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1.
Vet Rec ; 183(2): 69, 2018 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980593

RESUMO

The study summarises the results obtained over the period 2002-2013 by the Italian IT-Enter-Vet network, aimed at collecting data on Salmonella isolates from non-human sources. A total of 42,491 Salmonella isolates were reported with a progressive decrease over the years. S. Typhimurium was the most frequent serovar up to 2011, but then, it was overtaken by S. 4,[5],12,:i:-, S. Derby, S. Livingstone and S. Enteritidis alternated as the third most commonly isolated serovars. With regard to the sources of isolation, S. Typhimurium was distributed ubiquitously among the animal species. On the contrary, S. 4,[5],12,:i:- and S. Derby were strictly associated with pigs, whereas S. Livingstone, S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis were clearly related to poultry. Intriguingly, when the frequency of serovar distribution along the food chain was considered, it was evident that S. Typhimurium and S. Derby tended to persist along the chain, as they were isolated even more frequently from foods than from animals. A similar distribution was found for S. Enteritidis and S. Hadar. Despite limitations related to non-mandatory participation of laboratories in the network, the data presented are valuable to obtain a picture of the evolution of Salmonella from non-human sources over time in Italy.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Itália , Aves Domésticas , Salmonella/genética , Sorogrupo , Suínos
2.
Ital J Food Saf ; 7(2): 7223, 2018 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046559

RESUMO

Salmonella is the second cause of food-borne infection in humans in the USA and Europe. Pigs represent the second most important reservoir for the pathogen and the consumption of pork meat is a major risk factor for human salmonellosis. Here, we evaluated the virulence patterns of eleven Salmonella isolated from pigs (carcasses and faces) bred in intensive farms in the north of Italy. The two serotypes identified were S. Typhimurium and its monophasic variant 1,4,5,12:i:-. None of the isolates was an ESBL producer, as confirmed also by PCR. However, the presence of a multi-drug resistant pattern was evident, with all the isolates being resistant to at least to five antimicrobial agents belonging to various classes. Moreover, six out of eleven isolates showed important resistance profiles, such as resistance against colistin and ciprofloxacin, with nine to twelve recorded resistances. The isolates were negative for the biofilm synthesis test, while four different virulotypes were characterized. All the isolates showed the presence of invA, hilA, stn, ssrA, sipC. One sample also harbored ssaR and spvC genes. One strain was positive for all the virulence genes tested and was resistant to 12 antimicrobial agents. The present study contributes new data to the surveillance program for antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, the presence of eleven highly virulent isolates poses concern for human health in relation to their diffusion in the environment.

3.
J Food Prot ; 80(4): 632-639, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28291384

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STm) and its monophasic variant 4,[5],12:i:- (VMSTm) have been responsible for an increased number of foodborne infections in humans in Europe in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the origin of three foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks that occurred in Pavia Province (Lombardy region, northern Italy) in 2010. Phenotypic and genetic characteristics of the STm and VMSTm isolates from patients and from food that were recovered in the framework of the three outbreaks were evaluated through serotyping, phage typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Salami from three artisan producers, which had all purchased meat from the same slaughterhouse, was the food source of infection in outbreak I. STm isolates were recovered from salami and patients with symptoms of gastroenteritis. These isolates had the same PFGE type and the same rare MLVA profile (3-18-9-NA-211). The same molecular profiles were found in an STm isolate from a salami, which likely was the source of another family outbreak (II). A VMSTm strain with common phenotypic and molecular profiles was isolated from three hospitalized patients and identified as the cause of another putative outbreak (III). During the following 3 years (2011 through 2013), 360 salami produced in Pavia Province were monitored for the presence of S. enterica . In 2011, no STm and VMSTm isolates were recovered from 159 salami tested. During 2012 and 2013, 13.9% of 201 tested salami harbored S. enterica , and half of the isolates were VMSTm, mainly in salami from those artisan producers involved in the previous outbreaks. These isolates were genetically variable, especially in terms of MLVA profiles. The data collected suggest that from 2012, VMSTm has replaced STm in the environments of the salami producers monitored in this study, and these data confirm the dominance of this emergent serovar along the pork supply chain.


