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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 718902, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603029

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the interactions between fingolimod, a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) agonist, and melanocortin receptors 1 and 5 (MCR1, MCR5). In particular, we investigated the effects of fingolimod, a drug approved to treat relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, on retinal angiogenesis in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy (DR). We showed, by a molecular modeling approach, that fingolimod can bind with good-predicted affinity to MC1R and MC5R. Thereafter, we investigated the fingolimod actions on retinal MC1Rs/MC5Rs in C57BL/6J mice. Diabetes was induced in C57BL/6J mice through streptozotocin injection. Diabetic and control C57BL/6J mice received fingolimod, by oral route, for 12 weeks and a monthly intravitreally injection of MC1R antagonist (AGRP), MC5R antagonist (PG20N), and the selective S1PR1 antagonist (Ex 26). Diabetic animals treated with fingolimod showed a decrease of retinal vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2), compared to diabetic control group. Fingolimod co-treatment with MC1R and MC5R selective antagonists significantly (p < 0.05) increased retinal VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and VEGFA levels compared to mice treated with fingolimod alone. Diabetic animals treated with fingolimod plus Ex 26 (S1PR1 selective blocker) had VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and VEGFA levels between diabetic mice group and the group of diabetic mice treated with fingolimod alone. This vascular protective effect of fingolimod, through activation of MC1R and MC5R, was evidenced also by fluorescein angiography in mice. Finally, molecular dynamic simulations showed a strong similarity between fingolimod and the MC1R agonist BMS-470539. In conclusion, the anti-angiogenic activity exerted by fingolimod in DR seems to be mediated not only through S1P1R, but also by melanocortin receptors.

2.
Biomedicines ; 9(8)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: pericoronary fat over-inflammation might lead to the development and destabilization of coronary plaque in patients with pre-diabetes (PDM). Notably, pericoronary fat could over-express the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) and leptin, along with decreased sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) expression in PDM vs. normoglycemic (NG) patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, in the current study, we evaluated inflammatory markers, SGLT2, SIRT6, and leptin levels in pericoronary fat and, subsequently, 12-month prognosis comparing PDM to NG subjected to CABG for AMI. In addition, we evaluated in PDM patients the effects of metformin therapy on SIRT6 expression, leptin, and SGLT2 levels, and assessed its beneficial effect on nitrotyrosine and inflammatory cytokine levels. METHODS: we studied AMI patients referred for CABG, divided into PDM and NG-patients. PDM patients were divided into never-metformin users and metformin users. Finally, we evaluated major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at a 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: the MACE was 9.1% in all PDM and 3% in NG patients (p < 0.05). Metformin users presented a significantly lower MACE rate in PDM than never-metformin users (p < 0.05). PDM showed higher inflammatory cytokines, 3-nitrotyrosine levels, SGLT2, and leptin content, and decreased SIRT6 protein levels in pericoronary fat compared to NG-patients (p < 0.05). PDM never-metformin-users showed higher SGLT2 and leptin levels in pericoronary fat than current-metformin-users (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: metformin therapy might ameliorate cardiovascular outcomes by reducing inflammatory parameters, SGLT2, and leptin levels, and finally improving SIRT6 levels in AMI-PDM patients treated with CABG.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208040

RESUMO

(1) Background: The pro-resolving lipid mediator Resolvin D1 (RvD1) has already shown protective effects in animal models of diabetic retinopathy. This study aimed to investigate the retinal levels of RvD1 in aged (24 months) and younger (3 months) Balb/c mice, along with the activation of macro- and microglia, apoptosis, and neuroinflammation. (2) Methods: Retinas from male and female mice were used for immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. (3) Results: Endogenous retinal levels of RvD1 were reduced in aged mice. While RvD1 levels were similar in younger males and females, they were markedly decreased in aged males but less reduced in aged females. Both aged males and females showed a significant increase in retinal microglia activation compared to younger mice, with a more marked reactivity in aged males than in aged females. The same trend was shown by astrocyte activation, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and nitrosative stress, in line with the microglia and Müller cell hypertrophy evidenced in aged retinas by electron microscopy. (4) Conclusions: Aged mice had sex-related differences in neuroinflammation and apoptosis and low retinal levels of endogenous RvD1.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Retina/patologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Células Ependimogliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Ependimogliais/metabolismo , Células Ependimogliais/patologia , Células Ependimogliais/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Microglia/ultraestrutura , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/metabolismo
4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(5)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063711

