron flux parallel or antiparallel with respect to the photon propagation direction-an effect termed photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD). Our comprehensive study demonstrates that the origin of PECD can be found in the molecular frame electron emission pattern connecting PECD to other fundamental photophysical effects such as the circular dichroism in angular distributions (CDAD). Accordingly, distinct spatial orientations of a chiral molecule enhance the PECD by a factor of about 10.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(51): 14651-14655, 2016 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27930299

RESUMO

Quantum tunneling is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature and crucial for many technological applications. It allows quantum particles to reach regions in space which are energetically not accessible according to classical mechanics. In this "tunneling region," the particle density is known to decay exponentially. This behavior is universal across all energy scales from nuclear physics to chemistry and solid state systems. Although typically only a small fraction of a particle wavefunction extends into the tunneling region, we present here an extreme quantum system: a gigantic molecule consisting of two helium atoms, with an 80% probability that its two nuclei will be found in this classical forbidden region. This circumstance allows us to directly image the exponentially decaying density of a tunneling particle, which we achieved for over two orders of magnitude. Imaging a tunneling particle shows one of the few features of our world that is truly universal: the probability to find one of the constituents of bound matter far away is never zero but decreases exponentially. The results were obtained by Coulomb explosion imaging using a free electron laser and furthermore yielded He2's binding energy of [Formula: see text] neV, which is in agreement with most recent calculations.

8.
Chemphyschem ; 17(16): 2465-72, 2016 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27298209

RESUMO

The absolute configuration of individual small molecules in the gas phase can be determined directly by light-induced Coulomb explosion imaging (CEI). Herein, this approach is demonstrated for ionization with a single X-ray photon from a synchrotron light source, leading to enhanced efficiency and faster fragmentation as compared to previous experiments with a femtosecond laser. In addition, it is shown that even incomplete fragmentation pathways of individual molecules from a racemic CHBrClF sample can give access to the absolute configuration in CEI. This leads to a significant increase of the applicability of the method as compared to the previously reported complete break-up into atomic ions and can pave the way for routine stereochemical analysis of larger chiral molecules by light-induced CEI.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(14): 143006, 2016 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27104706

RESUMO

The dynamics of ultraslow electrons in the combined potential of an ionic core and a static electric field is discussed. With state-of-the-art detection it is possible to create such electrons through strong intense-field photoabsorption and to detect them via high-resolution time-of-flight spectroscopy despite their very low kinetic energy. The characteristic feature of their momentum spectrum, which emerges at the same position for different laser orientations, is derived and could be revealed experimentally with an energy resolution of the order of 1 meV.

10.
Science ; 348(6234): 551-5, 2015 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25931554

RESUMO

Quantum theory dictates that upon weakening the two-body interaction in a three-body system, an infinite number of three-body bound states of a huge spatial extent emerge just before these three-body states become unbound. Three helium (He) atoms have been predicted to form a molecular system that manifests this peculiarity under natural conditions without artificial tuning of the attraction between particles by an external field. Here we report experimental observation of this long-predicted but experimentally elusive Efimov state of (4)He3 by means of Coulomb explosion imaging. We show spatial images of an Efimov state, confirming the predicted size and a typical structure where two atoms are close to each other while the third is far away.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 114(14): 143001, 2015 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25910115

RESUMO

We investigate electron momentum distributions from single ionization of Ar by two orthogonally polarized laser pulses of different color. The two-color scheme is used to experimentally control the interference between electron wave packets released at different times within one laser cycle. This intracycle interference pattern is typically hard to resolve in an experiment. With the two-color control scheme, these features become the dominant contribution to the electron momentum distribution. Furthermore, the second color can be used for streaking of the otherwise interfering wave packets establishing a which-way marker. Our investigation shows that the visibility of the interference fringes depends on the degree of the which-way information determined by the controllable phase between the two pulses.

