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1.
Reprod Health ; 17(Suppl 1): 51, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PRECISE (PREgnancy Care Integrating translational Science, Everywhere) Network is a new and broadly-based group of research scientists and health advocates based in the UK, Africa and North America. METHODS: This paper describes the protocol that underpins the clinical research activity of the Network, so that the investigators, and broader global health community, can have access to 'deep phenotyping' (social determinants of health, demographic and clinical parameters, placental biology and agnostic discovery biology) of women as they advance through pregnancy to the end of the puerperium, whether those pregnancies have normal outcomes or are complicated by one/more of the placental disorders of pregnancy (pregnancy hypertension, fetal growth restriction and stillbirth). Our clinical sites are in The Gambia (Farafenni), Kenya (Kilifi County), and Mozambique (Maputo Province). In each country, 50 non-pregnant women of reproductive age will be recruited each month for 1 year, to provide a final national sample size of 600; these women will provide culturally-, ethnically-, seasonally- and spatially-relevant control data with which to compare women with normal and complicated pregnancies. Between the three countries we will recruit ≈10,000 unselected pregnant women over 2 years. An estimated 1500 women will experience one/more placental complications over the same epoch. Importantly, as we will have accurate gestational age dating using the TraCer device, we will be able to discriminate between fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. Recruitment and follow-up will be primarily facility-based and will include women booking for antenatal care, subsequent visits in the third trimester, at time-of-disease, when relevant, during/immediately after birth and 6 weeks after birth. CONCLUSIONS: To accelerate progress towards the women's and children's health-relevant Sustainable Development Goals, we need to understand how a variety of social, chronic disease, biomarker and pregnancy-specific determinants health interact to result in either a resilient or a compromised pregnancy for either mother or fetus/newborn, or both. This protocol has been designed to create such a depth of understanding. We are seeking funding to maintain the cohort to better understand the implications of pregnancy complications for both maternal and child health.

2.
Reprod Health ; 17(Suppl 1): 50, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354365

RESUMO

In less-resourced settings, adverse pregnancy outcome rates are unacceptably high. To effect improvement, we need accurate epidemiological data about rates of death and morbidity, as well as social determinants of health and processes of care, and from each country (or region) to contextualise strategies. The PRECISE database is a unique core infrastructure of a generic, unified data collection platform. It is built on previous work in data harmonisation, outcome and data field standardisation, open-access software (District Health Information System 2 and the Baobab Laboratory Information Management System), and clinical research networks. The database contains globally-recommended indicators included in Health Management Information System recording and reporting forms. It comprises key outcomes (maternal and perinatal death), life-saving interventions (Human Immunodeficiency Virus testing, blood pressure measurement, iron therapy, uterotonic use after delivery, postpartum maternal assessment within 48 h of birth, and newborn resuscitation, immediate skin-to-skin contact, and immediate drying), and an additional 17 core administrative variables for the mother and babies. In addition, the database has a suite of additional modules for 'deep phenotyping' based on established tools. These include social determinants of health (including socioeconomic status, nutrition and the environment), maternal co-morbidities, mental health, violence against women and health systems. The database has the potential to enable future high-quality epidemiological research integrated with clinical care and discovery bioscience.