RESUMO

Ocular bacterial infections represent a serious problem that affecting people of all age and genders. These infections can lead to visual impairment and blindness if not properly treated. The current study evaluates the antimicrobial resistance profiles and the resistance trend of both Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), the main pathogens involved in eye infections. A total of 322 isolates of S. aureus and CoNS, were collected from patients with bacterial conjunctivitis and keratitis at the "Luigi Vanvitelli" University Hospital of Campania in Naples, Italy, between 2017 and 2020. The isolated bacteria showed a high percentage of resistance to methicillin and other antibiotics commonly used for the treatment of ocular infections. Trends in antibiotic resistance were not encouraging, recording-especially among CoNS strains-an increase of more than 20% in resistance to methicillin and aminoglycosides during the study period. Instead, the resistance rates to tetracycline had a significant decrease in CoNS isolates while no changes in their susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and macrolides were observed. However, all isolates showed no resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. In this scenario, preventive identification of the infection causative agents and the evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns are essential to set up an ocular infection effective drug treatment and also prevent antibiotic resistance.

5.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 217, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The viral load of asymptomatic SAR-COV-2 positive (ASAP) persons has been equal to that of symptomatic patients. On the other hand, there are no reports of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) outcomes in ASAP patients. Therefore, we evaluated thrombus burden and thrombus viral load and their impact on microvascular bed perfusion in the infarct area (myocardial blush grade, MBG) in ASAP compared to SARS-COV-2 negative (SANE) STEMI patients. METHODS: This was an observational study of 46 ASAP, and 130 SANE patients admitted with confirmed STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombus aspiration. The primary endpoints were thrombus dimension + thrombus viral load effects on MBG after PPCI. The secondary endpoints during hospitalization were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). MACEs are defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal acute AMI, and heart failure during hospitalization. RESULTS: In the study population, ASAP vs. SANE showed a significant greater use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors and of heparin (p < 0.05), and a higher thrombus grade 5 and thrombus dimensions (p < 0.05). Interestingly, ASAP vs. SANE patients had lower MBG and left ventricular function (p < 0.001), and 39 (84.9%) of ASAP patients had thrombus specimens positive for SARS-COV-2. After PPCI, a MBG 2-3 was present in only 26.1% of ASAP vs. 97.7% of SANE STEMI patients (p < 0.001). Notably, death and nonfatal AMI were higher in ASAP vs. SANE patients (p < 0.05). Finally, in ASAP STEMI patients the thrombus viral load was a significant determinant of thrombus dimension independently of risk factors (p < 0.005). Thus, multiple logistic regression analyses evidenced that thrombus SARS-CoV-2 infection and dimension were significant predictors of poorer MBG in STEMI patients. Intriguingly, in ASAP patients the female vs. male had higher thrombus viral load (15.53 ± 4.5 vs. 30.25 ± 5.51 CT; p < 0.001), and thrombus dimension (4.62 ± 0.44 vs 4.00 ± 1.28 mm2; p < 0.001). ASAP vs. SANE patients had a significantly lower in-hospital survival for MACE following PPCI (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In ASAP patients presenting with STEMI, there is strong evidence towards higher thrombus viral load, dimension, and poorer MBG. These data support the need to reconsider ASAP status as a risk factor that may worsen STEMI outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Trombose Coronária/virologia , Coração/fisiopatologia , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Trombose Coronária/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia
6.
Acta Diabetol ; 58(10): 1381-1393, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009437

