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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(10)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681001

RESUMO

Known multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility variants can only explain half of the disease's estimated heritability, whereas low-frequency and rare variants may partly account for the missing heritability. Thus, here we sought to determine the occurrence of rare functional variants in a large Italian MS multiplex family with five affected members. For this purpose, we combined linkage analysis and next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based whole exome and whole genome sequencing (WES and WGS, respectively). The genetic burden attributable to known common MS variants was also assessed by weighted genetic risk score (wGRS). We found a significantly higher burden of common variants in the affected family members compared to that observed among sporadic MS patients and healthy controls (HCs). We also identified 34 genes containing at least one low-frequency functional variant shared among all affected family members, showing a significant enrichment in genes involved in specific biological processes-particularly mRNA transport-or neurodegenerative diseases. Altogether, our findings point to a possible pathogenic role of different low-frequency functional MS variants belonging to shared pathways. We propose that these rare variants, together with other known common MS variants, may account for the high number of affected family members within this MS multiplex family.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638725

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of the corticospinal motor neurons, which ultimately leads to death. The repeat expansion in chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) represents the most common genetic cause of ALS and it is also involved in the pathogenesis of other neurodegenerative disorders. To offer insights into C9ORF72-mediated pathogenesis, we quantitatively analyzed the proteome of patient-derived primary skin fibroblasts from ALS patients carrying the C9ORF72 mutation compared with ALS patients who tested negative for it. Differentially expressed proteins were identified, used to generate a protein-protein interaction network and subjected to a functional enrichment analysis to unveil altered molecular pathways. ALS patients were also compared with patients affected by frontotemporal dementia carrying the C9ORF72 repeat expansion. As a result, we demonstrated that the molecular pathways mainly altered in fibroblasts (e.g., protein homeostasis) mirror the alterations observed in C9ORF72-mutated neurons. Moreover, we highlighted novel molecular pathways (nuclear and mitochondrial transports, vesicle trafficking, mitochondrial bioenergetics, glucose metabolism, ER-phagosome crosstalk and Slit/Robo signaling pathway) which might be further investigated as C9ORF72-specific pathogenetic mechanisms. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD023866.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Proteína C9orf72 , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Fibroblastos , Proteoma , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Pele , Adulto , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Proteína C9orf72/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
3.
J Pers Med ; 11(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683108

RESUMO

Normal tissue radiosensitivity is thought to be influenced by an individual's genetic background. However, the specific genetic variants underlying the risk of late skin reactions following radiotherapy for breast cancer remain elusive. To unravel the genetic basis for radiation-induced late skin toxicity, we carried out targeted next-generation sequencing of germline DNA samples from 48 breast cancer patients with extreme late skin toxicity phenotypes, consisting of 24 cases with grade 2-3 subcutaneous fibrosis and/or grade 2-3 telangiectasia (LENT-SOMA scales) and 24 controls with grade 0 fibrosis and grade 0 telangiectasia. In this exploratory study, a total of five single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) located in three genes (TP53, ERCC2, and LIG1) reached nominal levels of statistical significance (p < 0.05). In the replication study, which consisted of an additional 45 cases and 192 controls, none of the SNVs identified by targeted NGS achieved nominal replication. Nevertheless, TP53 rs1042522 (G > C, Pro72Arg) in the replication cohort had an effect (OR per C allele: 1.52, 95%CI: 0.82-2.83, p = 0.186) in the same direction as in the exploratory cohort (OR per C allele: 4.70, 95%CI: 1.51-14.6, p = 0.007) and was found be nominally associated to the risk of radiation-induced late skin toxicity in the overall combined cohort (OR per C allele: 1.79, 95%CI: 1.06-3.02, p = 0.028). These results raise the possibility of an association between TP53 rs1042522 and risk of radiation-induced late skin toxicity in breast cancer patients; however, large replication studies are warranted for conclusive evidence.

