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1.
Transfusion ; 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a frequent habit across blood donors (approx. 13% of the donor population), that could compound biologic factors and exacerbate oxidant stress to stored red blood cells (RBCs). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: As part of the REDS-III RBC-Omics (Recipient Epidemiology Donor Evaluation Study III Red Blood Cell-Omics) study, a total of 599 samples were sterilely drawn from RBC units stored under blood bank conditions at Storage Days 10, 23, and 42 days, before testing for hemolysis parameters and metabolomics. Quantitative measurements of nicotine and its metabolites cotinine and cotinine oxide were performed against deuterium-labeled internal standards. RESULTS: Donors whose blood cotinine levels exceeded 10 ng/mL (14% of the tested donors) were characterized by higher levels of early glycolytic intermediates, pentose phosphate pathway metabolites, and pyruvate-to-lactate ratios, all markers of increased basal oxidant stress. Consistently, increased glutathionylation of oxidized triose sugars and lipid aldehydes was observed in RBCs donated by nicotine-exposed donors, which were also characterized by increased fatty acid desaturation, purine salvage, and methionine oxidation and consumption via pathways involved in oxidative stress-triggered protein damage-repair mechanisms. CONCLUSION: RBCs from donors with high levels of nicotine exposure are characterized by increases in basal oxidant stress and decreases in osmotic hemolysis. These findings indicate the need for future clinical studies aimed at addressing the impact of smoking and other sources of nicotine (e.g., nicotine patches, snuff, vaping, secondhand tobacco smoke) on RBC storage quality and transfusion efficacy.

2.
Transfusion ; 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) storage in the blood bank is associated with the progressive accumulation of oxidant stress. While the mature erythrocyte is well equipped to cope with such stress, recreative habits like alcohol consumption may further exacerbate the basal level of oxidant stress and contribute to the progress of the storage lesion. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: RBC levels of ethyl glucuronide, a marker of alcohol consumption, were measured via ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Analyses were performed on 599 samples from the recalled donor population at Storage Days 10, 23, and 42 (n = 250), as part of the REDS-III RBC-Omics (Recipient Epidemiology Donor Evaluation Study III Red Blood Cell-Omics) study. This cohort consisted of the 5th and 95th percentile of donors with extreme hemolytic propensity out of the original cohort of 13,403 subjects enrolled in the REDS-III RBC Omics study. Ehtyl glucuronide levels were thus correlated to global metabolomics and lipidomics analyses and RBC hemolytic propensity. RESULTS: Ethyl glucuronide levels were positively associated with oxidant stress markers, including glutathione consumption and turnover, methionine oxidation, S-adenosylhomocysteine accumulation, purine oxidation, and transamination markers. Decreases in glycolysis and energy metabolism, the pentose phosphate pathway and ascorbate system were observed in those subjects with the highest levels of ethyl glucuronide, though hemolysis values were comparable between groups. CONCLUSION: Though preliminary, this study is suggestive that markers of alcohol consumption are associated with increases in oxidant stress and decreases in energy metabolism with no significant impact on hemolytic parameters in stored RBCs from healthy donor volunteers.

3.
JCI Insight ; 5(10)2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434995

RESUMO

Insufficient O2 supply is frequently associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR), a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Although the erythrocyte is the most abundant and only cell type to deliver O2 in our body, its function and regulatory mechanism in FGR remain unknown. Here, we report that genetic ablation of mouse erythrocyte equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (eENT1) in dams, but not placentas or fetuses, results in FGR. Unbiased high-throughput metabolic profiling coupled with in vitro and in vivo flux analyses with isotopically labeled tracers led us to discover that maternal eENT1-dependent adenosine uptake is critical in activating AMPK by controlling the AMP/ATP ratio and its downstream target, bisphosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM); in turn, BPGM mediates 2,3-BPG production, which enhances O2 delivery to maintain placental oxygenation. Mechanistically and functionally, we revealed that genetic ablation of maternal eENT1 increases placental HIF-1α; preferentially reduces placental large neutral aa transporter 1 (LAT1) expression, activity, and aa supply; and induces FGR. Translationally, we revealed that elevated HIF-1α directly reduces LAT1 gene expression in cultured human trophoblasts. We demonstrate the importance and molecular insight of maternal eENT1 in fetal growth and open up potentially new diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities for FGR.