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Obese pre-diabetics over express cytokines that influence myocardial function via microRNAs (miRs) expression. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate inflammatory/oxidative stress, miRs' expression and cardiovascular function in obese pre-diabetics assigned to metformin therapy vs. placebo vs. normo-glycemics at 12 months of follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-three obese patients after abdominoplastic surgery were divided in pre-diabetics (n 55), normo-glycemics (n 28), and assigned to hypocaloric diet. Pre-diabetics were assigned to metformin (n 23) or to placebo (n 22) plus hypocaloric diet. RESULTS: Obese pre-diabetics in metformin vs. placebo, and obese pre-diabetics with placebo vs. normoglycemics, had significant differences about IMT, MPI, and LVM (p < 0.05). Obese pre-diabetics in metformin vs. placebo showed significant reduction in serum miR-195 and miR-27 (p < 0.05). Obese pre-diabetics in metformin vs. normoglycemics showed higher expression of serum miR-195 and miR-27 (p < 0.05). Finally, we found inverse relation between IMT and insulin, HOMA-IR, miR-195, miR-27; between LVEF and Insulin, HOMA-IR, miR-195 and miR-27. We found inverse correlation between LVM and sirtuin-1, Insulin, HOMA-IR, miR-195 and miR-27, and direct correlation with interleukin-6. MPI inversely linked to miR-195 and miR-27. CONCLUSIONS: In obese pre-diabetics', metformin significantly reduces inflammation/oxidative stress, and miR-195 and miR-27, with reduction in LVM, IMT.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808491

RESUMO

The bioactive form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D3), exerts immunomodulatory actions resulting in neuroprotective effects potentially useful against neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases. In fact, vitamin D deficiency status has been correlated with painful manifestations associated with different pathological conditions. In this study, we have investigated the effects of vitamin D deficiency on microglia cells, as they represent the main immune cells responsible for early defense at central nervous system (CNS), including chronic pain states. For this purpose, we have employed a model of low vitamin D intake during gestation to evaluate possible changes in primary microglia cells obtained from postnatal day(P)2-3 pups. Afterwards, pain measurement and microglia morphological analysis in the spinal cord level and in brain regions involved in the integration of pain perception were performed in the parents subjected to vitamin D restriction. In cultured microglia, we detected a reactive-activated and proliferative-phenotype associated with intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Oxidative stress was closely correlated with the extent of DNA damage and increased ß-galactosidase (B-gal) activity. Interestingly, the incubation with 25D3 or 1,25D3 or palmitoylethanolamide, an endogenous ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), reduced most of these effects. Morphological analysis of ex-vivo microglia obtained from vitamin-D-deficient adult mice revealed an increased number of activated microglia in the spinal cord, while in the brain microglia appeared in a dystrophic phenotype. Remarkably, activated (spinal) or dystrophic (brain) microglia were detected in a prominent manner in females. Our data indicate that vitamin D deficiency produces profound modifications in microglia, suggesting a possible role of these cells in the sensorial dysfunctions associated with hypovitaminosis D.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/etiologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Dor Crônica/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/fisiopatologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540826