5.
J Genet Genomics ; 48(6): 497-507, 2021 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353742

RESUMO

Among multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility genes, the strongest non-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) signal in the Italian population maps to the TNFSF14 gene encoding LIGHT, a glycoprotein involved in dendritic cell (DC) maturation. Through fine-mapping in a large Italian dataset (4,198 patients with MS and 3,903 controls), we show that the TNFSF14 intronic SNP rs1077667 is the primarily MS-associated variant in the region. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis indicates that the MS risk allele is significantly associated with reduced TNFSF14 messenger RNA levels in blood cells, which is consistent with the allelic imbalance in RNA-Seq reads (P < 0.0001). The MS risk allele is associated with reduced levels of TNFSF14 gene expression (P < 0.01) in blood cells from 84 Italian patients with MS and 80 healthy controls (HCs). Interestingly, patients with MS are lower expressors of TNFSF14 compared to HC (P < 0.007). Individuals homozygous for the MS risk allele display an increased percentage of LIGHT-positive peripheral blood myeloid DCs (CD11c+, P = 0.035) in 37 HCs, as well as in in vitro monocyte-derived DCs from 22 HCs (P = 0.04). Our findings suggest that the intronic variant rs1077667 alters the expression of TNFSF14 in immune cells, which may play a role in MS pathogenesis.

6.
Neuroepidemiology ; 55(2): 119-125, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691323

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Italy is considered a high-risk country for multiple sclerosis (MS). Exploiting electronic health archives (EHAs) is highly useful to continuously monitoring the prevalence of the disease, as well as the care delivered to patients and its outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate an EHA-based algorithm to identify MS patients, suitable for epidemiological purposes, and to estimate MS prevalence in Piedmont (North Italy). METHODS: MS cases were identified, in the period between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2017, linking data from 4 different sources: hospital discharges, drug prescriptions, exemptions from co-payment to health care, and long-term care facilities. Sensitivity of the algorithm was tested through record linkage with a cohort of 656 neurologist-confirmed MS cases; specificity was tested with a cohort of 2,966,293 residents presumably not affected by MS. Undercount was estimated by a capture-recapture method. We calculated crude, and age- and gender-specific prevalence. We also calculated age-adjusted prevalence by level of urbanization of the municipality of residence. RESULTS: On December 31, 2017, the algorithm identified 8,850 MS cases. Sensitivity was 95.9%, specificity was 99.97%, and the estimated completeness of ascertainment was 91.9%. The overall prevalence, adjusted for undercount, was 152 per 100,000 among men and 286 among women; it increased with increasing age and reached its peak value in the 45- to 54-year class, followed by a progressive reduction. The age-adjusted prevalence of residents in cities was 15% higher than in those living in the countryside. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: We validated an algorithm based on EHAs to identify cases of MS for epidemiological use. The prevalence of MS, adjusted for undercount, was among the highest in Italy. We also found that the prevalence was higher in highly urbanized areas.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Urbanização
7.
Neurogenetics ; 22(1): 65-70, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471268