4.
Transfusion ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee consumption is extremely common in the United States. Coffee is rich with caffeine, a psychoactive, purinergic antagonist of adenosine receptors, which regulate red blood cell energy and redox metabolism. Since red blood cell (purine) metabolism is a critical component to the red cell storage lesion, here we set out to investigate whether caffeine levels correlated with alterations of energy and redox metabolism in stored red blood cells. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured the levels of caffeine and its main metabolites in 599 samples from the REDS-III RBC-Omics (Recipient Epidemiology Donor Evaluation Study III Red Blood Cell-Omics) study via ultra-high-pressure-liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry and correlated them to global metabolomic and lipidomic analyses of RBCs stored for 10, 23, and 42 days. RESULTS: Caffeine levels positively correlated with increased levels of the main red cell antioxidant, glutathione, and its metabolic intermediates in glutathione-dependent detoxification pathways of oxidized lipids and sugar aldehydes. Caffeine levels were positively correlated with transamination products and substrates, tryptophan, and indole metabolites. Expectedly, since caffeine and its metabolites belong to the family of xanthine purines, all xanthine metabolites were significantly increased in the subjects with the highest levels of caffeine. However, high-energy phosphate compounds ATP and DPG were not affected by caffeine levels, despite decreases in glucose oxidation products-both via glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. CONCLUSION: Though preliminary, this study is suggestive of a beneficial correlation between the caffeine levels and improved antioxidant capacity of stored red cells.

5.
Cancer Res ; 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341035

RESUMO

Metastasis is the major cause of mortality for cancer patients, and dysregulation of developmental signaling pathways can significantly contribute to the metastatic process. The SIX1/EYA transcriptional complex plays a critical role in the development of multiple organs and is typically downregulated after development is complete. In breast cancer, aberrant expression of SIX1 has been demonstrated to stimulate metastasis through activation of TGF-ß signaling and subsequent induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In addition, SIX1 can induce metastasis via non-cell autonomous means, including activation of GLI-signaling in neighboring tumor cells and activation of VEGF-C-induced lymphangiogenesis. Thus, targeting SIX1 would be expected to inhibit metastasis while conferring limited side effects. However, transcription factors are notoriously difficult to target, and thus novel approaches to inhibit their action must be taken. Here we identified a novel small molecule compound, NCGC00378430 (abbreviated as 8430), that reduces the SIX1/EYA2 interaction. 8430 partially reversed transcriptional and metabolic profiles mediated by SIX1 overexpression and reversed SIX1-induced TGF-ß signaling and EMT. 8430 was well tolerated when delivered to mice and significantly suppressed breast cancer-associated metastasis in vivo without significantly altering primary tumor growth. Thus, we have demonstrated for the first time that pharmacological inhibition of the SIX1/EYA2 complex and associated phenotypes is sufficient to suppress breast cancer metastasis.

6.
Haematologica ; 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241843

RESUMO

Red blood cell storage in the blood bank promotes the progressive accumulation of metabolic alterations that may ultimately impact the erythrocyte capacity to cope with oxidant stressors. However, the metabolic underpinnings of the capacity of RBCs to resist oxidant stress and the potential impact of donor biology on this phenotype are not known. Within the framework of the REDS-III RBC-Omics study, RBCs from 8,502 healthy blood donors were stored for 42 days and tested for their propensity to hemolyze following oxidant stress. A subset of extreme hemolyzers donated a second unit of blood, which was stored for 10, 23, and 42 days and profiled again for oxidative hemolysis and metabolomics (599 samples). Alterations of RBC energy and redox homeostasis were noted in donors with high oxidative hemolysis. RBCs from females, donors over 60 years old, donors of Asian/South Asian race-ethnicity, and RBCs stored in additive solution-3 were each independently characterized by improved antioxidant metabolism compared to, respectively, males, donors under 30 years old, Hispanic and African American race ethnicity donors, and RBCs stored in additive solution-1. Merging metabolomics data with results from an independent GWAS study on the same cohort, we identified metabolic markers of hemolysis and G6PD-deficiency, which were associated with extremes in oxidative hemolysis and dysregulation in NADPH and glutathione-dependent detoxification pathways of oxidized lipids. Donor sex, age, ethnicity, additive solution and G6PD status impact the metabolism of the stored erythrocyte and its susceptibility to hemolysis following oxidative insults.

