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1.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 268: 144-164, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34920272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has been recommended to pregnant women, but survey studies showed contrasting findings worldwide in relation to the willingness to accept vaccination during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence from the literature regarding the acceptance rate of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in pregnant and breastfeeding women. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a systematic review on the main databases (MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, ISI Web of Science) searching for all the peer-reviewed survey studies analyzing the eventual acceptance rate of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine among pregnant and breastfeeding women. To combine data meta-analyses of proportions and pooled proportions with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: 15 studies including 25,839 women were included in the analysis. The proportion of women actually willing to be vaccinated during pregnancy is 49.1% (95% CI, 42.3-56.0), and the proportion of breastfeeding women is 61.6% (95% CI, 50.0-75.0). CONCLUSION: The cumulative SARS-CoV-2 vaccine acceptance rate among pregnant women appears still low. Vaccinal campaign are urgently needed to drive more confidence into the vaccine to help reducing the spread of the infection and the possible consequences during pregnancy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BJOG ; 2021 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Normal mature sperm have a considerably reduced number of mitochondria, which provide the energy required for progressive sperm motility. Literature suggests that disorders of sperm motility may be linked to abnormal sperm mitochondrial number and function. OBJECTIVES: To summarise the evidence from literature regarding the association of mitochondrial DNA copy numbers and semen quality with a particular emphasis on the sperm motility. SEARCH STRATEGY: Standard methodology recommended by Cochrane. SELECTION CRITERIA: All published primary research reporting on the association between mitochondrial DNA copy numbers and semen quality. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Using standard methodology recommended by Cochrane we pooled results using a random effects model and the findings were reported as a standardised mean difference. MAIN RESULTS: We included ten studies. The primary outcome was sperm mitochondrial DNA copy numbers. A meta-analysis including five studies showed significantly higher mitochondrial DNA copy numbers in abnormal semen analysis compared with normal semen analysis (standardised mean difference 1.08, 95% CI 0.74-1.43). Seven studies included in the meta-analysis showed a significant negative correlation between mitochondrial DNA copy numbers and semen parameters. The quality of evidence was assessed as good to very good in 60% of studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our review demonstrates significantly higher mitochondrial DNA in human sperm cells of men with abnormal semen analysis in comparison to men with normal semen analysis.

4.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(6): 100468, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to report the spectrum of placental pathology findings in pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, and the Web of Science databases were searched up to August 11, 2021. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Histopathologic anomalies included maternal vascular malperfusion, fetal vascular malperfusion, acute inflammatory pathology, chronic inflammatory pathology, increased perivillous fibrin, and intervillous thrombosis. Moreover, subanalyses of symptomatic women only and high-risk pregnancies were performed. METHODS: Histopathologic analysis of the placenta included gross examination, histopathology on hematoxylin and eosin, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on placental tissue, and transmission electron microscope. Random-effect meta-analyses were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: A total of 56 studies (1008 pregnancies) were included. Maternal vascular malperfusion was reported in 30.7% of placentas (95% confidence interval, 20.3-42.1), whereas fetal vascular malperfusion was observed in 27.08 % of cases (95% confidence interval, 19.2-35.6). Acute and chronic inflammatory pathologies were reported in 22.68% (95% confidence interval, 16.9-29.0) and 25.65% (95% confidence interval, 18.4-33.6) of cases, respectively. Increased perivillous fibrin was observed in 32.7% (95% confidence interval, 24.1-42.0) of placentas undergoing histopathologic analysis, whereas intervillous thrombosis was observed in 14.6% of cases (95% confidence interval, 9.7-20.2). Other placental findings, including a basal plate with attached myometrial fibers, microscopic accretism, villous edema, increased circulating nucleated red blood cells, or membranes with hemorrhage, were reported in 37.5% of cases (95% confidence interval, 28.0-47.5), whereas only 17.5% of cases (95% confidence interval, 10.9-25.2) did not present any abnormal histologic findings. The subanalyses according to maternal symptoms owing to SARS-CoV-2 infection or the presence of a high-risk pregnancy showed a similar distribution of the different histopathologic anomalies to that reported in the main analysis. Moreover, the risk of placental histopathologic anomalies was higher when considering only case-control studies comparing women with SARS-CoV-2 infection with healthy controls. CONCLUSION: In pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, a significant proportion of placentas showed histopathologic findings, suggesting placental hypoperfusion and inflammation. Future multicenter prospective blinded studies are needed to correlate these placental lesions with pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Placenta , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328297