3.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Passively collected malaria case data are the foundation for public health decision making. However, because of population-level immunity, infections might not always be sufficiently symptomatic to prompt individuals to seek care. Understanding the proportion of all Plasmodium spp infections expected to be detected by the health system becomes particularly paramount in elimination settings. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the proportion of infections detected and transmission intensity for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in several global endemic settings. METHODS: The proportion of infections detected in routine malaria data, P(Detect), was derived from paired household cross-sectional survey and routinely collected malaria data within health facilities. P(Detect) was estimated using a Bayesian model in 431 clusters spanning the Americas, Africa, and Asia. The association between P(Detect) and malaria prevalence was assessed using log-linear regression models. Changes in P(Detect) over time were evaluated using data from 13 timepoints over 2 years from The Gambia. FINDINGS: The median estimated P(Detect) across all clusters was 12·5% (IQR 5·3-25·0) for P falciparum and 10·1% (5·0-18·3) for P vivax and decreased as the estimated log-PCR community prevalence increased (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for P falciparum 0·63, 95% CI 0·57-0·69; adjusted OR for P vivax 0·52, 0·47-0·57). Factors associated with increasing P(Detect) included smaller catchment population size, high transmission season, improved care-seeking behaviour by infected individuals, and recent increases (within the previous year) in transmission intensity. INTERPRETATION: The proportion of all infections detected within health systems increases once transmission intensity is sufficiently low. The likely explanation for P falciparum is that reduced exposure to infection leads to lower levels of protective immunity in the population, increasing the likelihood that infected individuals will become symptomatic and seek care. These factors might also be true for P vivax but a better understanding of the transmission biology is needed to attribute likely reasons for the observed trend. In low transmission and pre-elimination settings, enhancing access to care and improvements in care-seeking behaviour of infected individuals will lead to an increased proportion of infections detected in the community and might contribute to accelerating the interruption of transmission. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.

4.
Malar J ; 19(1): 144, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While there is increasing evidence on the safety of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for the case management of malaria in early pregnancy, little is known about the association between exposure to ACT during the first trimester and the effect on fetal growth. METHODS: Data were analysed from prospective studies of pregnant women enrolled in Mozambique, Burkina Faso and Kenya designed to determine the association between anti-malarial drug exposure in the first trimester and pregnancy outcomes, including low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). Exposure to anti-malarial drugs was ascertained retrospectively by record linkage using a combination of data collected from antenatal and adult outpatient clinic registries, prescription records and self-reported medication usage by the women. Site-level data synthesis (fixed effects and random effects) was conducted as well as individual-level analysis (fixed effects by site). RESULTS: Overall, 1915 newborns were included with 92 and 26 exposed to ACT (artemether-lumefantrine) and quinine, respectively. In Burkina Faso, Mozambique and Kenya at recruitment, the mean age (standard deviation) was 27.1 (6.6), 24.2 (6.2) and 25.7 (6.5) years, and the mean gestational age was 24.0 (6.2), 21.2 (5.7) and 17.9 (10.2) weeks, respectively. The LBW prevalence among newborns born to women exposed to ACT and quinine (QNN) during the first trimester was 10/92 (10.9%) and 7/26 (26.9%), respectively, compared to 9.5% (171/1797) among women unexposed to any anti-malarials during pregnancy. Compared to those unexposed to anti-malarials, ACT and QNN exposed women had the pooled LBW prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62-2.05, p-value 0.700) and 2.03 (95% CI 1.09-3.78, p-value 0.027), respectively. Compared to those unexposed to anti-malarials ACT and QNN-exposed women had the pooled SGA PR of 0.85 (95% CI 0.50-1.44, p-value 0.543) and 1.41 (95% CI 0.71-2.77, p-value 0.322), respectively. Whereas compared to ACT-exposed, the QNN-exposed had a PR of 2.14 (95% CI 0.78-5.89, p-value 0.142) for LBW and 8.60 (95% CI 1.29-57.6, p-value 0.027) for SGA. The level of between sites heterogeneity was moderate to high. CONCLUSION: ACT exposure during the first trimester was not associated with an increased occurrence of LBW or SGA. However, the data suggest a higher prevalence of LBW and SGA for children born to QNN-exposed pregnancies. The findings support the use of ACT (artemether-lumefantrine) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria during the first trimester of pregnancy.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0007719, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126087

