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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 358, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The South America pinworm, Tuta absoluta, is a destructive pest of tomato that causes important losses worldwide. Breeding of resistant/tolerant tomato cultivars could be an effective strategy for T. absoluta management but, despite the economic importance of tomato, very limited information is available about its response to this treat. To elucidate the defense mechanisms to herbivore feeding a comparative analysis was performed between a tolerant and susceptible cultivated tomato at both morphological and transcriptome level to highlight constitutive leaf barriers, molecular and biochemical mechanisms to counter the effect of T. absoluta attack. RESULTS: The tolerant genotype showed an enhanced constitutive barrier possibly as result of the higher density of trichomes and increased inducible reactions upon mild infestation thanks to the activation/repression of key transcription factors regulating genes involved in cuticle formation and cell wall strength as well as of antinutritive enzymes, and genes involved in the production of chemical toxins and bioactive secondary metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings suggest that tomato resilience to the South America pinworm is achieved by a combined strategy between constitutive and induced defense system. A well-orchestrated modulation of plant transcription regulation could ensure a trade-off between defense needs and fitness costs. Our finding can be further exploited for developing T. absoluta tolerant cultivars, acting as important component of integrated pest management strategy for more sustainable production.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tricomas/genética , Tricomas/metabolismo , Tricomas/parasitologia
2.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 143: 50-60, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479882

RESUMO

The huge amounts of biomass residues, remaining in the field after tomato fruits harvesting, can be utilized to produce bioenergy. A multiple level approach aimed to characterize two Solanum pennellii introgression lines (ILs), with contrasting phenotypes for plant architecture and biomass was carried out. The study of gene expression dynamics, microscopy cell traits and qualitative and quantitative cell wall chemical compounds variation enabled the discovery of key genes and cell processes involved biomass accumulation and composition. Enhanced biomass production observed in IL2-6 line is due to a more effective coordination of chloroplasts and mitochondria energy fluxes. Microscopy analysis revealed a higher number of cells and chloroplasts in leaf epidermis in the high biomass line whilst chemical measurements on the two lines pointed out striking differences in the cell wall composition and organization. Taken together, our findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying the tomato biomass production and processability.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Biomassa , Parede Celular/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
3.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 122(2): 233-243, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955171

RESUMO

Seagrass meadows provide important ecosystem services and are critical for the survival of the associated invertebrate community. However, they are threatened worldwide by human-driven environmental change. Understanding the seagrasses' potential for adaptation is critical to assess not only their ability to persist under future global change scenarios, but also to assess the persistence of the associated communities. Here we screened a wild population of Posidonia oceanica, an endemic long-lived seagrass in the Mediterranean Sea, for genes that may be target of environmental selection, using an outlier and a genome-wide transcriptome analysis. We identified loci where polymorphism or differential expression was associated with either a latitudinal or a bathymetric gradient, as well as with both gradients in an effort to identify loci associated with temperature and light. We found the candidate genes underlying growth and immunity to be divergent between populations adapted to different latitudes and/or depths, providing evidence for local adaptation. Furthermore, we found evidence of reduced gene flow among populations including adjacent populations. Reduced gene flow, combined with low sexual recombination, small effective population size, and long generation time of P. oceanica raises concerns for the long-term persistence of this species, especially in the face of rapid environmental change driven by human activities.


Assuntos
Alismatales/fisiologia , Adaptação Biológica , Alismatales/genética , Altitude , Ecossistema , Fluxo Gênico , Genoma de Planta , Mar Mediterrâneo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 17(1): 66, 2017 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28347287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The environment has a profound influence on the organoleptic quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit, the extent of which depends on a well-regulated and dynamic interplay among genes, metabolites and sensorial attributes. We used a systems biology approach to elucidate the complex interacting mechanisms regulating the plasticity of sensorial traits. To investigate environmentally challenged transcriptomic and metabolomic remodeling and evaluate the organoleptic consequences of such variations we grown three tomato varieties, Heinz 1706, whose genome was sequenced as reference and two "local" ones, San Marzano and Vesuviano in two different locations of Campania region (Italy). RESULTS: Responses to environment were more pronounced in the two "local" genotypes, rather than in the Heinz 1706. The overall genetic composition of each genotype, acting in trans, modulated the specific response to environment. Duplicated genes and transcription factors, establishing different number of network connections by gaining or losing links, play a dominant role in shaping organoleptic profile. The fundamental role of cell wall metabolism in tuning all the quality attributes, including the sensorial perception, was also highlighted. CONCLUSIONS: Although similar fruit-related quality processes are activated in the same environment, different tomato genotypes follow distinct transcriptomic, metabolomic and sensorial trajectories depending on their own genetic makeup.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/fisiologia , Dosagem de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , Itália , Metaboloma , Biologia de Sistemas/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
5.
Sci Rep ; 7: 42890, 2017 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28211527