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key receptors through which infectious and non-infectious challenges act with consequent activation of the inflammatory cascade that plays a critical function in various acute and chronic diseases, behaving as amplification and chronicization factors of the inflammatory response. Previous studies have shown that synthetic analogues of lipid A based on glucosamine with few chains of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, bind MD-2 and inhibit TLR4 receptors. These synthetic compounds showed antagonistic activity against TLR4 activation in vitro by LPS, but little or no activity in vivo. This study aimed to show the potential use of N-palmitoyl-D-glucosamine (PGA), a bacterial molecule with structural similarity to the lipid A component of LPS, which could be useful for preventing LPS-induced tissue damage or even peripheral neuropathies. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations showed that PGA stably binds MD-2 with a MD-2/(PGA)3 stoichiometry. Treatment with PGA resulted in the following effects: (i) it prevented the NF-kB activation in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 cells; (ii) it decreased LPS-induced keratitis and corneal pro-inflammatory cytokines, whilst increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines; (iii) it normalized LPS-induced miR-20a-5p and miR-106a-5p upregulation and increased miR-27a-3p levels in the inflamed corneas; (iv) it decreased allodynia in peripheral neuropathy induced by oxaliplatin or formalin, but not following spared nerve injury of the sciatic nerve (SNI); (v) it prevented the formalin- or oxaliplatin-induced myelino-axonal degeneration of sciatic nerve. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We report that PGA acts as a TLR4 antagonist and this may be the basis of its potent anti-inflammatory activity. Being unique because of its potency and stability, as compared to other similar congeners, PGA can represent a tool for the optimization of new TLR4 modulating drugs directed against the cytokine storm and the chronization of inflammation.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Glicolipídeos/uso terapêutico , Hiperalgesia/prevenção & controle , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Glicolipídeos/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hiperalgesia/etiologia , Ceratite/induzido quimicamente , Ceratite/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Antígeno 96 de Linfócito/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Nociceptores/efeitos dos fármacos , Nociceptores/fisiologia , Conformação Proteica , Células RAW 264.7 , Distribuição Aleatória , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/metabolismo
10.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 186: 114473, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607073

RESUMO

In this study we analyzed the expression of circulating miRNAs, in the serum of diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients. Five miRNAs (hsa-miR-195-5p, hsa-miR-20a-5p, hsa-miR-20b-5p, hsa-miR-27b-3p and hsa-miR-451a) were validated as biomarkers for stratification of DR stages, from the early non-proliferative (NPDR) to the late proliferative (PDR) phase. Furthermore, circulating levels of these miRNAs correlated with retinal hyper-reflective spots (HRS), assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The number of HRS increased with worsening of DR stages. On the contrary, no significant vascular density differences between NPDR and PDR patients were detected by angio-OCT (OCTA). A post-hoc bioinformatics analysis associated these five miRNAs to target genes belonging to the "Tumor Necrosis Factor alfa signaling" pathway, and several molecules were predicted to modify miRNAs expression. In conclusion, correlation between specific circulating miRNAs and intraretinal hyper-reflective spots was demonstrated, confirming that these miRNAs were validated as prognostic biomarkers, and also as potential pharmacological targets, warranting further clinical evaluation to explore novel therapeutics for diabetic retinopathy.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/sangue , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , MicroRNAs/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Retinopatia Diabética/genética , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
11.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 173: 108670, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined the association of the coronary thrombus microbiota and relative metabolites with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in hyperglycemic patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia during STEMI may affect both development and progression of coronary thrombus via gut and thrombus microbiota modifications. METHODS: We undertook an observational cohort study of 146 first STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) and thrombus-aspiration (TA). Patients were clustered, based on admission blood glucose levels, in hyperglycemic (≥140 mg/dl) and normoglycemic (<140 mg/dl). We analyzed gut and thrombus microbiota in all patients. Moreover, we assessed TMAO, CD40L and von Willebrand Factor (vWF) in coronary thrombi. Cox regressions were used for the association between Prevotellaspp. and TMAO terziles and MACE. MACE endpoint at 1 year included death, re-infarction, unstable angina. RESULTS: In fecal and thrombus samples, we observed a significantly different prevalence of both Prevotellaspp. and Alistipesspp. between patients with hyperglycemia (n = 56) and those with normal glucose levels (n = 90). The abundance of Prevotella increased in hyperglycemic vs normoglycemic patients whereas the contrary was observed for Alistipes. Interestingly, in coronary thrombus, the content of Prevotella was associated with admission blood glucose levels (p < 0.01), thrombus dimensions (p < 0.01), TMAO, CDL40 (p < 0.01) and vWF (p < 0.01) coronary thrombus contents. Multivariate Cox-analysis disclosed a reduced survival in patients with high levels of Prevotella and TMAO in coronary thrombus as compared to patients with low levels of Prevotella and TMAO, after 1-year follow up. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycemia during STEMI may increase coronary thrombus burden via gut and thrombus microbiota dysbiosis characterized by an increase of Prevotella and TMAO content in thrombi. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03439592. September 30, 2016. Ethic Committee Vanvitelli University: 268/2016.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia/complicações , Microbiota/fisiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/sangue , Trombose/microbiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Trombose Coronária/complicações , Trombose Coronária/mortalidade , Trombose Coronária/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(20)2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076256