RESUMO

The putative vector of trachoma, Musca sorbens, prefers to lay its eggs on human faeces on the ground. This study sought to determine whether M. sorbens females were attracted to volatile odours from human faeces in preference to odours from the faeces of other animals, and to determine whether specific volatile semiochemicals mediate selection of the faeces. Traps baited with the faeces of humans and local domestic animals were used to catch flies at two trachoma-endemic locations in The Gambia and one in Ethiopia. At all locations, traps baited with faeces caught more female M. sorbens than control traps baited with soil, and human faeces was the most successful bait compared with soil (mean rate ratios 44.40, 61.40, 10.50 [P<0.001]; 8.17 for child faeces [P = 0.004]). Odours from human faeces were sampled by air entrainment, then extracts of the volatiles were tested by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography with laboratory-reared female M. sorbens. Twelve compounds were electrophysiologically active and tentatively identified by coupled mass spectrometry-gas chromatography, these included cresol, indole, 2-methylpropanoic acid, butanoic acid, pentanoic acid and hexanoic acid. It is possible that some of these volatiles govern the strong attraction of M. sorbens flies to human faeces. If so, a synthetic blend of these chemicals, at the correct ratios, may prove to be a highly attractive lure. This could be used in odour-baited traps for monitoring or control of this species in trachoma-endemic regions.

7.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 47, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases in Africa are treated with the artemisinin combination therapies artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ), with amodiaquine being also widely used as part of seasonal malaria chemoprevention programs combined with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. While artemisinin derivatives have a short half-life, lumefantrine and amodiaquine may give rise to differing durations of post-treatment prophylaxis, an important additional benefit to patients in higher transmission areas. METHODS: We analyzed individual patient data from 8 clinical trials of AL versus AS-AQ in 12 sites in Africa (n = 4214 individuals). The time to PCR-confirmed reinfection after treatment was used to estimate the duration of post-treatment protection, accounting for variation in transmission intensity between settings using hidden semi-Markov models. Accelerated failure-time models were used to identify potential effects of covariates on the time to reinfection. The estimated duration of chemoprophylaxis was then used in a mathematical model of malaria transmission to determine the potential public health impact of each drug when used for first-line treatment. RESULTS: We estimated a mean duration of post-treatment protection of 13.0 days (95% CI 10.7-15.7) for AL and 15.2 days (95% CI 12.8-18.4) for AS-AQ overall. However, the duration varied significantly between trial sites, from 8.7-18.6 days for AL and 10.2-18.7 days for AS-AQ. Significant predictors of time to reinfection in multivariable models were transmission intensity, age, drug, and parasite genotype. Where wild type pfmdr1 and pfcrt parasite genotypes predominated (<=20% 86Y and 76T mutants, respectively), AS-AQ provided ~ 2-fold longer protection than AL. Conversely, at a higher prevalence of 86Y and 76T mutant parasites (> 80%), AL provided up to 1.5-fold longer protection than AS-AQ. Our simulations found that these differences in the duration of protection could alter population-level clinical incidence of malaria by up to 14% in under-5-year-old children when the drugs were used as first-line treatments in areas with high, seasonal transmission. CONCLUSION: Choosing a first-line treatment which provides optimal post-treatment prophylaxis given the local prevalence of resistance-associated markers could make a significant contribution to reducing malaria morbidity.

8.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(4): 498-508, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ivermectin is a potential new vector control tool to reduce malaria transmission. Mosquitoes feeding on a bloodmeal containing ivermectin have a reduced lifespan, meaning they are less likely to live long enough to complete sporogony and become infectious. We aimed to estimate the effect of ivermectin on malaria transmission in various scenarios of use. METHODS: We validated an existing population-level mathematical model of the effect of ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) on the mosquito population and malaria transmission against two datasets: clinical data from a cluster- randomised trial done in Burkina Faso in 2015 wherein ivermectin was given to individuals taller than 90 cm and entomological data from a study of mosquito outcomes after ivermectin MDA for onchocerciasis or lymphatic filariasis in Burkina Faso, Senegal, and Liberia between 2008 and 2013. We extended the existing model to include a range of complementary malaria interventions (seasonal malaria chemoprevention and MDA with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine) and to incorporate new data on higher doses of ivermectin with a longer mosquitocidal effect. We consider two ivermectin regimens: a single dose of 400 µg/kg (1 × 400 µg/kg) and three consecutive daily doses of 300 µg/kg per day (3 × 300 µg/kg). We simulated the effect of these two doses in a range of usage scenarios in different transmission settings (highly seasonal, seasonal, and perennial). We report percentage reductions in clinical incidence and slide prevalence. FINDINGS: We estimate that MDA with ivermectin will reduce prevalence and incidence and is most effective in areas with highly seasonal transmission. In a highly seasonal moderate transmission setting, three rounds of ivermectin only MDA at 3 × 300 µg/kg (rounds spaced 1 month apart) and 70% coverage is predicted to reduce clinical incidence by 71% and prevalence by 34%. We predict that adding ivermectin MDA to seasonal malaria chemoprevention in this setting would reduce clinical incidence by an additional 77% in children younger than 5 years compared with seasonal malaria chemoprevention alone; adding ivermectin MDA to MDA with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in this setting would reduce incidence by an additional 75% and prevalence by an additional 64% (all ages) compared with MDA with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine alone. INTERPRETATION: Our modelling predictions suggest that ivermectin could be a valuable addition to the malaria control toolbox, both in areas with persistently high transmission where existing interventions are insufficient and in areas approaching elimination to prevent resurgence. FUNDING: Imperial College Junior Research Fellowship.