RESUMO

Here we present the results of a multiple organizational level analysis conceived to identify acclimative/adaptive strategies exhibited by the seagrass Posidonia oceanica to the daily fluctuations in the light environment, at contrasting depths. We assessed changes in photophysiological parameters, leaf respiration, pigments, and protein and mRNA expression levels. The results show that the diel oscillations of P. oceanica photophysiological and respiratory responses were related to transcripts and proteins expression of the genes involved in those processes and that there was a response asynchrony between shallow and deep plants probably caused by the strong differences in the light environment. The photochemical pathway of energy use was more effective in shallow plants due to higher light availability, but these plants needed more investment in photoprotection and photorepair, requiring higher translation and protein synthesis than deep plants. The genetic differentiation between deep and shallow stands suggests the existence of locally adapted genotypes to contrasting light environments. The depth-specific diel rhythms of photosynthetic and respiratory processes, from molecular to physiological levels, must be considered in the management and conservation of these key coastal ecosystems.


Assuntos
Alismatales/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Adaptação Biológica , Alismatales/genética , Alismatales/metabolismo , Respiração Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mar Mediterrâneo , Processos Fotoquímicos , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 16: 53, 2016 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26920134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) is one of the most destructive necrotrophic pathogens affecting tomato crops, causing considerable field and greenhouse yield losses. Despite such major economic impact, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici resistance in tomato. RESULTS: A transcriptomic experiment was carried out in order to investigate the main mechanisms of FORL response in resistant and susceptible isogenic tomato lines. Microarray analysis at 15 DPI (days post inoculum) revealed a distinct gene expression pattern between the two genotypes in the inoculated vs non-inoculated conditions. A model of plant response both for compatible and incompatible reactions was proposed. In particular, in the incompatible interaction an activation of defense genes related to secondary metabolite production and tryptophan metabolism was observed. Moreover, maintenance of the cell osmotic potential after the FORL challenging was mediated by a dehydration-induced protein. As for the compatible interaction, activation of an oxidative burst mediated by peroxidases and a cytochrome monooxygenase induced cell degeneration and necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our work allowed comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of the tomato-FORL interaction. The result obtained emphasizes a different transcriptional reaction between the resistant and the susceptible genotype to the FORL challenge. Our findings could lead to the improvement in disease control strategies.


Assuntos
Fusarium/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcriptoma
7.
Mar Environ Res ; 109: 124-31, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26164681

RESUMO

Posidonia oceanica meadows growing along the west Mediterranean coastline are under continuous anthropogenic pressure. The way meadow health correlates with genetic and genotypic diversity in P. oceanica, is still under debate. Here we report a microsatellite analysis of two P. oceanica meadows living in protected areas of the Ligurian (Monterosso al Mare, MPA of "Cinque Terre") and central Tyrrhenian Sea (Santa Marinella, regional Site of Community Importance). Both meadows were recently classified as "disturbed", according to shoot density and other phenological parameters. Between the two meadows, Santa Marinella showed higher genetic diversity, while clear genetic substructure was present in both sites, reflecting high spatial heterogeneity. The present study suggests that genetic diversity does not match unequivocally with shoot density and leaf morphology and that small scale intra-meadow heterogeneity is an important factor to consider for establishing the relation between genetic/genotypic variability and health of natural seagrass meadows.


Assuntos
Alismatales/genética , Variação Genética , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Itália , Repetições de Microssatélites
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