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: the occurrence of PAS has been recently associated with the presence of twin pregnancy. Aim of this review is to report the risk factors, histopathological correlation, diagnostic accuracy of prenatal ultrasound and clinical outcome of twin pregnancies complicated by placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Pubmed, Embase, Cinahl, Clinical Trial.Gov and Google Scholar databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were studies on twin pregnancies complicated by PAS. The outcomes explored were risk factors for PAS (including placenta previa, prior uterine surgery or assisted reproductive technology, ART), histopathology (placenta accreta and increta/percreta), detection rate of prenatal ultrasound and clinical outcome, including need for blood transfusion, hysterectomy, emergency or scheduled cesarean delivery (CD), and maternal death. Random effect meta-analyses of proportions were sued to combine the data. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Two studies considering 103 pregnancies were included in this systematic review: 41.86% (95% CI 27.0-57.9) of twin pregnancies complicated by PAS disorders had a prior CD, 28.22% (95% CI 13.4-46.0) presented placenta previa and 58.14% (95% CI 42.1-73.0) of twin pregnancies were conceived by ART. 74.49% (95% CI 41.6-96.5) of PAS in twin pregnancies were placenta accreta, while 25.51% (95% CI 3.5-58.4) were placenta increta or percreta. Prenatal diagnosis of PAS in twin pregnancies was accomplished only in 27.91% (95% CI 15.3-43.7) of cases. Finally, only one study consistently reported the clinical outcome of PAS in twins. 31.67% (95% CI 20.3-45.0) of women required blood transfusion, 26.67% (95% CI 16.1- 39.7) had hysterectomy, while there was no case of maternal death. 44.19% of women had an emergency CD. CONCLUSIONS: There is still limited evidence on the clinical course of PAS disorders in twin pregnancies. Placenta previa, prior uterine surgery (mainly CD), and ART are the most commonly risk factors for PAS disorders in twins. Prenatal diagnosis of PAS in twins is lower compared to what reported in singleton. Finally, about 30% of women with a twin pregnancy complicated by PAS required blood transfusion and hysterectomy.

6.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 100(11): 1941-1948, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314520

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective was to report the role of intrapartum ultrasound examination in affecting maternal and perinatal outcome in women undergoing instrumental vaginal delivery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Google Scholar and ClinicalTrial.gov databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials comparing ultrasound assessment of fetal head position vs routine standard care (digital examination) before instrumental vaginal delivery (either vacuum or forceps). The primary outcome was failed instrumental delivery extraction followed by cesarean section. Secondary outcomes were postpartum hemorrhage, 3rd or 4th degree perineal lacerations, episiotomy, prolonged hospital stay, Apgar score<7 at 5 min, umbilical artery pH <7.0 and base excess greater than -12 mEq, admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), shoulder dystocia, birth trauma, a composite score of adverse maternal and neonatal outcome and incorrect diagnosis of fetal head position. Risk of bias was assessed using the Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (RoB-2). The quality of evidence and strength of recommendations were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Head-to-head meta-analyses using a random-effect model were used to analyze the data and results are reported as relative risk with their 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Five studies were included (1463 women). There was no difference in the maternal, pregnancy or labor characteristics between the two groups. An ultrasound assessment prior to instrumental vaginal delivery did not affect the cesarean section rate compared with standard care (p = 0.805). Likewise, the risk of composite adverse maternal outcome (p = 0.428), perineal lacerations (p = 0.800), postpartum hemorrhage (p = 0.303), shoulder dystocia (p = 0.862) and prolonged stay in hospital (p = 0.059) were not different between the two groups. Composite adverse neonatal outcome was not different between the women undergoing and those not undergoing ultrasound assessment prior to instrumental delivery (p = 0.400). Likewise, there was no increased risk with abnormal Apgar score (p = 0.882), umbilical artery pH < 7.2 (p = 0.713), base excess greater than -12 (p = 0.742), admission to NICU (p = 0.879) or birth trauma (p = 0.968). The risk of having an incorrect diagnosis of fetal head position was lower when ultrasound was performed before instrumental delivery, with a relative risk of 0.16 (95% confidence interval 0.1-0.3; I2 :77%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Although ultrasound examination was associated with a lower rate of incorrect diagnoses of fetal head position and station, this did not translate to any improvement of maternal or neonatal outcomes.