9.
Malar J ; 19(1): 8, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended to improve malaria treatment efficacy and limit drug-resistant parasites selection in malaria endemic areas. 5 years after they were adopted, the efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ), the first-line treatments for uncomplicated malaria were assessed in Burkina Faso. METHODS: In total, 440 children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were randomized to receive either AL or ASAQ for 3 days and were followed up weekly for 42 days. Blood samples were collected to investigate the ex vivo susceptibility of P. falciparum isolates to lumefantrine, dihydroartemisinin (the active metabolite of artemisinin derivatives) and monodesethylamodiaquine (the active metabolite of amodiaquine). The modified isotopic micro test technique was used to determine the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. Primary endpoints were the risks of treatment failure at days 42. RESULTS: Out of the 440 patients enrolled, 420 (95.5%) completed the 42 days follow up. The results showed a significantly higher PCR unadjusted cure rate in ASAQ arm (71.0%) than that in the AL arm (49.8%) on day 42, and this trend was similar after correction by PCR, with ASAQ performing better (98.1%) than AL (91.1%). Overall adverse events incidence was low and not significantly different between the two treatment arms. Ex vivo results showed that 6.4% P. falciparum isolates were resistant to monodesthylamodiaquine. The coupled in vivo/ex vivo analysis showed increased IC50 values for lumefantrine and monodesethylamodiaquine at day of recurrent parasitaemia compared to baseline values while for artesunate, IC50 values remained stable at baseline and after treatment failure (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings provide substantial evidence that AL and ASAQ are highly efficacious for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children in Burkina Faso. However, the result of P. falciparum susceptibility to the partner drugs advocates the need to regularly replicate such surveillance studies. This would be particularly indicated when amodiaquine is associated in seasonal malaria chemoprophylaxis (SMC) mass drug administration in children under 5 years in Burkina Faso. Trial registration clinicaltrials, NCT00808951. Registered 05 December 2008,https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00808951?cond=NCT00808951&rank=1.

10.
Malar J ; 19(1): 27, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bubaque is the most populous island of the Bijagos archipelago, a group of malaria-endemic islands situated off the coast of Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Malaria vector control on Bubaque relies almost exclusively on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, there is little information on local vector bionomics and insecticide resistance. METHODS: A survey of mosquito species composition was performed at the onset of the wet season (June/July) and the beginning of the dry season (November/December). Sampling was performed using indoor adult light-traps and larval dipping. Anopheles mosquitoes were identified to species level and assessed for kdr allele frequency by TaqMan PCR. Females were analysed for sporozoite positivity by CSP-ELISA. Resistance to permethrin and α-cypermethrin was measured using the CDC-bottle bioassay incorporating the synergist piperonyl-butoxide. RESULTS: Several Anopheles species were found on the island, all belonging to the Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) complex, including An. gambiae sensu stricto, Anopheles coluzzii, Anopheles melas, and An. gambiae/An. coluzzii hybrids. Endophagic Anopheles species composition and abundance showed strong seasonal variation, with a majority of An. gambiae (50% of adults collected) caught in June/July, while An. melas was dominant in November/December (83.9% of adults collected). Anopheles gambiae had the highest sporozoite rate in both seasons, with infection rates of 13.9% and 20% in June/July and November/December, respectively. Moderate frequencies of the West African kdr allele were found in An. gambiae (36%), An. coluzzii (35%), An. gambiae/An. coluzzii hybrids (42%). Bioassays suggest moderate resistance to α-cypermethrin, but full susceptibility to permethrin. CONCLUSIONS: The island of Bubaque maintained an An. gambiae s.l. population in both June/July and November/December. Anopheles gambiae was the primary vector at the onset of the wet season, while An. melas is likely to be responsible for most dry season transmission. There was moderate kdr allele frequency and synergist assays suggest likely metabolic resistance, which could reduce the efficacy of LLINs. Future control of malaria on the islands should consider the seasonal shift in mosquito species, and should employ continuous monitoring for insecticide resistance.