RESUMO

Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurological condition characterized by the presence of intracranial calcifications, mainly involving basal ganglia, thalamus, and dentate nuclei. So far, six genes have been linked to this condition: SLC20A2, PDGFRB, PDGFB, and XPR1 inherited as autosomal-dominant trait, while MYORG and JAM2 present a recessive pattern of inheritance. Patients mainly present with movement disorders, psychiatric disturbances, and cognitive decline or are completely asymptomatic and calcifications may represent an occasional finding. Here we present three variants in SLC20A2, two exonic and one intronic, which we found in patients with PFBC associated to three different clinical phenotypes. One variant is novel and two were already described as variants of uncertain significance. We confirm the pathogenicity of these three variants and suggest a broadening of the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in SLC20A2.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo III/genética , Idoso , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Encefalopatias/patologia , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Linhagem , Fenótipo
8.
Neurology ; 96(4): e600-e609, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the burden of rare genetic variants and to estimate the contribution of known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) genes in an Italian population-based cohort, we performed whole genome sequencing in 959 patients with ALS and 677 matched healthy controls. METHODS: We performed genome sequencing in a population-based cohort (Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta Registry for ALS [PARALS]). A panel of 40 ALS genes was analyzed to identify potential disease-causing genetic variants and to evaluate the gene-wide burden of rare variants among our population. RESULTS: A total of 959 patients with ALS were compared with 677 healthy controls from the same geographical area. Gene-wide association tests demonstrated a strong association with SOD1, whose rare variants are the second most common cause of disease after C9orf72 expansion. A lower signal was observed for TARDBP, proving that its effect on our cohort is driven by a few known causal variants. We detected rare variants in other known ALS genes that did not surpass statistical significance in gene-wise tests, thus highlighting that their contribution to disease risk in our cohort is limited. CONCLUSIONS: We identified potential disease-causing variants in 11.9% of our patients. We identified the genes most frequently involved in our cohort and confirmed the contribution of rare variants in disease risk. Our results provide further insight into the pathologic mechanism of the disease and demonstrate the importance of genome-wide sequencing as a diagnostic tool.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Environ Res ; 192: 110292, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027627

RESUMO

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the motor system. The etiology is still unknown and the pathogenesis remains unclear. ALS is familial in the 10% of cases with a Mendelian pattern of inheritance. In the remaining sporadic cases, a multifactorial origin is supposed in which several predisposing genes interact with environmental factors. The etiological role of environmental factors, such as pesticides, exposure to electromagnetic fields, and metals has been frequently investigated, with controversial findings. Studies in the past two decades have highlighted possible roles of metals, and ionic homeostasis dysregulation has been proposed as the main trigger to motor-neuron degeneration. This study aims at evaluating the possible role of environmental factors in etiopathogenesis of ALS, with a particular attention on metal contamination, focusing on the industrial Briga area in the province of Novara (Piedmont region, North Italy), characterized by: i) a higher incidence of sporadic ALS (sALS) in comparison with the entire province, and ii) the reported environmental pollution. Environmental data from surface, ground and discharge waters, and from soils were collected and specifically analyzed for metal content. Considering the significance of genetic mechanisms in ALS, a characterization for the main ALS genes has been performed to evaluate the genetic contribution for the sALS patients living in the area of study. The main findings of this study are the demonstration that in the Briga area the most common metal contaminants are Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni (widely used in tip-plating processes), that are above law limits in surface waters, discharge waters, and soil. In addition, other metals and metalloids, such as Cd, Pb, Mn, and As show a severe contamination in the same area. Results of genetic analyses show that sALS patients in the Briga area do not carry recurrent mutations or an excess of mutations in the four main ALS causative genes (SOD1, TARDBP, FUS, C9ORF72) and for ATXN2 CAG repeat locus. This study supports the hypothesis that the higher incidence of sALS in Briga area may be related to environmental metal(loid)s contamination, along with other environmental factors. Further studies, implementing analysis of genetic polymorphisms, as well as investigation with long term follow-up, may yield to key aspects into the etiology of ALS. The interplay between different approaches (environmental, chemical, epidemiological, genetic) of our work provides new insights and methodology to the comprehension of the disease etiology.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/etiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Causalidade , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Mutação
10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(12)2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844222