RESUMO

(1) Background: Circulating micro-RNAs (miRNAs) modulate the expression of molecules in diabetes. We evaluated the expression of serum miRNA-195-5p and -451a in diabetic patients with ischemic stroke and correlated them with two markers of brain tissue integrity. (2) Methods: Seventy-eight subjects with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) (40 with diabetes) were enrolled. Serum miRNA levels, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) were assessed at admission and 24 and 72 h after a post-ischemic stroke, and were compared to 20 controls. (3) Results: Both circulating miRNAs were two-fold up-regulated in diabetic AIS and TIA patients compared to non-diabetics. Their levels progressively decreased at 24 and 72 h in both AIS and TIA patients. Interestingly, in the non-diabetic TIA group, both circulating miRNAs, although higher than the controls, tended to achieve a complete decay after 72 h. Furthermore, miRNA-195-5p and miRNA-451a levels inversely correlated with both BDNF and VEGF-A serum levels. (4) Conclusions: These data show a different profile of both micro-RNAs in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients after acute ischemic stroke, suggesting their pivotal role in cerebrovascular ischemic attack.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/sangue , AVC Isquêmico/sangue , MicroRNAs/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/complicações , Masculino , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue
13.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(21): 12298-12307, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058526

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the lipid mediator Resolvin D1 in experimental keratitis. C57BL/6J mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide (2 µg/eye), and after 24 hours, the corneal damage was assessed. Clinical score was quantified, and corneal inflammatory biomarkers were detected by immunohistochemistry. A robust accumulation of sub-epithelial macrophages and polymorphonuclear leucocytes, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (also known as keratinocyte-derived chemokine), interleukin-10 and promoters of apoptosis was also observed in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice. Formyl peptide receptor 2 corneal expression was also assessed. The corneal stroma treated with lipopolysaccharide was characterized by presence of macrophages of M1-like subtype and immature fibroblastic cells, marked with Ki67, not fully differentiated in fibroblasts. Indeed, the staining of the cornea with anti-vimentin antibodies, a marker of differentiated myofibroblasts, was very faint. Resolvin D1 attenuated all the inflammatory parameters assessed in the present study, except for IL-10. In conclusion, the data presented here seem to be consistent with the hypothesis that Resolvin D1 protected the cornea from the lipopolysaccharide-induced keratitis by acting on several inflammatory components of this damage, pivoted by Formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) activation and macrophages-leucocytes activity.


Assuntos
Substância Própria/metabolismo , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Ceratite/induzido quimicamente , Ceratite/metabolismo , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Vimentina/metabolismo
14.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 1063, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848728

RESUMO

Retinal hypoxia is one of the causative factors of diabetic retinopathy and is also one of the triggers of VEGF release. We hypothesized that specific dysregulated miRNAs in diabetic retinopathy could be linked to hypoxia-induced damage in human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs). We investigated in HRECs the effects of chemical (CoCl2) hypoxia on the expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, PlGF, and of a focused set of miRNAs. We found that miR-20a-5p, miR-20b-5p, miR-27a-3p, miR-27b-3p, miR-206-3p, miR-381-3p correlated also with expression of TGFß signaling pathway genes in HRECs, challenged with chemical hypoxic stimuli. In conclusion, our data suggest that retinal angiogenesis would be promoted, at least under HIF-1α activation, by upregulation of PlGF and other factors such as miRNAs, VEGFA, and TGFß1.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11654, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669567