7.
Transfusion ; 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taurine is an antioxidant that is abundant in some common energy drinks. Here we hypothesized that the antioxidant activity of taurine in red blood cells (RBCs) could be leveraged to counteract storage-induced oxidant stress. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Metabolomics analyses were performed on plasma and RBCs from healthy volunteers (n = 4) at baseline and after consumption of a whole can of a common, taurine-rich (1000 mg/serving) energy drink. Reductionistic studies were also performed by incubating human RBCs with taurine ex vivo (unlabeled or 13 C15 N-labeled) at increasing doses (0, 100, 500, and 1000 µmol/L) at 37°C for up to 16 hours, with and without oxidant stress challenge with hydrogen peroxide (0.1% or 0.5%). Finally, we stored human and murine RBCs under blood bank conditions in additives supplemented with 500 µmol/L taurine, before metabolomics and posttransfusion recovery studies. RESULTS: Consumption of energy drinks increased plasma and RBC levels of taurine, which was paralleled by increases in glycolysis and glutathione (GSH) metabolism in the RBC. These observations were recapitulated ex vivo after incubation with taurine and hydrogen peroxide. Taurine levels in the RBCs from the REDS-III RBC-Omics donor biobank were directly proportional to the total levels of GSH and glutathionylated metabolites and inversely correlated to oxidative hemolysis measurements. Storage of human RBCs in the presence of taurine improved energy and redox markers of storage quality and increased posttransfusion recoveries in FVB mice. CONCLUSION: Taurine modulates RBC antioxidant metabolism in vivo and ex vivo, an observation of potential relevance to transfusion medicine.

8.
Circ Res ; 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284030

RESUMO

Rationale: Hypoxia promotes renal damage and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The erythrocyte is the only cell type for oxygen (O2) delivery. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a highly enriched biolipid in erythrocytes, is recently reported to be induced under high altitude in normal humans to enhance O2 delivery. However, nothing is known about erythrocyte S1P in CKD. Objective: To investigate the function and metabolic basis of erythrocyte S1P in CKD with a goal to explore potential therapeutics. Methods and Results: Using an erythrocyte-specific sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1, only enzyme to produce S1P in erythrocytes) knockout mice (eSphK1-/-) in an experimental model of hypertensive CKD with angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion, we found severe renal hypoxia, hypertension, proteinuria and fibrosis in Ang II-infused eSphK1-/- mice compared to controls. Untargeted metabolomics profiling and in vivo U-13C6 isotopically labeled glucose flux analysis revealed that SphK1 is required for channeling glucose metabolism toward glycolysis vs pentose phosphate pathway, resulting in enhanced erythroid-specific Rapoport-Luebering Shunt in Ang II-infused mice. Mechanistically, increased erythrocyte S1P functioning intracellularly phosphorylates AMPK1α and activates bisphosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM) by reducing ceremide/S1P ratio and inhibiting protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), leading to increased 2,3-BPG (an erythrocyte specific metabolite negatively regulating hemoglobin-O2 binding affinity) production and thus more O2 delivery to counteract kidney hypoxia and progression to CKD. Preclinical studies revealed that an AMPK agonist or a PP2A inhibitor rescued the severe CKD phenotype in Ang II-infused eSphK1-/- mice and prevented development of CKD in the control mice by inducing 2,3-BPG production and thus enhancing renal oxygenation. Translational research validated mouse findings in erythrocytes of hypertensive CKD patients and cultured human erythrocytes. Conclusions: Our study elucidates the beneficial role of erythrocyte Sphk1-S1P in hypertensive CKD by channeling glucose metabolism towards Rapoport-Luebering Shunt and inducing 2,3-BPG production and O2 delivery via a PP2A-AMPK1α signaling pathway. These findings reveal the metabolic and molecular basis of erythrocyte S1P in CKD and new therapeutic avenues.