Assuntos
Extração Obstétrica/métodos , Resultado da Gravidez , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Traumatismos do Nascimento/etiologia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Gravidez
7.
Fetal Diagn Ther ; 48(6): 448-456, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130275

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The role of cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) or umbilicocerebral ratio (UCR) to predict adverse intrapartum and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by late fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains controversial. METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study involving 5 referral centers in Italy and Spain, including singleton pregnancies complicated by late FGR, as defined by Delphi consensus criteria, with a scan 1 week prior to delivery. The primary objective was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the CPR and UCR for the prediction of a composite adverse outcome, defined as the presence of either an adverse intrapartum outcome (need for operative delivery/cesarean section for suspected fetal distress) or an adverse perinatal outcome (intrauterine death, Apgar score <7 at 5 min, arterial pH <7.1, base excess of >-11 mEq/mL, or neonatal intensive care unit admission). RESULTS: Median CPR absolute values (1.11 vs. 1.22, p = 0.018) and centiles (3 vs. 4, p = 0.028) were lower in pregnancies with a composite adverse outcome than in those without it. Median UCR absolute values (0.89 vs. 0.82, p = 0.018) and centiles (97 vs. 96, p = 0.028) were higher. However, the area under the curve, 95% confidence interval for predicting the composite adverse outcome showed a poor predictive value: 0.580 (0.512-0.646) for the raw absolute values of CPR and UCR, and 0.575 (0.507-0.642) for CPR and UCR centiles adjusted for gestational age. The use of dichotomized values (CPR <1, UCR >1 or CPR <5th centile, UCR >95th centile) did not improve the diagnostic accuracy. CONCLUSION: The CPR and UCR measured in the week prior delivery are of low predictive value to assess adverse intrapartum and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies with late FGR.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Fluxo Pulsátil , Estudos Retrospectivos , Natimorto , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Artérias Umbilicais/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
J Perinat Med ; 49(9): 1033-1041, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087958

RESUMO

These practice guidelines follow the mission of the World Association of Perinatal Medicine in collaboration with the Perinatal Medicine Foundation, bringing together groups and individuals throughout the world, with the goal of improving the ultrasound assessment of the fetal Central Nervous System (CNS) anatomy. In fact, this document provides further guidance for healthcare practitioners for the evaluation of the fetal CNS during the mid-trimester ultrasound scan with the aim to increase the ability in evaluating normal fetal anatomy. Therefore, it is not intended to establish a legal standard of care. This document is based on consensus among perinatal experts throughout the world, and serves as a guideline for use in clinical practice.

9.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-7, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebroplacental Doppler studies have been advocated to predict the risk of adverse perinatal outcome (APO) irrespective of fetal weight. OBJECTIVE: To report the diagnostic performance of cerebroplacental (CPR) and umbilicocerebral (UCR) ratios in predicting APO in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) fetuses and in those affected by late fetal growth restriction (FGR) attempting vaginal delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective, nested case-control study between 1 January 2017 and January 2020 involving five referral centers in Italy and Spain. Singleton gestations with a scan between 36 and 40 weeks and within two weeks of attempting vaginal delivery were included. Fetal arterial Doppler and biometry were collected. The AGA group was defined as fetuses with an estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference >10th and <90th percentile, while the late FGR group was defined by Delphi consensus criteria. The primary outcome was the prediction of a composite of perinatal adverse outcomes including either intrauterine death, Apgar score at 5 min <7, abnormal acid-base status (umbilical artery pH < 7.1 or base excess of more than -11) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. Area under the curve (AUC) analysis was performed. RESULTS: 646 pregnancies (317 in the AGA group and 329 in the late FGR group) were included. APO were present in 12.6% AGA and 24.3% late FGR pregnancies, with an odds ratio of 2.22 (95% CI 1.46-3.37). The performance of CPR and UCR for predicting APO was poor in both AGA [AUC: 0.44 (0.39-0.51)] and late FGR fetuses [AUC: 0.56 (0.49-0.61)]. CONCLUSIONS: CPR and UCR on their own are poor prognostic predictors of APO irrespective of fetal weight.