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D plays an immunoregulatory activity. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between blood serum 25(OH)D levels and Th17 and Treg circulating subsets, mainly Treg/inducible costimulatory-positive (ICOS+), which seems to have a protective role in autoimmunity, in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and their healthy siblings (S). The secondary aim was to evaluate the impact of vitamin D supplementation on these subsets. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 22 T1D and 33 S were enrolled. Glucose, hemoglobin A1c, 25 OH vitamin D (25[OH]D), T helper type 17 (Th17; CD4+CCR6+), regulatory T cells (Treg; CD4+CD25+Foxp3+), and Treg/ICOS+ cells were evaluated. According to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes, subjects were classified as "at risk" (HLA+), "protective haplotypes" (HLA-; "nested controls"), and "undetermined" (HLAUND). T1D and S subjects were supplemented with cholecalciferol 1000 IU/die and evaluated after 6 months. RESULTS: Vitamin D insufficiency (74.4%) and deficiency (43%) were frequent. S subjects with 25(OH)D levels <25 nmol/L had Th17, Treg (p < 0.01), and Treg/ICOS+ (P < 0.05) percentages higher than subjects with 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L. Treg/ICOS+ percentages (P < 0.05) were higher in HLA- S subjects compared to percentages observed in S with T1D. At baseline, in S subjects, a decreasing trend in Th17 and Treg/ICOS+ values (P < 0.05) from vitamin D deficiency to sufficiency was observed; 25(OH)D levels were negative predictors of Treg/ICOS+ (R2 = 0.301) and Th17 percentages (R2 = 0.138). After 6 months, supplemented S subjects showed higher 25(OH)D levels (P < 0.0001), and lower Th17 (P < 0.0001) and Treg/ICOS+ (P < 0.05) percentages than at baseline; supplemented T1D patients only had a decrease in Th17 levels (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Serum 25(OH)D levels seem to affect Th17 and Treg cell subsets in S subjects, consistent with its immunomodulating role. HLA role should be investigated in a larger population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Proteína Coestimuladora de Linfócitos T Induzíveis/metabolismo , Irmãos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Células Th17/citologia , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/metabolismo , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/imunologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo
11.
Stem Cell Res ; 47: 101924, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739880

RESUMO

Among the known causative genes of familial ALS, SOD1mutation is one of the most common. It encodes for the ubiquitous detoxifying copper/zinc binding SOD1 enzyme, whose mutations selectively cause motor neuron death, although the mechanisms are not as yet clear. What is known is that mutant-mediated toxicity is not caused by loss of its detoxifying activity but by a gain-of-function. In order to better understand the pathogenic mechanisms of SOD1 mutation, a human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) line was generated from the somatic cells of a female patient carrying a missense variation in SOD1 (L145F).

12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5517, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251337

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

13.
Neurology ; 94(8): e802-e810, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the determinants of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) phenotypes in a population-based cohort. METHODS: The study population included 2,839 patients with ALS diagnosed in Piemonte, Italy (1995-2015). Patients were classified according to motor (classic, bulbar, flail arm, flail leg, predominantly upper motor neuron [PUMN], respiratory) and cognitive phenotypes (normal, ALS with cognitive impairment [ALSci], ALS with behavioral impairment [ALSbi], ALSci and ALSbi combined [ALScbi], ALS-frontotemporal dementia [FTD]). Binary logistic regression analysis was adjusted for sex, age, and genetics. RESULTS: Bulbar phenotype correlated with older age (p < 0.0001), women were more affected than men at increasing age (p < 0.0001), classic with younger age (p = 0.029), men were more affected than women at increasing age (p < 0.0001), PUMN with younger age (p < 0.0001), flail arm with male sex (p < 0.0001) and younger age (p = 0.04), flail leg with male sex with increasing age (p = 0.008), and respiratory with male sex (p < 0.0001). C9orf72 expansions correlated with bulbar phenotype (p < 0.0001), and were less frequent in PUMN (p = 0.041); SOD1 mutations correlated with flail leg phenotype (p < 0.0001), and were less frequent in bulbar (p < 0.0001). ALS-FTD correlated with C9orf72 (p < 0.0001) and bulbar phenotype (p = 0.008), ALScbi with PUMN (p = 0.014), and ALSci with older age (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the spatial-temporal combination of motor and cognitive events leading to the onset and progression of ALS is characterized by a differential susceptibility to the pathologic process of motor and prefrontal cortices and lower motor neurons, and is influenced by age, sex, and gene variants. The identification of those factors that regulate ALS phenotype will allow us to reclassify patients into pathologically homogenous subgroups, responsive to targeted personalized therapies.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/classificação , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Demência Frontotemporal/epidemiologia , Transtornos Motores/epidemiologia , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Comorbidade , Feminino , Demência Frontotemporal/classificação , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Motores/classificação , Transtornos Motores/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Fatores Sexuais
14.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(3): 291-297, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871138