9.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 318(4): L773-L786, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159369

RESUMO

Metabolic reprogramming is considered important in the pathogenesis of the occlusive vasculopathy observed in pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the mechanisms that link reprogrammed metabolism to aberrant expression of genes, which modulate functional phenotypes of cells in PH, remain enigmatic. Herein, we demonstrate that, in mice, hypoxia-induced PH was prevented by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDDef), and further show that established severe PH in Cyp2c44-/- mice was attenuated by knockdown with G6PD shRNA or by G6PD inhibition with an inhibitor (N-ethyl-N'-[(3ß,5α)-17-oxoandrostan-3-yl]urea, NEOU). Mechanistically, G6PDDef, knockdown and inhibition in lungs: 1) reduced hypoxia-induced changes in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial metabolism, 2) increased expression of Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (Tet2) gene, and 3) upregulated expression of the coding genes and long noncoding (lnc) RNA Pint, which inhibits cell growth, by hypomethylating the promoter flanking region downstream of the transcription start site. These results suggest functional TET2 is required for G6PD inhibition to increase gene expression and to reverse hypoxia-induced PH in mice. Furthermore, the inhibitor of G6PD activity (NEOU) decreased metabolic reprogramming, upregulated TET2 and lncPINT, and inhibited growth of control and diseased smooth muscle cells isolated from pulmonary arteries of normal individuals and idiopathic-PAH patients, respectively. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized function for G6PD as a regulator of DNA methylation. These findings further suggest that G6PD acts as a link between reprogrammed metabolism and aberrant gene regulation and plays a crucial role in regulating the phenotype of cells implicated in the pathogenesis of PH, a debilitating disorder with a high mortality rate.

10.
Curr Opin Hematol ; 27(3): 155-162, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141895

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The erythrocyte is the most abundant cell type in our body, acting as both a carrier/deliverer and sensor of oxygen (O2). Erythrocyte O2 delivery capacity is finely regulated by sophisticated metabolic control. In recent years, unbiased and robust human metabolomics screening and mouse genetic studies have advanced erythroid research revealing the differential role of erythrocyte hypoxic metabolic reprogramming in normal individuals at high altitudes and patients facing hypoxia, such as sickle cell disease (SCD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we summarize recent progress and highlight potential therapeutic possibilities. RECENT FINDINGS: Initial studies showed that elevated soluble CD73 (sCD73, converts AMP to adenosine) results in increased circulating adenosine that activates the A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B). Signaling through this axis is co-operatively strengthened by erythrocyte-specific synthesis of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Ultimately, these mechanisms promote the generation of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG), an erythrocyte-specific allosteric modulator that decreases haemoglobin--O2-binding affinity, and thus, induces deoxygenated sickle Hb (deoxyHbS), deoxyHbS polymerization, sickling, chronic inflammation and tissue damage in SCD. Similar to SCD, plasma adenosine and erythrocyte S1P are elevated in humans ascending to high altitude. At high altitude, these two metabolites are beneficial to induce erythrocyte metabolic reprogramming and the synthesis of 2,3-BPG, and thus, increase O2 delivery to counteract hypoxic tissue damage. Follow-up studies showed that erythrocyte equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (eENT1) is a key purinergic cellular component controlling plasma adenosine in humans at high altitude and mice under hypoxia and underlies the quicker and higher elevation of plasma adenosine upon re-ascent because of prior hypoxia-induced degradation of eENT1. More recent studies demonstrated the beneficial role of erythrocyte ADORA2B-mediated 2,3-BPG production in CKD. SUMMARY: Taken together, these findings revealed the differential role of erythrocyte hypoxic metabolic reprogramming in normal humans at high altitude and patients with CKD vs. SCD patients and immediately suggest differential and precision therapies to counteract hypoxia among these groups.

11.
Blood Transfus ; 18(2): 130-142, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In response to stress, anucleate red blood cells (RBCs) can undergo a process of atypical cell death characterised by intracellular Ca2+ accumulation and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalisation. Here we studied alterations in RBC metabolism, a critical contributor to their capacity to survive environmental challenges, during this process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Metabolomics analyses of RBCs and supernatants, using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, were performed after in vitro exposure of RBCs to different pathophysiological cell stressors, including starvation, extracellular hypertonicity, hyperthermia, and supraphysiological ionic stress. Cell death was examined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Our data show that artificially enhancing RBC cytosolic Ca2+ influx significantly enhanced purine oxidation and strongly affected cellular bioenergetics by reducing glycolysis. Depleting extracellular Ca2+ curtailed starvation-induced cell death, an effect paralleled by the activation of compensatory pathways such as the pentose phosphate pathway, carboxylic acid metabolism, increased pyruvate to lactate ratios (methemoglobin reductase activation), one-carbon metabolism (protein-damage repair) and glutathione synthesis; RBCs exposed to hypertonic shock displayed a similar metabolic profile. Furthermore, cell stress promoted lipid remodelling as reflected by the levels of free fatty acids, acyl-carnitines and CoA precursors. Notably, RBC PS exposure, independently of the stressor, showed significant correlation with the levels of free fatty acids, glutamate, cystine, spermidine, tryptophan, 5-oxoproline, lactate, and hypoxanthine. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, different cell death-inducing pathophysiological stressors, encountered in various clinical conditions, result in differential RBC metabolic phenotypes, only partly explained by intracellular Ca2+ levels and ATP availability.