Assuntos
Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação , Sorogrupo , Animais , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Carne Vermelha , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Suínos
4.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 52(2): 277-80, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27364404

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Salmonella is a ubiquitous pathogen that can infect host species, like wild birds, rodents, and/or arthropods, which may transmit infection to domestic animals and human population. AIM: In order to assess the related risk, a cross-sectional study was performed on 1114 carcasses of wild animals from a north-eastern area of the Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During post mortem examination, intestine samples were cultured. A statistical analysis demonstrated that there is no correlation between the presence of sub-clinically infected animals and greater human population density. In contrast, a significant correlation between the number of carcasses positive for Salmonella spp. and greater spatial density of pig, poultry, and cattle farms was observed (p < 0.01). RESULTS: The results of the present study show that wild animals with omnivorous feeding habits are particularly exposed to Salmonella colonization and, consequently, to spreading the organism. Regarding drug resistance, this study confirms the resistance to antimicrobials is increasing in commensal and environmental isolates.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Aves , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Mamíferos , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , Suínos
5.
Vet Ital ; 52(2): 129-38, 2016 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27393874

RESUMO

Nowadays, leptospirosis is a re­emerging widespread infectious disease often underestimate worldwide. The National Reference Centre for Leptospirosis (NRCL), at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna, Brescia (Italy), with the cooperation of all the other Istituti Zooprofilattici Sperimentali (IIZZSS), evaluated the distribution of such important zoonosis in Italy. Serological data obtained between 2010­2011 by each laboratory were collected by the NRCL and discussed. Serum samples collected from 43,935 animal specimens were analysed by the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), using a panel of 8 serogroups as antigens (Australis, Ballum, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, Sejroe, Tarassovi). A MAT cut­off of 1:100 was used to identify the serological positivities, 6,279 sera showed positive titers. Bovine (46.9%), swine (27.5%), ovine and goat (7.4%), dog (6.9%), and wild boar (4.5%) samples were delivered to the Laboratories more frequently than equine and other species sera. Data analysis showed that the most common serogroups in Italy are: Australis present in dogs, wild boars, horses, hares, swine, foxes, and rodents; Sejroe detected in cattle, sheep, goats, and buffaloes; Icterohaemorrhagiae present in dogs, goats, and foxes; Pomona detected in swine, cattle, and wild species; Grippotyphosa reported in hares.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Itália/epidemiologia , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/sangue , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
PLoS One ; 10(12): e0144802, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26716443

RESUMO

We report the spread of a clone of multidrug-resistant (MDR), ESBL-producing (blaCTX-M-1) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis, in the Italian broiler chicken industry and along the food-chain. This was first detected in Italy in 2011 and led to human infection in Italy in 2013-2014.A set (n = 49) of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant (R) isolates of S. Infantis (2011-2014) from humans, food-producing animals and meat thereof, were studied along with a selected set of earlier and more recent ESC-susceptible (ESC-S) isolates (n = 42, 2001-2014). They were characterized by macrorestriction-PFGE analysis and genetic environment of ESC-resistance. Isolates representative of PFGE-patterns and origin were submitted to Whole Genome Sequencing. The emerging ESC-R clone, detected mainly from broiler chickens, broiler meat and humans, showed a minimum pattern of clinical resistance to cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim, beside ciprofloxacin microbiological resistance (MIC 0.25 mg/L). All isolates of this clone harbored a conjugative megaplasmid (~ 280-320 Kb), similar to that described in ESC-susceptible S. Infantis in Israel (pESI-like) in 2014. This megaplasmid carried the ESBL gene blaCTX-M-1, and additional genes [tet(A), sul1, dfrA1 and dfrA14] mediating cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and trimethoprim resistance. It also contained genes conferring enhanced colonization capability, virulence (fimbriae, yersiniabactin), resistance and fitness (qacE1, mer) in the intensive-farming environment. This emerging clone of S. Infantis has been causing infections in humans, most likely through the broiler industry. Since S. Infantis is among major serovars causing human infections in Europe and is an emerging non-typhoidal Salmonella globally, further spread of this lineage in primary productions deserves quick and thorough risk-management strategies.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Carne/microbiologia , Filogenia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella/fisiologia , beta-Lactamases/biossíntese , Animais , Resistência às Cefalosporinas/genética , Conjugação Genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Itália , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/genética , Salmonelose Animal/genética
7.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 26(6): 818-20, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25292193