RESUMO

The proliferation of ski run construction is a worldwide trend. The machine-grading of slopes involved during ski run construction changes the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil, having significant long-term ecological impact on the environment. Establishing and developing plant communities in these affected areas is crucial in rehabilitating the biotic and abiotic soil environment, while also improving slope stability and reducing the risk of natural hazards. This study evaluates changes in plant-soil properties and the long-term effects of machine-grading and subsequent restoration of ski runs so as to contribute to formulating the best practices in future ski run constructions. Study plots were established in 2000 and re-surveyed in 2017 on ski runs, which had been machine-graded and hydroseeded in the 1990s. Vegetation, root trait and soil surveys were carried out on ski run plots and compared to paired, undisturbed control sites off the ski runs. Plant cover remained unchanged on the ski-runs over time but plant richness and diversity considerably increased, reaching similar levels to undisturbed vegetation. Plant composition moved towards more semi-natural stages, showing a reduction in seeded plants with a comparable increase in the cover of colonizing native species. Root trait results were site-specific showing great variations between the mid and long-term after-effects of machine-grading and revegetation when compared to undisturbed sites. Under long-term management, the soil pH was still higher and the organic C content still lower in the ski runs than in the undisturbed sites, as the aggregate stability. The standard actions applied (machine-grading, storage and re-use of topsoil, hydroseeding of commercial seed mixtures, application of manure soon after seeding and low-intensity grazing) allowed the ecosystem to partially recover in three decades, and even if the soil has still a lower chemical and physical fertility than the undisturbed sites, the plant species composition reveals a satisfactory degree of renaturalization.

17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(11): 1249-1262, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DMCM) may involve lipotoxicity of cardiomyocytes in the context of hyperglycemia. There are many preclinical studies of DMCM pathogenesis, but the human evidence is still poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: By using a nondiabetic mellitus (non-DM) heart transplanted (HTX) in diabetes mellitus (DM) recipients, this study conducted a serial study of human heart transplant recipients evaluating cardiac effects of diabetic milieu (hyperglycemia and insulin resistance) on lipotoxic-mediated injury. We evaluated cardiomyocyte morpho-pathology by seriated biopsies of healthy implanted hearts in DM recipients during 12-month follow-up from HTX. Because metformin reduces ectopic lipid accumulation, we evaluated the effects of the drug in a nonrandomized subgroup. METHODS: The DMCM-AHEAD (Diabetes and Lipid Accumulation and Heart Transplant) prospective ongoing study (NCT03546062) evaluated 158 first HTX recipients (82 non-DM, 76 DM of whom 35 [46%] were receiving metformin). HTX recipients were undergoing clinical standard evaluation (metabolic status, echocardiography, coronary computed tomography angiography, and endomyocardial biopsies). Biopsies evaluated immune response, Oil Red-O staining, ceramide, and triacylglycerol levels. Lipotoxic factors and insulin resistance were evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: There was a significant early and progressive cardiomyocyte lipid accumulation in DM but not in non-DM recipients (p = 0.019). In the subgroup receiving metformin, independently from immunosuppressive therapy that was similar among groups, lipid accumulation was reduced in comparison with DM recipients not receiving the drug (hazard ratio: 6.597; 95% confidence interval: 2.516 to 17.296; p < 0.001). Accordingly, lipotoxic factors were increased in DM versus non-DM recipients, and, relevantly, metformin use was associated with fewer lipotoxic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Early pathogenesis of human DMCM started with cardiomyocyte lipid accumulation following HTX in DM recipients. Metformin use was associated with reduced lipid accumulation independently of immunosuppressive therapy. This may constitute a novel target for therapy of DMCM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Transplante de Coração , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210819