13.
Genetics ; 214(4): 961-975, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107279

RESUMO

Obesity and its comorbidities are a growing health epidemic. Interactions between genetic background, the environment, and behavior (i.e., diet) greatly influence organismal energy balance. Previously, we described obesogenic mutations in the gene Split ends (Spen) in Drosophila melanogaster, and roles for Spen in fat storage and metabolic state. Lipid catabolism is impaired in Spen-deficient fat storage cells, accompanied by a compensatory increase in glycolytic flux and protein catabolism. Here, we investigate gene-diet interactions to determine if diets supplemented with specific macronutrients can rescue metabolic dysfunction in Spen-depleted animals. We show that a high-yeast diet partially rescues adiposity and developmental defects. High sugar partially improves developmental timing as well as longevity of mated females. Gene-diet interactions were heavily influenced by developmental-stage-specific organismal needs: extra yeast provides benefits early in development (larval stages) but becomes detrimental in adulthood. High sugar confers benefits to Spen-depleted animals at both larval and adult stages, with the caveat of increased adiposity. A high-fat diet is detrimental according to all tested criteria, regardless of genotype. Whereas Spen depletion influenced phenotypic responses to supplemented diets, diet was the dominant factor in directing the whole-organism steady-state metabolome. Obesity is a complex disease of genetic, environmental, and behavioral inputs. Our results show that diet customization can ameliorate metabolic dysfunction underpinned by a genetic factor.

14.
Genes Dev ; 34(7-8): 526-543, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079652

RESUMO

MDM2 and MDMX, negative regulators of the tumor suppressor p53, can work separately and as a heteromeric complex to restrain p53's functions. MDM2 also has pro-oncogenic roles in cells, tissues, and animals that are independent of p53. There is less information available about p53-independent roles of MDMX or the MDM2-MDMX complex. We found that MDM2 and MDMX facilitate ferroptosis in cells with or without p53. Using small molecules, RNA interference reagents, and mutant forms of MDMX, we found that MDM2 and MDMX, likely working in part as a complex, normally facilitate ferroptotic death. We observed that MDM2 and MDMX alter the lipid profile of cells to favor ferroptosis. Inhibition of MDM2 or MDMX leads to increased levels of FSP1 protein and a consequent increase in the levels of coenzyme Q10, an endogenous lipophilic antioxidant. This suggests that MDM2 and MDMX normally prevent cells from mounting an adequate defense against lipid peroxidation and thereby promote ferroptosis. Moreover, we found that PPARα activity is essential for MDM2 and MDMX to promote ferroptosis, suggesting that the MDM2-MDMX complex regulates lipids through altering PPARα activity. These findings reveal the complexity of cellular responses to MDM2 and MDMX and suggest that MDM2-MDMX inhibition might be useful for preventing degenerative diseases involving ferroptosis. Furthermore, they suggest that MDM2/MDMX amplification may predict sensitivity of some cancers to ferroptosis inducers.

15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 413, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942023

RESUMO

Altered metabolism in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and endothelial cells (PAECs) contributes to the pathology of pulmonary hypertension (PH), but changes in substrate uptake and how substrates are utilized have not been fully characterized. We hypothesized stable isotope metabolomics would identify increased glucose, glutamine and fatty acid uptake and utilization in human PASMCs and PAECs from PH versus control specimens, and that TGF-ß treatment would phenocopy these metabolic changes. We used 13C-labeled glucose, glutamine or a long-chain fatty acid mixture added to cell culture media, and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to detect and quantify 13C-labeled metabolites. We found PH PASMCs had increased glucose uptake and utilization by glycolysis and the pentose shunt, but no changes in glutamine or fatty acid uptake or utilization. Diseased PAECs had increased proximate glycolysis pathway intermediates, less pentose shunt flux, increased anaplerosis from glutamine, and decreased fatty acid ß-oxidation. TGF-ß treatment increased glycolysis in PASMCs, but did not recapitulate the PAEC disease phenotype. In TGF-ß-treated PASMCs, glucose, glutamine and fatty acids all contributed carbons to the TCA cycle. In conclusion, PASMCs and PAECs collected from PH subjects have significant changes in metabolite uptake and utilization, partially recapitulated by TGF-ß treatment.

