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1.
Foods ; 10(5)2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922497

RESUMO

The effect of plant biostimulation on fruits of traditional tomato germplasm is largely unknown. We examined how a tropical plant-derived biostimulant impacts the nutritional, functional, and compositional characteristics of tomato fruits from four landraces, collected in the San Marzano (SM) tomato Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) region, by profiling primary and secondary metabolites. Biostimulation was not able to completely reshuffle the morpho-physiological and nutritional profile of the four landraces. Their distinct phytochemical profile indicated a genotype-specific tuning of the analyzed traits, which also included an improved yield and fruit quality. Biostimulation of SM1 and SM3 increased photosynthetic accumulation of carbohydrate reserves, improved mineral nutrient use efficiency and consequently, yield (+21% and 34%, respectively). Moreover, biostimulation augmented the nutraceutical properties of the SM2 landrace. Interestingly, the plant-derived product increased in all genotypes lycopene, but not polyphenol accumulation in fruits. Our results show the potential of biostimulatory applications towards optimizing the fruit quality of the acclaimed SM landraces, which is suitable to satisfy both the rising consumer demand for premium traditional tomatoes and the technological needs of the food industry.

2.
Waste Manag ; 103: 12-21, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864011

RESUMO

Manure from lactating and non-lactating water buffaloes was separately collected from a single dairy farm and anaerobically digested under mesophilic conditions in batch mode to produce biogas. This substrate, scarcely studied in the literature, showed two peculiarities regarding two fundamental parameters in the digestion processes: C/N ratio and initial pH. Typically, optimal C/N varies from 20 to 30, but in this work an almost negligible role of this ratio is observed. We demonstrated it by investigating a very large C/N interval, from 9.7 to 50.1, not by adding selected nutrients to the system, but exploiting the natural variation of the substrate. Concerning the pH, we show that also typically considered unfavorable conditions are feasible for this substrate. In fact, though neutral-basic initial pH is proved to be optimal to run the digestion process, in line with many other kinds of dungs, also acid initial pH leads to satisfactory CH4 yield. This is principally related to the capability of water buffalo manure of auto-modifying the pH to neutrality during the digestion, when initial pH of 5.0 and 6.0 are considered. This aspect may be relevant in co-digestion processes with acid wastes, since it may allow not adding neither a buffer, nor a pH regulator to the system. All the digestion conditions are separately tested with lactating and non-lactating water buffaloes and no statistical meaningful differences exist between the two kinds of cattle.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Esterco , Anaerobiose , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Bovinos , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactação , Metano
3.
Food Chem ; 292: 166-175, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054662

RESUMO

Compositional characterization was performed on seven 'Pomodorino del Piennolo del Vesuvio' (PPV) tomato landraces, a signature product of Campania (Italy) threatened by genetic erosion. Characterization encompassed determinations of macro-minerals, soluble carbohydrates, starch, acidity, lycopene, polyphenols, anthocyanins, protein and free amino acids. Exceptionally high dry matter (13.0 ±â€¯0.2%) and sugar content (101.3 ±â€¯3.8 µmol g-1 fw) and very low (0.007-0.009) Na/K ratio were invariably obtained across landraces, contrasted by significant variation in acidity (28.5-3.9 g kg-1 dw). Giagiù, Acampora and Riccia San Vito differentiated by high polyphenols content (131.8 ±â€¯2.5 mg 100 g-1) while Acampora, Cozzolino and Fofò by high lycopene content (13.3 ±â€¯10.6 mg 100 g-1 fw). Glutamate, GABA and glutamine represented 65% of the 22 detected amino acids mean total content. Glutamate, linked to umami taste, was highest (19.2 µmol g-1 fw) in Fofò. Our results will contribute towards the systematic documentation of sensory and functional quality profiles of an important collection of tomato landraces.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Carboidratos/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Itália , Licopeno/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Minerais/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Análise de Componente Principal
4.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 2004, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705684