10.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-7, 2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Universal elective induction of labor (IOL) in singleton parous pregnancies has been advocated to reduce the rate of cesarean section (CD), without impacting on maternal outcome. However, about 50% of women deliver after 40 weeks; therefore, an accurate estimation of the time of delivery might avoid unnecessary early IOL. The aim of this study was to test the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting delivery ≥40 weeks of gestation in singleton parous women. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of singleton parous women undergoing a dedicated ultrasound assessment at 36-38 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was spontaneous vaginal delivery ≥40 weeks of gestation. Cervical length (CL), posterior cervical angle (PCA), sonoelastographic hardness ratio (HR), angle of progression (AoP) and head perineal distance (HPD) were measured. Multivariate logistic regression and area under the curve (AUC) analyses were used to test the diagnostic accuracy of different maternal and ultrasound characteristics in predicting delivery ≥40 weeks. RESULTS: 518 singleton pregnancies were included in the analysis and 235 (45.4%) delivered ≥40 weeks. CL (29 vs 19 mm; p ≤ .0001) and HPD (50 vs 47 mm; p = .001) were longer, HR higher (38.9 vs 35.5; p = .04), while PCA (98° vs 104°; p ≤ .0001) and AOP narrower (93° vs 98°; p = .029) in pregnancies delivered compared to those not delivered after 40 weeks of gestation. At multivariable logistic regression analysis, CL (aOR 1.206; 95% CI 1.164-1.250), HPD (aOR 1.127; 95% CI 1.066-1.191) and HR (aOR 1.022; 95% CI 1.003-1.041 were the only variables independently associated with delivery ≥40 weeks. CL showed had an AUC of 0.863 in predicting delivery ≥40 weeks of gestation, with an optimal cutoff of 23.5 mm. Integration of HPD and HR did not significantly improve the diagnostic performance of CL alone to predict delivery ≥40 weeks (AUC 0.870; p = .472). CONCLUSION: Cervical length at 36-38 weeks has a good diagnostic accuracy to predict spontaneous vaginal delivery at ≥40 weeks. Universal assessment of CL in the third trimester of pregnancy may help in identifying those women who may benefit of elective IOL at 39 weeks.

11.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(9): 1527-1534, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The early detection of preterm infants (PI) at risk for intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and neurological sequelae still constitutes an unsolved issue. We aimed at validating the role of S100B protein in the early diagnosis and prognosis of IVH in PI by means of cerebral ultrasound (CUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) today considered standard of care procedures. METHODS: We conducted an observational case-control study in 216 PI of whom 36 with IVH and 180 controls. Standard clinical, laboratory, radiological monitoring procedures and S100B urine measurement were performed at four time-points (first void, 24, 48, 96 h) after birth. Cerebral MRI was performed at 40-42 weeks of corrected gestational age. RESULTS: Elevated (p<0.001, for all) S100B levels were observed in the IVH group at all monitoring time-point particularly at first void when standard monitoring procedures were still silent or unavailable. S100B measured at first void correlated (p<0.001) with the grade of hemorrhage by means of CUS and with the site and extension of neurological lesion (p<0.001, for all) as assessed by MRI. CONCLUSIONS: The present results showing a correlation among S100B and CUS and MRI offer additional support to the inclusion of the protein in clinical daily management of cases at risk for IVH and adverse neurological outcome. The findings open the way to further investigations in PI aimed at validating new neurobiomarkers by means of S100B.