16.
J Clin Invest ; 130(5): 2270-2285, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961822

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDGlucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency decreases the ability of red blood cells (RBCs) to withstand oxidative stress. Refrigerated storage of RBCs induces oxidative stress. We hypothesized that G6PD-deficient donor RBCs would have inferior storage quality for transfusion as compared with G6PD-normal RBCs.METHODSMale volunteers were screened for G6PD deficiency; 27 control and 10 G6PD-deficient volunteers each donated 1 RBC unit. After 42 days of refrigerated storage, autologous 51-chromium 24-hour posttransfusion RBC recovery (PTR) studies were performed. Metabolomics analyses of these RBC units were also performed.RESULTSThe mean 24-hour PTR for G6PD-deficient subjects was 78.5% ± 8.4% (mean ± SD), which was significantly lower than that for G6PD-normal RBCs (85.3% ± 3.2%; P = 0.0009). None of the G6PD-normal volunteers (0/27) and 3 G6PD-deficient volunteers (3/10) had PTR results below 75%, a key FDA acceptability criterion for stored donor RBCs. As expected, fresh G6PD-deficient RBCs demonstrated defects in the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway. During refrigerated storage, G6PD-deficient RBCs demonstrated increased glycolysis, impaired glutathione homeostasis, and increased purine oxidation, as compared with G6PD-normal RBCs. In addition, there were significant correlations between PTR and specific metabolites in these pathways.CONCLUSIONBased on current FDA criteria, RBCs from G6PD-deficient donors would not meet the requirements for storage quality. Metabolomics assessment identified markers of PTR and G6PD deficiency (e.g., pyruvate/lactate ratios), along with potential compensatory pathways that could be leveraged to ameliorate the metabolic needs of G6PD-deficient RBCs.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT04081272.FUNDINGThe Harold Amos Medical Faculty Development Program, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation grant 71590, the National Blood Foundation, NIH grant UL1 TR000040, the Webb-Waring Early Career Award 2017 by the Boettcher Foundation, and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute grants R01HL14644 and R01HL148151.

17.
Cancer Discov ; 10(4): 536-551, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974170

RESUMO

Venetoclax-based therapy can induce responses in approximately 70% of older previously untreated patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, up-front resistance as well as relapse following initial response demonstrates the need for a deeper understanding of resistance mechanisms. In the present study, we report that responses to venetoclax +azacitidine in patients with AML correlate closely with developmental stage, where phenotypically primitive AML is sensitive, but monocytic AML is more resistant. Mechanistically, resistant monocytic AML has a distinct transcriptomic profile, loses expression of venetoclax target BCL2, and relies on MCL1 to mediate oxidative phosphorylation and survival. This differential sensitivity drives a selective process in patients which favors the outgrowth of monocytic subpopulations at relapse. Based on these findings, we conclude that resistance to venetoclax + azacitidine can arise due to biological properties intrinsic to monocytic differentiation. We propose that optimal AML therapies should be designed so as to independently target AML subclones that may arise at differing stages of pathogenesis. SIGNIFICANCE: Identifying characteristics of patients who respond poorly to venetoclax-based therapy and devising alternative therapeutic strategies for such patients are important topics in AML. We show that venetoclax resistance can arise due to intrinsic molecular/metabolic properties of monocytic AML cells and that such properties can potentially be targeted with alternative strategies.