11.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 114(1): 49-56, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scabies is highly endemic among impoverished populations and has been recently included in the WHO's list of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Community support and behavioural changes are essential for the success of control interventions. This study aimed to explore beliefs, prevention attitudes and healthcare-seeking behaviours towards scabies in the Bijagós Archipelago of Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Data were collected through two methods. Community key informants (community members, community health workers, healthcare workers and traditional healers) were interviewed using snowball sampling. A questionnaire covering perceptions, attitudes and practices was administered to community members using random cluster sampling. Thematic analysis of qualitative data was applied to identify themes. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative data analysis. RESULTS: There was a satisfactory awareness about scabies, but perceptions about disease causation and transmission were imprecise. Misconceptions about personal hygiene as the primary measure for scabies prevention were recurrent. Some participants recognised the importance of early treatment to interrupt transmission. Treatment of close contacts was not considered important. Costs were the main determining factor for treatment choice between traditional healer and the local health centre. Late presentation and delayed treatment were common and associated with poverty and stigmatisation. Scabies impaired quality of life by affecting social interactions, health, fitness to work and school attendance. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to improve education, recognition, management and affordable access to treatment. Community education, healthcare workers' training and skin NTD integrated control programmes should address the challenges highlighted in this study.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225135, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to identify the risk factors for intensive care (IC) in severe malaria patients admitted to the "Lazzaro Spallanzani" National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Rome, Italy. METHODS: All patients with confirmed severe malaria and hospitalized between 2007 and 2015 were included in the analysis and stratified into two groups: those requiring IC and those who did not. Five prognostic malaria scores were estimated; clinical severity at IC unit admission was assessed using the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment and the quick-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to assess factors independently associated to IC. RESULTS: A total of 98 severe malaria patients were included; 10 of them required IC. There were no deaths or sequelae. Patients requiring IC had higher severity scores. At the multivariate analysis, only the number of World Health Organization criteria and the aspartate aminotransferase value were independently associated with the need of IC. CONCLUSIONS: An early and accurate assessment of the severity score is essential for the management of severe malaria patients.

13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(11): e0007820, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738757

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Skin diseases represent a significant public health problem in most low and middle income settings. Nevertheless, there is a relative paucity of high-quality epidemiological data on the prevalence of these conditions. MATERIALS/METHODS: We conducted two cross-sectional population-based skin-surveys of children (6 months to 9 years old) in the Bijagós Archipelago of Guinea-Bissau during the dry season (February-March 2018) and the wet season (June-July 2018). Following a period of training, a nurse performed a standardised examination for communicable dermatoses for each participant. We calculated the prevalence of each skin condition and investigated demographic associations. RESULTS: 1062 children were enrolled in the dry season survey of whom 318 (29.9%) had at least one skin diseases. The most common diagnosis was tinea capitis (154/1062, 14.5% - 95% CI 12.5-16.8%) followed by tinea corporis (84/1062, 7.9% - 95% CI 6.4-9.7%), pyoderma (82/1062, 7.7% - 95% CI 6.2-9.5%) and scabies (56/1062. 5.2% - 95%CI 4.0-6.8%). 320 children were enrolled in the wet season survey of whom 121 (37.8%) had at least one skin problem. Tinea capitis remained the most common diagnosis (79/320, 24.7% - 95% CI 20.1-29.9%), followed by pyoderma (38/320, 11.9% - 95% CI 8.6-16.1%), tinea corporis (23/320, 7.2% - 95% 4.7-10.7%) and scabies (6/320, 1.9% - 95% CI 0.8-4.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Our study, which utilised robust population-based cluster random sampling methodology, demonstrates the substantial disease burden caused by common communicable dermatoses in this setting. Given these findings, there is a need to consider common dermatoses as part of Universal Health Coverage to deliver 'skin-health for all'.