12.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 261: 166-177, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946019

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of progesterone, pessary and cervical cerclage in reducing the risk of (preterm birth) PTB in twin pregnancies and compare these interventions using pairwise and network meta-analysis. STUDY DESIGN: Medline, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane databases were explored. The inclusion criteria were studies in which twin pregnancies were randomized to an intervention for the prevention of PTB (any type of progesterone, cervical cerclage, cervical pessary, or any combination of these) or to a control group (e.g. placebo or treatment as usual). Interventions of interest were either progesterone [vaginal or oral natural progesterone or intramuscular 17a-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC)], cerclage (McDonald or Shirodkar), or cervical pessary. The primary outcome was PTB < 34 weeks of gestation. Both primary and secondary outcomes were explored in an unselected population of twin pregnancies and in women at higher risk of PTB (defined as those with cervical length <25 mm). Random-effect head-to-head and a multiple-treatment meta-analyses were used to analyze the data and results expressed as risk ratios. RESULTS: 26 studies were included in the meta-analysis. When considering an unselected population of twin pregnancies, vaginal progesterone, intra-muscular17-OHPC or pessary did not reduce the risk of PTB < 34 weeks of gestation (all p > 0.05). When stratifying the analysis for spontaneous PTB, neither pessary, vaginal or intramuscular 17-OHPC were associated with a significant reduction in the risk of PTB compared to controls (all p > 0.05), while there was no study on cerclage which explored this outcome in an unselected population of twin pregnancies. When considering twin pregnancies with short cervical length (≤25 mm), there was no contribution of either pessary, vaginal progesterone, intra-muscular 17-OHPC or cerclage in reducing the risk of overall PTB < 34 weeks of gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Cervical pessary, progesterone and cerclage do not show a significant effect in reducing the rate of PTB or perinatal morbidity in twins, either when these interventions are applied to an unselected population of twins or in pregnancies with a short cervix.


Assuntos
Cerclagem Cervical , Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Metanálise em Rede , Pessários , Gravidez , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Progesterona
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949821

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE ARTICLE: To investigate the association between ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and adverse pregnancy outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched. The primary outcome was a composite score of adverse maternal outcome including either preterm birth (PTB), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pre-eclampsia (PE) or pregnancy induced hypertension, intra-hepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, thromboembolic events or need for caesarean section (CS). Secondary outcomes were a composite score of adverse fetal outcome including either miscarriage, low birthweight, fetal anomalies or intra-uterine fetal death (IUD) and the individual components of both primary and secondary outcomes. RESULTS: 13 studies (3303 ART pregnancies with and 89720 without OHSS) were included. The risk of composite adverse maternal outcome (RR: 8.8, 95% CI 8.1-9.5) was higher in women with compared to those without OHSS. The association between OHSS and adverse pregnancy outcome was mainly due to the higher risk of PTB (RR: 11.4, 95% CI 10.5-12.4), while there was no difference in the risk of others primary outcome. Likewise, the risk of composite fetal outcome was higher in pregnancies with a prior OHSS (RR: 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0). The strength of association between OHSS and composite adverse maternal outcome persisted when considering singleton pregnancies or those with severe disease. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancies complicated by OHSS are at high risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, especially PTB.

14.
Minerva Obstet Gynecol ; 73(4): 490-493, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949825

RESUMO

Late-onset FGR is a peculiar condition characterized by the inability for the fetus to reach its growth potential diagnosed from 32 weeks of gestation. Placental insufficiency is among the leading causes of late FGR and is commonly due to a primary maternal cardiovascular non-adaptation potentially leading to fetal decompensation during labor especially once exposed to uterine hyperstimulation. Abnormalities that usually characterize late FGR include reduced fetal growth, decreased Amniotic Fluid Index, and loss of fetal heart rate variability at CTG. Fetal hemodynamics study by Doppler ultrasound significantly improved management of pregnancies affected by fetal growth restriction. A major issue when dealing with pregnancies complicated by late FGR is how to induce these women. Induction of labor (IOL) can be essentially accomplished by pharmacological and non-pharmacological agents. Recent studies suggested that the pregnancies complicated by late FGR should undergo a tailored approach for IOL in view of the higher risk of fetal decompensation following uterine hyperstimulation. The present review aims to provide an up to date on the different types of IOL which can guide clinical management.