18.
Shock ; 53(3): 352-362, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock (HS) by blood transfusion restores oxygen (O2) delivery and provides hemodynamic stability. Current regulations allow red blood cells (RBCs) to be stored and used for up to 42 days. During storage, RBCs undergo many structural and functional changes. These storage lesions have been associated with adverse events and increased mortality after transfusion, increasing the need for improved RBC storage protocols. This study evaluates the efficacy of anaerobically stored RBCs to resuscitate rats from severe HS compared with conventionally stored RBCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rat RBCs were stored under anaerobic, anaerobic/hypercapnic, or conventional conditions for a period of 3 weeks. Hemorrhage was induced by controlled bleeding, shock was maintained for 30 min, and RBCs were transfused to restore and maintain blood pressure near the prhemorrhage level. All storage conditions met current regulatory 24-h posttransfusion recovery requirements. Transfusion of anaerobically stored RBCs required significantly less RBC volume to restore and maintain hemodynamics. Anaerobic or anaerobic/hypercapnic RBCs restored hemodynamics better than conventionally stored RBCs. Resuscitation with conventionally stored RBCs impaired indices of left ventricular cardiac function, increased hypoxic tissue staining and inflammatory markers, and affected organ function compared with anaerobically stored RBCs. CONCLUSIONS: Resuscitation from HS via transfusion of anaerobically stored RBCs recovered cardiac function, restored hemodynamic stability, and improved outcomes.

19.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 10(2): 555-567, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810980

RESUMO

Alveolar macrophages serve as central orchestrators of inflammatory responses in the lungs, both initiating their onset and promoting their resolution. However, the mechanisms that program macrophages for these dynamic responses are not fully understood. Over 95% of all mammalian genes undergo alternative pre-mRNA splicing. While alternative splicing has been shown to regulate inflammatory responses in macrophages in vitro, it has not been investigated on a genome-wide scale in vivo Here we used RNAseq to investigate alternative pre-mRNA splicing in alveolar macrophages isolated from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice during the peak of inflammation and during its resolution. We found that lung inflammation induced substantial alternative pre-mRNA splicing in alveolar macrophages. The number of changes in isoform usage was greatest at the peak of inflammation and involved multiple classes of alternative pre-mRNA splicing events. Comparative pathway analysis of inflammation-induced changes in alternative pre-mRNA splicing and differential gene expression revealed overlap of pathways enriched for immune responses such as chemokine signaling and cellular metabolism. Moreover, alternative pre-mRNA splicing of genes in metabolic pathways differed in tissue resident vs. recruited (blood monocyte-derived) alveolar macrophages and corresponded to changes in core metabolism, including a switch to Warburg-like metabolism in recruited macrophages with increased glycolysis and decreased flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

20.
Aging Cell ; 19(1): e13074, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755162

RESUMO

Aging is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction, reduced exercise tolerance, and impaired whole-body glucose metabolism. Interleukin-37 (IL-37), an anti-inflammatory cytokine of the interleukin-1 family, exerts salutary physiological effects in young mice independent of its inflammation-suppressing properties. Here, we assess the efficacy of IL-37 treatment for improving physiological function in older age. Old mice (26-28 months) received daily intraperitoneal injections of recombinant human IL-37 (recIL-37; 1 µg/200 ml PBS) or vehicle (200 ml PBS) for 10-14 days. Vascular endothelial function (ex vivo carotid artery dilation to increasing doses of acetylcholine, ACh) was enhanced in recIL-37 vs. vehicle-treated mice via increased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability (all p < .05); this effect was accompanied by enhanced ACh-stimulated NO production and reduced levels of reactive oxygen species in endothelial cells cultured with plasma from IL-37-treated animals (p < .05 vs. vehicle plasma). RecIL-37 treatment increased endurance exercise capacity by 2.4-fold, which was accompanied by a 2.9-fold increase in the phosphorylated AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) to AMPK ratio (i.e., AMPK activation) in quadriceps muscle. RecIL-37 treatment also improved whole-body insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance (p < .05 vs. vehicle). Improvements in physiological function occurred without significant changes in plasma, aortic, and skeletal muscle pro-inflammatory proteins (under resting conditions), whereas pro-/anti-inflammatory IL-6 was greater in recIL-37-treated animals. Plasma metabolomics analysis revealed that recIL-37 treatment altered metabolites related to pathways involved in NO synthesis (e.g., increased L-arginine and citrulline/arginine ratio) and fatty acid metabolism (e.g., increased pantothenol and free fatty acids). Our findings provide experimental support for IL-37 therapy as a novel strategy to improve diverse physiological functions in old age.

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