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The lack of prognostic biomarkers in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) induced researchers to develop clinical evaluation tools for stratification and survival prediction. We assessed the correlation between patterns of functional involvement, considered as a cumulative number of body regions involved, and overall survival in a population-based series of patients with ALS (PARALS). METHODS: We derived the functional involvement of four body regions at diagnosis using ALSFRS-R subscores for bulbar, upper limbs, lower limbs and respiratory/thoracic regions. We analysed the effect of number of body regions involved (NBRI) at diagnosis on overall survival, adjusting for age at onset, sex, site of onset, diagnostic delay, forced vital capacity, body mass index, mutational status, cognition and comparing it with King's staging system. RESULTS: The NBRI was strongly related to survival, with a progressive increase of death/tracheostomy risk among groups (two body regions HR=1.24, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.45, p=0007; three body regions HR=1.65, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.98, p<0.001; four body regions HR=2.68, 95% CI 2.11 to 3.39, p<0.001). Using ALSFRS-R score, the consistency between the number of regions involved and King's clinical stage at diagnosis was very high (81%). The evaluation of respiratory/thoracic region and cognition allowed to subdivide patients into different prognostic categories. Regional spreading of the disease is associated with survival, independently from the initial region involved. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation of NBRI, with the inclusion of initial respiratory/thoracic involvement and cognition, can be useful in many research fields, improving the stratification of patients. Our findings highlight the importance of the spatial spreading of functional impairment in the prediction of ALS outcome.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/complicações , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade , Diagnóstico Tardio , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Avaliação de Sintomas , Capacidade Vital
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852254

RESUMO

Here, we described the first amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient presenting the c.881 G > T p.G294V TARDBP mutation in homozygous status. The patient belongs to a large pedigree from Morocco. Except for one older affected brother his parents and remaining 8 sibs are referred to be healthy and do not show any neurological sign or symptom. The lack of evidence of TARDBP deletions of any sizes, together with the presence of several AOH segments, strongly suggests that the homozygosity status of p.G294V in the proband derived from parental consanguinity. A revision of the literature and our cohorts indicates that the p.G294V mutation has been detected in only 15 additional ALS patients in heterozygosity and, except for one additional Moroccan patient, all were of Italian origin. The analysis of microsatellite markers surrounding the TARDBP gene in 8 individuals carrying the p.G294V mutation showed that the haplotypic context of the Moroccan proband is shared with most patients of European origin indicating that they carry the p.G294V mutation inherited from a common ancestor. The analysis of the 15 ALS pedigrees (from literature data and present study), strongly suggests a reduced penetrance of the p.G294V mutation since for 13 of the 15 described p.G294V ALS cases the parents did not show any neurological symptoms. This result has potentially important implications in genetic counseling, since genetic testing of a reduced penetrance mutation on pre-symptomatic individuals proves very difficult to predict the outcome based on the genotype.