Assuntos
Placenta , Insuficiência Placentária , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Feto , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Gravidez
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore maternal and perinatal outcomes of women undergoing full dilatation cesarean section (CS) who had compared to those who did not have application of fetal head elevation device (FHED). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pubmed, Embase, Cinahl, Clinical Trial.Gov and Google Scholar databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were studies exploring maternal and perinatal outcomes in women having compared to those not having FHED at full dilatation CS. The outcomes explored were: hysterotomy to delivery time (sec), mean estimated blood loss (ml), blood loss > 1000 mL, need for blood transfusion, uterine incision extension, operative complications, need for re-operation, urinary retention, hospital re-admission, length of in hospital stay, Apgar score < 3 at 1 min, Apgar score < 7 at 5 min, neonatal arterial Ph, arterial pH < 7.1, admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), neonatal sepsis, need for neonatal endotracheal intubation, neonatal death. Random effect head-to-head meta-analyses combining summary mean difference (MD), and odd ratio (OR) were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Ten studies (1326 women) were included. The mean time from hysterotomy to delivery was lower in women having compared to those not having FHED (MD: -52.26 s, 95 % CI -55.2 to -34.94, p < 0.001). Women who had FHED had also a lower mean estimated blood loss (MD: -130.82 mL, 95 % CI -130.1 to -381.0; p < 0.001) and a shorter stay in the hospital (MD: -0.884 h, 95 % CI -1.07 to -0.70; p < 0.001) compared to controls. Pregnant women having FHED at full dilatation CS had a lower risk of uterine incision extension (OR: 0.50, 95 % CI 0.3 to 0.9; p = 0.02), need for blood transfusion (OR: 0.39, 95 % CI 0.2 to 0.7; p = 0.04) and operative complications (OR: 0.44, 95 % CI 0.2 to 0.9; p = 0.03) compared to controls, while there was no difference in the other maternal outcomes between the two groups. When exploring perinatal outcome, women who received FHED had higher mean arterial pH values (MD: 0.617, 95 % CI 0.43 to 0.88; p < 0.001) and a lower risk of neonatal sepsis (OR: 0.10, 95 % CI 0.01 to 0.99; p = 0.05) and admission to NICU (OR: 0.63, 95 % CI 0.5 to 0.9; p = 0.008) compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Application of FHED at full dilatation CS seems to be associated with improvement in some maternal and neonatal outcomes.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Morte Perinatal , Índice de Apgar , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal
16.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 100(7): 1313-1321, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792924

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare vaginal dinoprostone and mechanical methods for induction of labor (IOL) in pregnancies complicated by late fetal growth restriction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective, cohort study involving six referral centers in Italy and Spain. Inclusion criteria were pregnancies complicated by late fetal growth restriction as defined by Delphi consensus criteria. The primary outcome was the occurrence of uterine tachysystole; secondary outcomes were either cesarean delivery or operative vaginal delivery for non-reassuring fetal status, a composite score of adverse neonatal outcome and admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: A total of 571 pregnancies complicated by late fetal growth restriction undergoing IOL (391 with dinoprostone and 180 with mechanical methods) were included in the analysis. The incidence of uterine tachysystole (19.2% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.001) was higher in women undergoing IOL with dinoprostone than in those undergoing IOL with mechanical methods. Similarly, the incidence of cesarean delivery or operative delivery for non-reassuring fetal status (25.6% vs. 17.2%; p = 0.027), composite adverse neonatal outcome (26.1% vs. 16.7%; p = 0.013) and NICU admission (16.9% vs. 5.6%; p < 0.001) was higher in women undergoing IOL with dinoprostone than in those undergoing IOL with mechanical methods. At logistic regression analysis, IOL with mechanical methods was associated with a significantly lower risk of uterine tachysystole (odds ratio 0.26, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.54; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In pregnancies complicated by late fetal growth restriction, IOL with mechanical methods is associated with a lower risk of uterine tachysystole, cesarean delivery or operative delivery for non-reassuring fetal status, and adverse neonatal outcome compared with pharmacological methods.