12.
Science ; 341(6150): 1096-100, 2013 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24009390

RESUMO

Bijvoet's method, which makes use of anomalous x-ray diffraction or dispersion, is the standard means of directly determining the absolute (stereochemical) configuration of molecules, but it requires crystalline samples and often proves challenging in structures exclusively comprising light atoms. Herein, we demonstrate a mass spectrometry approach that directly images the absolute configuration of individual molecules in the gas phase by cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy after laser ionization-induced Coulomb explosion. This technique is applied to the prototypical chiral molecule bromochlorofluoromethane and the isotopically chiral methane derivative bromodichloromethane.

13.
Opt Express ; 21(6): 6826-36, 2013 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23546064

RESUMO

We compare different tilted-pulse-front pumping schemes for single-cycle THz generation in LiNbO(3) crystals both theoretically and experimentally in terms of conversion efficiency. The conventional setup with a single lens as an imaging element has been found to be highly inefficient in the case of sub-50 fs pump pulses, mainly due to the resulting chromatic aberrations. These aberrations are avoided in the proposed new setup, which employs two concave mirrors in a Keplerian telescope arrangement as the imaging sequence. This partially compensates spherical aberrations and results in a ca. six times higher conversion efficiency in the case of 35-fs optical pump pulse duration compared to the single-lens setup. A THz field strength of 60 kV/cm was obtained using 0.5 mJ pump pulses. The divergence of the THz beam has been found experimentally to depend on the pump imaging scheme employed.


Assuntos
Lasers de Estado Sólido , Nióbio/química , Óxidos/química , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Radiação Terahertz
14.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 83(10): 103905, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23126780

RESUMO

We present a new experimental setup to study electron-electron coincidences from superconducting surfaces. In our approach, electrons emitted from a surface are projected onto a time- and position-sensitive microchannel plate detector with delayline position readout. Electrons that are emitted within 2 π solid angle with respect to the surface are detected in coincidence. The detector used is a hexagonal delayline detector with enhanced multiple hit capabilities. It is read out with a Flash analog-to-digital converter. The three-dimensional momentum vector is obtained for each electron. The intrinsic dead time of the detector has been greatly reduced by implementing a new algorithm for pulse analysis. The sample holder has been matched to fit the spectrometer while being capable of cooling down the sample to 4.5 K during the measurement and heating it up to 420 K for the cleaning procedure.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Análise Espectral/instrumentação , Condutividade Elétrica , Imagem Óptica
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 108(29): 11821-4, 2011 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21730184

RESUMO

Radiation damage to living tissue stems not only from primary ionizing particles but to a substantial fraction from the dissociative attachment of secondary electrons with energies below the ionization threshold. We show that the emission yield of those low energy electrons increases dramatically in ion-atom collisions depending on whether or not the target atoms are isolated or embedded in an environment. Only when the atom that has been ionized and excited by the primary particle impact is in immediate proximity of another atom is a fragmentation route known as interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) enabled. This leads to the emission of a low energy electron. Over the past decade ICD was explored in several experiments following photoionization. Most recent results show its observation even in water clusters. Here we show the quantitative role of ICD for the production of low energy electrons by ion impact, thus approaching a scenario closer to that of radiation damage by alpha particles: We choose ion energies on the maximum of the Bragg peak where energy is most efficiently deposited in tissue. We compare the electron production after colliding He(+) ions on isolated Ne atoms and on Ne dimers (Ne(2)). In the latter case the Ne atom impacted is surrounded by a most simple environment already opening ICD as a deexcitation channel. As a consequence, we find a dramatically enhanced low energy electron yield. The results suggest that ICD may have a significant influence on cell survival after exposure to ionizing radiation.


Assuntos
Partículas alfa , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Elétrons , Hélio/química , Neônio/química , Análise Espectral
16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 105(17): 173401, 2010 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21231042

RESUMO

The interatomic electronic decay after inner-valence ionization of a neon atom by a single photon in a neon-helium dimer is investigated. The excited neon atom relaxes via interatomic Coulombic decay and the excess energy is transferred to the helium atom and ionizes it. We show that the decay process is only possible if the dimer's bond stretches up to 6.2 Å, i.e., to more than twice the equilibrium interatomic distance of the neutral dimer. Thus, it is demonstrated that the electronic decay, taking place at such long distances, is driven by the nuclear motion.

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