RESUMO

An aborted fetus of 7 months gestation, the associated placenta, and a single blood sample from the dam were submitted for diagnostic investigation to the diagnostic laboratory of the Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute in Parma, Italy. The serum was negative for Neospora caninum, Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila abortus, Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Brucella abortus, and Brucella melitensis. Fetal tissues and placental cotyledons were pooled and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of BHV-1, Bovine herpesvirus 4, BVDV, N. caninum, C. burnetii, Chlamydophila spp., Schmallemberg virus, and Leptospira interrogans. All PCR assays were negative. Bacteriological examinations performed on the fetal organs revealed a pure growth of Staphylococcus lugdunensis in all organs cultured. In human beings, S. lugdunensis is responsible for community-acquired and nosocomial infections, in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. In veterinary medicine, the pathogenic potential of S. lugdunensis has not been fully investigated. The incidence of S. lugdunensis is regarded as being underreported because it could be easily misidentified as Staphylococcus aureus. The current report documents the ability of S. lugdunensis to cause abortion in cattle, indicating the need for accurate diagnostic procedures to identify this emerging and zoonotic pathogen whose incidence is likely underestimated in both human and veterinary medicine.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/diagnóstico , Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus lugdunensis/isolamento & purificação , Aborto Animal/patologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/veterinária , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Itália , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/patologia
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 163(2-3): 248-57, 2013 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23603278

RESUMO

In 2005-2008, 1152 samples (451 faecal samples, 451 carcass swabs and 250 tonsils) were collected from 451 finishing pigs slaughtered in three abattoirs of northern Italy. In two abattoirs, 34 scalding water samples were collected. The aim of this study was to investigate the faecal and palatine tonsil carriage rate of Salmonella enterica and Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at slaughter and the degree of carcass contamination by these bacteria. Typing of the isolates, virulence characterization and antimicrobial testing were also performed. S. enterica was isolated from 21.5% of the faecal samples, 10.9% of the carcasses and 10.4% of the tonsils, but not from scalding water. Nineteen different serovars were identified among 172 S. enterica isolates. The prevalent serovars were Derby (41.3%), Rissen (12.2%), Typhimurium (11%), 4,[5],12:i:- (8.7%) and Give (4.1%). S. enterica ser. Typhimurium and S. enterica ser. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates were phage-typed and PT DT120 was the most common (23.5%). Y. enterocolitica was detected in 17.1% of the faecal samples, 2.4% of the carcasses, 10.8% of the tonsils and 11.8% of the scalding water samples. A total of 119 isolates were found, four of them in water. Of the 115 Y. enterocolitica isolates of pig origin, 24 (20.9%) were 4/O:3 and 4 (3.5%) were 2/O:9. Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 represented 85.7% of the pathogenic isolates found in all types of samples and 100% of those found in tonsils. In 4/O:3 isolates the most common virulence-associated genes were ystA (100%), inv (95.8%), ail (87.5%) and yadA (54.2%). In 2/O:9 isolates the prevalent genes were ail (100%), inv (100%) and ystA (100%), followed by ystB (25.0%). The majority (75.7%) of Y. enterocolitica isolates was biotype 1A, belonging to 13 serotypes (O:3; O:5; O:4,32-4,33; O:6,30-6,31; O:7,8-8; O:7,8-8-8,19; O:7,13; O:8; O:9; O:13; O:16-16,29; O:41,42-41,43; O:52). The most common virulence genes in 1A isolates were inv (95.4%) and ystB (72.4%). The antimicrobial resistance test showed that all Salmonella isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, cefalothin, gentamicin and enrofloxacin. Resistances to tetracycline (56%), sulphonamide compounds (42%) and streptomycin (34%) were the most common. All Y. enterocolitica isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamicin and neomycin. Most isolates were resistant to cefalothin (92%) and ampicillin (89%). Apparently, carcass contamination by S. enterica and Y. enterocolitica was more likely attributable to cross-contamination than to self-contamination, suggesting that good hygienic measures and slaughtering procedures can control transmission of these pathogens to pork meat.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Salmonelose Animal , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Suínos , Yersiniose/veterinária , Yersinia enterocolitica/efeitos dos fármacos , Yersinia enterocolitica/genética , Matadouros , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Biodiversidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fezes/microbiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Tonsila Palatina/microbiologia , Prevalência , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/genética , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Yersiniose/epidemiologia , Yersiniose/microbiologia , Yersinia enterocolitica/isolamento & purificação
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