Assuntos
Cateterismo/métodos , Dinoprostona/efeitos adversos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/terapia , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Ocitócicos/efeitos adversos , Administração Intravaginal , Adulto , Cesárea/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Espanha , Cateterismo Urinário/métodos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824063

RESUMO

The incidence of placenta accrete spectrum (PAS) disorders is increasing worldwide. Pregnancies complicated by PAS are at a high risk of intrapartum surgical complications, mainly due to severe maternal hemorrhage, potentially leading to death, thus highlighting the need for a tailored an appropriate surgical management for these women. Despite its clinical relevance, there are still unanswered questions regarding the surgical management of women with PAS. Hysterectomy has been considered as the gold standard for the surgical treatment of these women. However, the surgical approach has not yet been standardized, and several conservative surgical procedures such as the Triple P Procedure are also being performed for PAS. Interventional radiology techniques have been demonstrated to reduce the risk of severe blood loss in women with postpartum hemorrhage, but their role in the management of women with PAS has not yet been fully defined. The aim of this chapter is to provide an up-to-date insight on the radical surgical approach to adopt during cesarean delivery in pregnancies complicated by PAS disorders.


Assuntos
Placenta Acreta , Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Gravidez
18.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-12, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define, illustrate and to follow-up the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of a subset of the known enhanced myometrial vascularity (EMV): its extreme form, associated with cesarean scar pregnancies (CSP) and with some cases pf placenta accreta spectrum being at increased risk of significant bleeding complications. We also aim to provide guidance to the management of such cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is an IRB-approved retrospective observational study of thirteen patients with an extreme form of EMV complicating CSPs. Patient's age, parity, number of cesarean deliveries, initial and time to negative serum hCG levels, primary and secondary diagnoses, blood flow peak systolic velocities, primary and secondary treatments, uterine artery embolization and outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: Gestational ages ranged 6-11 weeks at initial presentation. Initial serum hCG was 20.0-102.48 mIU/L (mean 44.4 mIU/L). Diameter of EMV reached 20-75 mm (mean 46.8 mm). The mean peak systolic velocity (PSV) was 84.2 cm/s (range 46.7-118.0). Primary treatments were: systemic methotrexate (MTX) alone; D&C alone; MTX and D&C; local and systemic intra-gestational MTX injection; double cervical ripening balloon with systemic MTX; misoprostol and D&C; emergent UAE. UAE and hysterectomy were the two main secondary treatments in 10 women except 1 having a D&C after UAE, and in 1 the lesion regressed without secondary treatment. Mean time to nonpregnant hCG levels was 21-122 days (mean 67.2). Mean follow-up was 110.2 days (range 26-160). Ten women were treated with UAE, 6 had one, 3 had two embolizations. Two women had hysterectomies, one of these for persistent bleeding. Based upon the common denominators of the clinical and the US pictures, our definition of extreme EMV is sustained form of EMV associated with treated or untreated CSP, with peak systolic velocities of blood flow over 50 cm/s, slow return or plateauing serum hCG, with or without clinically significant vaginal bleeding, unresponsive to initial or secondary treatment requiring uterine artery embolization or hysterectomy. CONCLUSION: The EMV developing in the background of retained placental tissue associated with CSP differs following the normal regression of the physiologically re-modelled, dilated vascular bed from the faulty "disrepair" of the vessel wall in in treated or untreated CSPs. The "threatening" appearance of the above EMVs warranted the term "extreme", creating their separate new sub-category." Extreme forms of CSP-related EMV pose significant diagnostic and management challenges. Prompt recognition and intervention, the proactive use of UAE, can maximize the outcome of women affected by this "extreme" form of EMV enabling to preserve reproductive potential. Obstetricians, gynecologists and interventional radiologists should be aware of this form of severe vascular complication.