Assuntos
Pioderma/epidemiologia , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Tinha/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Guiné-Bissau/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Estações do Ano
14.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 215, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimalarial clinical efficacy studies for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria frequently encounter situations in which molecular genotyping is unable to discriminate between parasitic recurrence, either new infection or recrudescence. The current WHO guideline recommends excluding these individuals with indeterminate outcomes in a complete case (CC) analysis. Data from the four artemisinin-based combination (4ABC) trial was used to compare the performance of multiple imputation (MI) and inverse probability weighting (IPW) against the standard CC analysis for dealing with indeterminate recurrences. METHODS: 3369 study participants from the multicentre study (4ABC trial) with molecularly defined parasitic recurrence treated with three artemisinin-based combination therapies were used to represent a complete dataset. A set proportion of recurrent infections (10, 30 and 45%) were reclassified as missing using two mechanisms: a completely random selection (mechanism 1); missingness weakly dependent (mechanism 2a) and strongly dependent (mechanism 2b) on treatment and transmission intensity. The performance of MI, IPW and CC approaches in estimating the Kaplan-Meier (K-M) probability of parasitic recrudescence at day 28 was then compared. In addition, the maximum likelihood estimate of the cured proportion was presented for further comparison (analytical solution). Performance measures (bias, relative bias, standard error and coverage) were reported as an average from 1000 simulation runs. RESULTS: The CC analyses resulted in absolute underestimation of K-M probability of day 28 recrudescence by up to 1.7% and were associated with reduced precision and poor coverage across all the scenarios studied. Both MI and IPW method performed better (greater consistency and greater efficiency) compared to CC analysis. In the absence of censoring, the analytical solution provided the most consistent and accurate estimate of cured proportion compared to the CC analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The widely used CC approach underestimates antimalarial failure; IPW and MI procedures provided efficient and consistent estimates and should be considered when reporting the results of antimalarial clinical trials, especially in areas of high transmission, where the proportion of indeterminate outcomes could be large. The analytical solution estimating the cured proportion could provide an alternative approach, in scenarios with minimal censoring due to loss to follow-up or new infections.

15.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222993, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600221

RESUMO

Artemisinin resistance is threatening global efforts for malaria control and elimination. Primaquine (PQ) and methylene blue (MB) are gametocytocidal drugs that can be combined with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) to reduce malaria transmission, including resistant strains. Children (6-59 months) with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Burkina Faso were treated with artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ) and randomized to MB (15 mg/kg/day for 3 days) or PQ (0.25 mg/kg at day 2) with the aim to show non-inferiority of the MB regimen with regard to haematological recovery at day 7 (primary endpoint). MB-AS-AQ could not be shown to be non-inferior to PQ-AS-AQ (mean Hb difference between treatment groups on day 7 was -0.352, 95% CI -0.832-0.128, p = 0.0767), however, haemoglobin recovery following treatment was alike in the two study arms (day 7: mean 0.2±1.4 g/dl vs. 0.5±0.9 g/dl, p = 0.446). Occurrence of adverse events was similar in both groups, except for vomiting, which was more frequent in the MB than in the PQ arm (20/50 vs 7/50, p = 0.003). Adequate clinical and parasitological response was above 95% in both groups, but significantly more asexual parasites were cleared in the MB arm compared to the PQ arm already on day 1 (48/50, 96%, vs 40/50, 80%, p = 0.014). Moreover, P. falciparum gametocyte prevalence and density were lower in the MB arm than in the PQ arm, which reached statistical significance on day 2 (prevalence: 2/50, 4%, vs 15/49, 31%, p<0.001; density: 9.6 vs 41.1/µl, p = 0.024). However, it should be considered that PQ was given only on day 2. MB-ACT appears to be an interesting alternative to PQ-ACT for the treatment of falciparum malaria. While there is a need to further improve MB formulations, MB-ACT may already be considered useful to reduce falciparum malaria transmission intensity, to increase treatment efficacy, and to reduce the risk for resistance development and spread. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02851108.