Assuntos
Alelos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Homozigoto , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem
16.
Front Neurol ; 10: 866, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456737

RESUMO

Background: The association between lifestyle factors and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) disease severity and progression has been investigated to a lesser extent compared with susceptibility to the disease. Objective: We aimed to assess the impact of lifetime alcohol and cigarette smoking load on MS severity. Methods: Design: a cross-sectional study. Three hundred fifty-one patients consecutively admitted to the Department of Neurology were asked to complete the "Questionnaire of Lifestyle" (part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition project). An estimation of the cumulative lifetime cigarette smoking and alcohol load was calculated as the weighted sum of the mean number of cigarettes smoked and standard alcoholic drinks consumed per day at different ages. The measure of exposure was expressed in terms of pack-year and drink-year. Disease severity was estimated by the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS). Logistic regression analyses were performed using MSSS (first tertile vs. third tertile) as the outcome. Results: The median MSSS was higher (3.2 vs. 2.3, p = 0.002) in ever- vs. never-smokers, but we did not find a difference between ever- and never-drinkers (2.7 vs. 2.8, p = ns). Ever-smokers were almost twice as likely to fall in the upper MSSS tertile than never-smokers. Ever-drinkers did not show a statistically significant association between alcohol intake and MS severity. The risk of falling in the worst MSSS tertile for smokers was 10.81 (2.0-58.48; p < 0.01) if they were never-drinkers, whereas it was only 1.65 (0.89-3.03, p = 0.11) if they were also drinkers. On the other side, the risk of falling in the worst MSSS tertile for drinkers did not change as much, whether they also were smokers (0.46; 0.13-1.65; p = 0.23) or not (1.49; 0.55-4.04, p = 0.43). Conclusions: Cigarette smoking, unlike alcohol consumption, is associated with MS severity. Alcohol consumption may attenuate the effect of smoking on disease severity, acting as an effect modifier. The biological background of this effect is unknown. The limitations of our study are mostly due to its cross-sectional design.

17.
Neurology ; 93(10): e984-e994, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of the degree of severity of motor impairment to that of cognitive impairment in a large cohort of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: This is a population-based cross-sectional study on patients with ALS incident in Piemonte, Italy, between 2007 and 2015. Cognitive status was classified according to the revised ALS-FTD Consensus Criteria. The King system and the Milano Torino Staging system (MiToS) were used for defining the severity of motor impairment. RESULTS: Of the 797 patients included in the study, 163 (20.5%) had ALS-frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 38 (4.8%) cognitive and behavioral impairment (ALScbi), 132 (16.6%) cognitive impairment (ALSci), 63 (7.9%) behavioral impairment (ALSbi), 16 (2.0%) nonexecutive impairment, and 385 (48.2%) were cognitively normal. According to King staging, the frequency of cases with ALS-FTD progressively increased from 16.5% in stage 1-44.4% in stage 4; conversely, the frequency of ALSci, ALSbi, and ALScbi increased from King stage 1 to King stage 3 and decreased thereafter. A similar pattern was observed with the MiToS staging. ALS-FTD was more frequent in patients with bulbar involvement at time of cognitive testing. Patients with C9ORF72 expansion (n = 61) showed more severe cognitive impairment with increasing King and MiToS stages. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that ALS motor and cognitive components may worsen in parallel, and that cognitive impairment becomes more pronounced when bulbar function is involved. Our data support the hypothesis that ALS pathology disseminates in a regional ordered sequence, through a cortico-efferent spreading model.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Progressão da Doença , Vigilância da População , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros
18.
Neurol Sci ; 40(12): 2537-2540, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286297