19.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(4): 100352, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines have been distributed, a debate has raised on whether pregnant women should get the vaccine. No available data exist so far regarding the safety, efficacy, and toxicology of these vaccines when administered during pregnancy. Most of the Obstetrics and Gynecology societies suggested that pregnant could agree to be vaccinated, after a thorough counseling of risks and benefits with their gynecologists, thus leading to an autonomous decision. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the attitude to coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination in pregnant and breastfeeding women in Italy. STUDY DESIGN: A survey was made at the University of Naples Federico II and the Ospedale Cristo Re, Tor Vergata University of Rome, on pregnant and breastfeeding women asking their perspectives on the available vaccines after reading the recommendations issued by our national Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Neonatology societies. The questionnaire included 12 items finalized to evaluate general features of the women and 6 items specifically correlated to their attitudes toward the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination. Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare group differences of categorical variables and Wilcoxon signed rank or Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables. The study was approved by the institutional review boards of the University of Naples Federico II (ref. no. 409/2020) and the Ospedale Cristo Re, Tor Vergata University of Rome (ref. #Ost4-2020). RESULTS: Most of the included women did not agree to eventually receive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine during pregnancy (40 [28.2%] vs 102 [71.8%]). Being pregnant was considered a determinant factor to refuse the vaccine prophylaxis (99 [69.7%] vs 43 [30.3%]; chi-square test=24.187; P<.001), even if a very large percentage declared to be generally in favor of vaccines (128 [90.1%] vs 14 [9.9%]; chi-square test=6.091; P=.014) and most of them confirmed they received or would receive other recommended vaccines during pregnancy (75 [52.8%] vs 67 [47.2%]; chi-square test=10.996; P=.001). CONCLUSION: Urgent data are needed on the safety, efficacy, and toxicology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccines during pregnancy to modify this trend and to help obstetricians during the counseling. Furthermore, pregnant women should be included in future vaccine development trials to not incur again in such uncertainty.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Gravidez , Gestantes
20.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(4): 100360, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to report maternal outcomes of preterm (<34 weeks of gestation) cesarean delivery. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched electronically on September 1, 2020, utilizing combinations of the relevant medical subject heading terms, key words, and word variants for "cesarean delivery" and "outcome." STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included only studies reporting maternal outcomes of cesarean delivery performed at <34 weeks of gestation. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: The primary outcome was a composite score of maternal surgical morbidity including maternal death, severe intrasurgical or postpartum hemorrhage, hysterectomy, need for blood transfusion, and damage to adjacent organs. Secondary outcomes were individual components of the primary outcome, need for reoperation, postsurgical infection, thromboembolism, and hysterectomy. We also performed 2 subgroup analyses considering cesarean delivery performed at <28 and <26 weeks of gestation. Meta-analyses of proportions using random effects model were used to combine data. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies involving 8378 women undergoing cesarean delivery at <34 weeks of gestation were included in the systematic review. Composite adverse maternal outcome was reported in 16.2% of women (95% confidence interval, 15.4-17.0) undergoing a cesarean delivery before 34 weeks of gestation. Hemorrhage, either intra- or postoperative, was observed in 6.9% of cases (95% confidence interval, 6.4-7.5), whereas 6.3% (95% confidence interval, 4.2-8.7) required blood transfusion. Damage to adjacent organs complicated the primary surgery in 2.0% of women (95% confidence interval, 0.1-6.4), whereas 1.2% (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.4) required a reoperation after cesarean delivery. Maternal death occurred in 0.1% (95% confidence interval, 0.0-1.4). In women undergoing cesarean delivery at <28 weeks of gestation, composite adverse maternal outcome complicated 22.9% of cases (95% confidence interval, 16.7-33.8) and 14.0% (95% confidence interval, 5.8-24.9) experienced hemorrhage whereas 7.7% (95% confidence interval, 4.4-11.8) required blood transfusion. Finally, when considering women undergoing cesarean delivery at <26 weeks of gestation, composite adverse maternal outcome was reported in 24.8% (95% confidence interval, 10.1-43.4), whereas the corresponding figures for hemorrhage and need for blood transfusion were 9.2% (95% confidence interval, 1.7-21.6) and 6.1% (95% confidence interval, 0.3-10.0), respectively. CONCLUSION: Early cesarean delivery is affected by a high rate of maternal intra- and postoperative complications. The findings from systematic review can help clinicians in counseling parents when cesarean delivery is required in an early gestational age.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Histerectomia , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna , Gravidez
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