16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13515, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534181

RESUMO

Malaria has declined significantly in The Gambia and determining transmission dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum can help targeting control interventions towards elimination. This can be inferred from genetic similarity between parasite isolates from different sites and timepoints. Here, we imposed a P. falciparum life cycle time on a genetic distance likelihood model to determine transmission paths from a 54 SNP barcode of 355 isolates. Samples were collected monthly during the 2013 malaria season from six pairs of villages spanning 300 km from western to eastern Gambia. There was spatial and temporal hierarchy in pairwise genetic relatedness, with the most similar barcodes from isolates within the same households and village. Constrained by travel data, the model detected 60 directional transmission events, with 27% paths linking persons from different regions. We identified 13 infected individuals (4.2% of those genotyped) responsible for 2 to 8 subsequent infections within their communities. These super-infectors were mostly from high transmission villages. When considering paths between isolates from the most distant regions (west vs east) and travel history, there were 3 transmission paths from eastern to western Gambia, all at the peak (October) of the malaria transmission season. No paths with known travel originated from the extreme west to east. Although more than half of all paths were within-village, parasite flow from east to west may contribute to maintain transmission in western Gambia, where malaria transmission is already low. Therefore, interrupting malaria transmission in western Gambia would require targeting eastern Gambia, where malaria prevalence is substantially higher, with intensified malaria interventions.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383656

RESUMO

Single-dose primaquine (PQ) clears mature gametocytes and reduces the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum after artemisinin combination therapy. Genetic variation in CYP2D6, the gene producing the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), influences plasma concentrations of PQ and its metabolites and is associated with PQ treatment failure in Plasmodium vivax malaria. Using blood and saliva samples of varying quantity and quality from 8 clinical trials across Africa (n = 1,076), we were able to genotype CYP2D6 for 774 samples (72%). We determined whether genetic variation in CYP2D6 has implications for PQ efficacy in individuals with gametocytes at the time of PQ administration (n = 554) and for safety in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals treated with PQ (n = 110). Individuals with a genetically inferred CYP2D6 poor/intermediate metabolizer status had a higher gametocyte prevalence on day 7 or 10 after PQ than those with an extensive/ultrarapid CYP2D6 metabolizer status (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.10, 2.90]; P = 0.018). The mean minimum hemoglobin concentrations during follow-up for G6PD-deficient individuals were 11.8 g/dl for CYP2D6 extensive/ultrarapid metabolizers and 12.1 g/dl for CYP2D6 poor/intermediate metabolizers (P = 0. 803). CYP2D6 genetically inferred metabolizer status was also not associated with anemia following PQ treatment (P = 0.331). We conclude that CYP2D6 poor/intermediate metabolizer status may be associated with prolonged gametocyte carriage after treatment with single-low-dose PQ but not with treatment safety.