RESUMO

Climate change will inevitably lead to environmental variations, thus plant drought tolerance will be a determinant factor in the success of plantations and natural forestry recovery. Some metabolites, such as soluble carbohydrates and amino acids, have been described as being the key to both embryogenesis efficiency and abiotic stress response, contributing to phenotypic plasticity and the adaptive capacity of plants. For this reason, our main objectives were to evaluate if the temperature during embryonal mass initiation in radiata pine was critical to the success of somatic embryogenesis, to alter the morphological and ultrastructural organization of embryonal masses at cellular level and to modify the carbohydrate, protein, or amino acid contents. The first SE initiation experiments were carried out at moderate and high temperatures for periods of different durations prior to transfer to the control temperature of 23°C. Cultures initiated at moderate temperatures (30°C, 4 weeks and 40°C, 4 days) showed significantly lower initiation and proliferation rates than those at the control temperature or pulse treatment at high temperatures (50°C, 5 min). No significant differences were observed either for the percentage of embryogenic cell lines that produced somatic embryos, or for the number of somatic embryos per gram of embryonal mass. Based on the results from the first experiments, initiation was carried out at 40°C 4 h; 50°C, 30 min; and a pulse treatment of 60°C, 5 min. No significant differences were found for the initiation or number of established lines or for the maturation of somatic embryos. However, large morphological differences were observed in the mature somatic embryos. At the same time, changes observed at cellular level suggested that strong heat shock treatments may trigger the programmed cell death of embryogenic cells, leading to an early loss of embryogenic potential, and the formation of supernumerary suspensor cells. Finally, among all the differences observed in the metabolic profile, it is worth highlighting the accumulation of tyrosine and isoleucine, both amino acids involved in the synthesis of abiotic stress response-related secondary metabolites.

5.
Funct Plant Biol ; 45(11): 1096-1109, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290971

RESUMO

Hordeum maritimum With. (= H. marinum Huds. subsp. marinum, 2n=14) is a wild cereal present in the saline depressions of the Soliman and Kelbia Sebkhas, which contributes significantly to annual biomass production in Tunisia. This species is able to tolerate high NaCl concentrations at the seedling stage without showing symptoms of toxicity; however, the tolerance strategy mechanisms of this plant have not yet been unravelled. Our metabolite analysis, performed on leaves of H. maritimum during extended stress in comparison with Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Lamsi, has revealed an adaptive response of the wild species based on a different temporal accumulation pattern of ions and compatible metabolites. Further, wild and cultivated genotypes with contrasting salt-tolerant behaviour display different pattern of metabolites when salt stress is prolonged over 2 weeks. In particular, when exposed to up to 3 weeks of 200mM NaCl salt stress, H. maritimum is able to maintain lower leaf concentrations of sodium and chloride, and higher concentrations of potassium compared with H. vulgare. This likely restricts sodium entry into plants at the root level, and uses the toxic ions, glycine betaine and low levels of proline for osmotic adjustment. Under prolonged stress, the accumulation of proline increases, reaching the highest levels in concomitance with the decrease of potassium to sodium ratio, the increase of hydrogen peroxide and decrease of chlorophylls. The modulation of proline accumulation over time can be interpreted as an adaptive response to long-term salinity. Moreover, once synthetised glycine betaine is transported but not metabolised, it can contribute together with proline to osmotically balance H. maritimum leaves and protect them from oxidative stress. The 2-3 week delay of H. maritimum in showing the symptoms of stress and damages compared with H. vulgare could be important in the survival of plants when soil salinity is not a permanent condition, but just a transient state of stress.

6.
Physiol Plant ; 159(3): 290-312, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27653956

RESUMO

Durum wheat plants are extremely sensitive to drought and salinity during seedling and early development stages. Their responses to stresses have been extensively studied to provide new metabolic targets and improving the tolerance to adverse environments. Most of these studies have been performed in growth chambers under low light [300-350 µmol m-2 s-1 photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), LL]. However, in nature plants have to face frequent fluctuations of light intensities that often exceed their photosynthetic capacity (900-2000 µmol m-2 s-1 ). In this study we investigated the physiological and metabolic changes potentially involved in osmotic adjustment and antioxidant defense in durum wheat seedlings under high light (HL) and salinity. The combined application of the two stresses decreased the water potential and stomatal conductance without reducing the photosynthetic efficiency of the plants. Glycine betaine (GB) synthesis was inhibited, proline and glutamate content decreased, while γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), amides and minor amino acids increased. The expression level and enzymatic activities of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, asparagine synthetase and glutamate decarboxylase, as well as other enzymatic activities of nitrogen and carbon metabolism, were analyzed. Antioxidant enzymes and metabolites were also considered. The results showed that the complex interplay seen in durum wheat plants under salinity at LL was simplified: GB and antioxidants did not play a main role. On the contrary, the fine tuning of few specific primary metabolites (GABA, amides, minor amino acids and hexoses) remodeled metabolism and defense processes, playing a key role in the response to simultaneous stresses.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Triticum/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos da radiação , Carbono/metabolismo , Luz , Modelos Biológicos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Pirróis/metabolismo , Salinidade , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/fisiologia , Plântula/efeitos da radiação , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/efeitos da radiação , Água/fisiologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
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