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. The hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 gene (C9orf72-HRE) is the most frequent genetic cause of ALS. Since many ALS pedigrees showed incomplete penetrance, several genes have been analyzed as possible modifiers. Length of the GCG repeat tract in NIPA1 (non-imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 1) gene has been recently investigated as a possible modifier factor for C9orf72-HRE patients with contrasting findings. To disclose the possible role of NIPA1 GCG repeat length as modifier of the disease risk in C9orf72-HRE carriers, we analyzed a large cohort of 532 Italian ALS cases enriched in C9orf72-HRE carriers (172 cases) and 483 Italian controls. This sample size is powered (92% power, p = 0.05) to replicate the modifier effect observed in literature. We did not observe higher frequency of NIPA1 long alleles (> 8 GCG) in C9orf72-HRE carriers (3.5%) compared with C9orf72-HRE negative patients (4.1%) and healthy controls (5%). For the latter comparison, we meta-analyzed our data with currently available literature data, and no statistically significant effect was observed (p = 0.118). In conclusion, we did not confirm a role of NIPA1 repeat length as a modifier of the C9orf72 ALS disease risk.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Genes Modificadores/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Itália , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos
19.
Neurology ; 91(7): e635-e642, 2018 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30045958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) incidence rates are consistent with the hypothesis that ALS is a multistep process. We tested the hypothesis that carrying a large effect mutation might account for ≥1 steps through the effect of the mutation, thus leaving fewer remaining steps before ALS begins. METHODS: We generated incidence data from an ALS population register in Italy (2007-2015) for which genetic analysis for C9orf72, SOD1, TARDBP, and FUS genes was performed in 82% of incident cases. As confirmation, we used data from ALS cases diagnosed in the Republic of Ireland (2006-2014). We regressed the log of age-specific incidence against the log of age with least-squares regression for the subpopulation carrying disease-associated variation in each separate gene. RESULTS: Of the 1,077 genetically tested cases, 74 (6.9%) carried C9orf72 mutations, 20 (1.9%) had SOD1 mutations, 15 (1.4%) had TARDBP mutations, and 3 (0.3%) carried FUS mutations. In the whole population, there was a linear relationship between log incidence and log age (r2 = 0.98) with a slope estimate of 4.65 (4.37-4.95), consistent with a 6-step process. The analysis for C9orf72-mutated patients confirmed a linear relationship (r2 = 0.94) with a slope estimate of 2.22 (1.74-2.29), suggesting a 3-step process. This estimate was confirmed by data from the Irish ALS register. The slope estimate was consistent with a 2-step process for SOD1 and with a 4-step process for TARDBP. CONCLUSION: The identification of a reduced number of steps in patients with ALS with genetic mutations compared to those without mutations supports the idea of ALS as a multistep process and is an important advance for dissecting the pathogenic process in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína FUS de Ligação a RNA/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética
20.
Front Genet ; 9: 155, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29770143

RESUMO

Polymorphic Tandem Repeat (PTR) is a common form of polymorphism in the human genome. A PTR consists in a variation found in an individual (or in a population) of the number of repeating units of a Tandem Repeat (TR) locus of the genome with respect to the reference genome. Several phenotypic traits and diseases have been discovered to be strongly associated with or caused by specific PTR loci. PTR are further distinguished in two main classes: Short Tandem Repeats (STR) when the repeating unit has size up to 6 base pairs, and Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR) for repeating units of size above 6 base pairs. As larger and larger populations are screened via high throughput sequencing projects, it becomes technically feasible and desirable to explore the association between PTR and a panoply of such traits and conditions. In order to facilitate these studies, we have devised a method for compiling catalogs of PTR from assembled genomes, and we have produced a catalog of PTR for genic regions (exons, introns, UTR and adjacent regions) of the human genome (GRCh38). We applied four different TR discovery software tools to uncover in the first phase 55,223,485 TR (after duplicate removal) in GRCh38, of which 373,173 were determined to be PTR in the second phase by comparison with five assembled human genomes. Of these, 263,266 are not included by state-of-the-art PTR catalogs. The new methodology is mainly based on a hierarchical and systematic application of alignment-based sequence comparisons to identify and measure the polymorphism of TR. While previous catalogs focus on the class of STR of small total size, we remove any size restrictions, aiming at the more general class of PTR, and we also target fuzzy TR by using specific detection tools. Similarly to other previous catalogs of human polymorphic loci, we focus our catalog toward applications in the discovery of disease-associated loci. Validation by cross-referencing with existing catalogs on common clinically-relevant loci shows good concordance. Overall, this proposed census of human PTR in genic regions is a shared resource (web accessible), complementary to existing catalogs, facilitating future genome-wide studies involving PTR.

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