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the impact of exposure to P. falciparum on parasite kinetics, clinical symptoms, and functional immunity after controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) in two cohorts with different levels of previous malarial exposure. METHODS: Nine adult males with high (sero-high) and ten with low (sero-low) previous exposure received 3200 PfSPZ of PfSPZ Challenge by direct venous inoculation and were followed for 35 days for parasitemia by thick blood smear (TBS) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). End points were time to parasitemia, adverse events and immune responses. RESULTS: Ten of Ten (100%) volunteers in the sero-low and 7 of 9 (77.8%) in the sero-high group developed parasitemia detected by TBS in the first 28 days (p = 0.125). The median time to parasitemia was significantly shorter in the sero-low group [9 days (7.5-11.0) vs.11.3 days (7.5-18.0), log rank test, p=0.005]. Antibody recognition of sporozoites was significantly higher in the sero-high (median 17.93 AU, IQR 12.95-24) than the sero-low volunteers (median 10.54 AU, IQR 8.36-12.12); p=0.006. Presence of blood-stage antibodies was also significantly higher (p=0.0003) in the sero-high group (median 50.98 AU, IQR 22.46-65.07) than in the sero-low group (median 3.16 AU, IQR 2.43-8.71). Growth inhibitory activity (GIA) was significantly higher in the sero-high (median 21.8%, IQR 8.15-29.65) than in the sero-low (median 8.3%, IQR 5.6-10.23) (p=0.025). CONCLUSION: CHMI was safe and well tolerated in this population. Individuals with serological evidence of higher malaria exposure were able to better control infection and had higher parasite growth inhibitory activity.

19.
Malar J ; 18(1): 288, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Gambia has successfully reduced malaria transmission. The human reservoir of infection could further decrease if malaria-infected individuals could be identified by highly sensitive, field-based, diagnostic tools and then treated. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was done at the peak of the 2017 malaria season in 47 Gambian villages. From each village, 100 residents were randomly selected for finger-prick blood samples to detect Plasmodium falciparum infections using highly sensitive rapid diagnostic tests (HS-RDT) and PCR. The sensitivity and specificity of the HS-RDT were estimated (assuming PCR as the gold standard) across varying transmission intensities and in different age groups. A deterministic, age-structured, dynamic model of malaria transmission was used to estimate the impact of mass testing and treatment (MTAT) with HS-RDT in four different scenarios of malaria prevalence by PCR: 5, 15, 30, and 60%, and with seasonal transmission. The impact was compared both to MTAT with conventional RDT and mass drug administration (MDA). RESULTS: Malaria prevalence by HS-RDT was 15% (570/3798; 95% CI 13.9-16.1). The HS-RDT sensitivity and specificity were 38.4% (191/497, 95% CI 34.2-42.71) and 88.5% (2922/3301; 95% CI 87.4-89.6), respectively. Sensitivity was the highest (50.9%, 95% CI 43.3-58.5%) in high prevalence villages (20-50% by PCR). The model predicted that in very low transmission areas (≤ 5%), three monthly rounds of MTAT with HS-RDT, starting towards the end of the dry season and testing 65 or 85% of the population for 2 consecutive years, would avert 62 or 78% of malaria cases (over 2 years), respectively. The effect of the intervention would be lower in a moderate transmission setting. In all settings, MDA would be superior to MTAT with HS-RDT which would be superior to MTAT with conventional RDT. CONCLUSION: The HS-RDT's field sensitivity was modest and varied by transmission intensity. In low to very low transmission areas, three monthly rounds per year of MTAT with HS-RDT at 85% coverage for 2 consecutive years would reduce malaria prevalence to such low levels that additional strategies may achieve elimination. The model prediction would need to be confirmed by cluster-randomized trials.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Science ; 365(6455): 813-816, 2019 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439796

RESUMO

Understanding genomic variation and population structure of Plasmodium falciparum across Africa is necessary to sustain progress toward malaria elimination. Genome clustering of 2263 P. falciparum isolates from 24 malaria-endemic settings in 15 African countries identified major western, central, and eastern ancestries, plus a highly divergent Ethiopian population. Ancestry aligned to these regional blocs, overlapping with both the parasite's origin and with historical human migration. The parasite populations are interbred and shared genomic haplotypes, especially across drug resistance loci, which showed the strongest recent identity-by-descent between populations. A recent signature of selection on chromosome 12 with candidate resistance loci against artemisinin derivatives was evident in Ghana and Malawi. Such selection and the emerging substructure may affect treatment-based intervention strategies against P. falciparum malaria.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Loci Gênicos , Gana/epidemiologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malaui/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética
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