RESUMO

Stimulation of retinal photoreceptors with elevated glucose concentration (30 mM) for 96 h, served as diabetic retinopathy in vitro model to study Resolvin D1 (50 nM) effects on neovascularization. VEGF and anti-angiogenic miR-20a-3p, miR-20a-5p, miR-106a-5p, and miR-20b expression was assessed either in photoreceptors exposed to HG or in exosomes released by those cells. High glucose increased VEGF levels and concurrently decreased anti-angiogenic miRNAs content in photoreceptors and exosomes. RvD1 reverted the effects of glucose damage in photoreceptors and exosomal pro-angiogenic potential, tested with the HUVEC angiogenesis assay. By activating FPR2 receptor, RvD1 modulated both the expression of anti-angiogenic miRNA, which decrease VEGF, and the pro-angiogenic potential of exosomes released by primary retinal cells. HUVEC transfection with miR-20a-3p, miR-20a-5p, miR-106a-5p, and miR-20b antagomirs, followed by exposure to exosomes from photoreceptors, confirmed the VEGF-related miRNAs mechanism and the anti-angiogenic effects of RvD1.

19.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(5): 4256-4267, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612492

RESUMO

No study has investigated the interaction of Resolvin D1 (RvD1) with mitochondrial damage of retinal cells caused by diabetes. This study aims to investigate the effects of RvD1 (50 nM) on morphological and biochemical indicators of mitochondrial damage in primary retinal cells exposed to 30 mM d-glucose high glucose (HG). HG-cells exhibited photoreceptor damage characterized by short and small mitochondria with prevalent mitochondrial disruption, fragmentation, and aggregation. The cells had low mitochondrial transporters TIMM44 and TOMM40, Connexin 43, NAD/NADH ratio, and ATP levels, whereas increased cytosolic cytochrome c. Moreover, they expressed high cytosolic metalloproteinase matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and MMP-2 activity. HG-cells treated with RvD1 (50 nM) showed reduced reactive oxygen species levels, improved mitochondrial morphology and function, promoted mitochondrial DNA repair by OGG1, and reduced cell apoptosis and metalloproteinase activity. Therefore, RvD1 induces protection from high glucose-load to the retinal cell and promotes their survival by decreasing cytosolic MMP and mitochondrial damage.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Glucose/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Fotorreceptoras/efeitos dos fármacos , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocromos c/metabolismo , DNA Glicosilases/genética , DNA Glicosilases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial , NAD/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
20.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 593514, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519453

RESUMO

Age and gender are two important factors that may influence the function and structure of the retina and its susceptibility to retinal diseases. The aim of this study was to delineate the influence that biological sex and age exert on the retinal structural and ultrastructural changes in mice and to identify the age-related miRNA dysregulation profiles in the retina by gender. Experiments were undertaken on male and female Balb/c aged 24 months (approximately 75-85 years in humans) compared to the control (3 months). The retinas were analyzed by histology, transmission electron microscopy, and age-related miRNA expression profile analysis. Retinas of both sexes showed a steady decline in retinal thickness as follows: photoreceptor (PS) and outer layers (p < 0.01 for the aged male vs. control; p < 0.05 for the aged female vs. control); the inner retinal layers were significantly affected by the aging process in the males (p < 0.01) but not in the aged females. Electron microscopy revealed more abnormalities which involve the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane, outer and inner layers, vascular changes, deposits of amorphous materials, and accumulation of lipids or lipofuscins. Age-related miRNAs, miR-27a-3p (p < 0.01), miR-27b-3p (p < 0.05), and miR-20a-5p (p < 0.05) were significantly up-regulated in aged male mice compared to the controls, whereas miR-20b-5p was significantly down-regulated in aged male (p < 0.05) and female mice (p < 0.05) compared to the respective controls. miR-27a-3p (5.00 fold; p < 0.01) and miR-27b (7.58 fold; p < 0.01) were significantly up-regulated in aged male mice vs. aged female mice, whereas miR-20b-5p (-2.10 fold; p < 0.05) was significantly down-regulated in aged male mice vs. aged female mice. Interestingly, miR-27a-3p, miR-27b-3p, miR-20a-5p, and miR-20b-5p expressions significantly correlated with the thickness of the retinal PS layer (p < 0.01), retinal outer layers (p < 0.01), and Bruch's membrane (p < 0.01). Our results showed that biological sex can influence the structure and function of the retina upon aging, suggesting that this difference may be underlined by the dysregulation of age-related mi-RNAs.

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