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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e229953, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503221

RESUMO

Importance: An increasing proportion of people in the US hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are younger than 55 years, with the largest increase in young women. Effective prevention requires an understanding of risk factors associated with risk of AMI in young women compared with men. Objectives: To assess the sex-specific associations of demographic, clinical, and psychosocial risk factors with first AMI among adults younger than 55 years, overall, and by AMI subtype. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study used a case-control design with 2264 patients with AMI, aged 18 to 55 years, from the VIRGO (Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients) study and 2264 population-based controls matched for age, sex, and race and ethnicity from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2012. Data were analyzed from April 2020 to November 2021. Exposures: A wide range of demographic, clinical, and psychosocial risk factors. Main Outcomes and Measures: Odds ratios (ORs) and population attributable fractions (PAF) for first AMI associated with demographic, clinical, and psychosocial risk factors. Results: Of the 4528 case patients and matched controls, 3122 (68.9%) were women, and the median (IQR) age was 48 (44-52) years. Seven risk factors (diabetes [OR, 3.59 (95% CI, 2.72-4.74) in women vs 1.76 (1.19-2.60) in men], depression [OR, 3.09 (95% CI, 2.37-4.04) in women vs 1.77 (1.15-2.73) in men], hypertension [OR, 2.87 (95% CI, 2.31-3.57) in women vs 2.19 (1.65-2.90) in men], current smoking [OR, 3.28 (95% CI, 2.65-4.07) in women vs 3.28 (2.65-4.07) in men], family history of premature myocardial infarction [OR, 1.48 (95% CI, 1.17-1.88) in women vs 2.42 (1.71-3.41) in men], low household income [OR, 1.79 (95% CI, 1.28-2.50) in women vs 1.35 (0.82-2.23) in men], hypercholesterolemia [OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.81-1.29) in women vs 2.16 (1.49-3.15) in men]) collectively accounted for the majority of the total risk of AMI in women (83.9%) and men (85.1%). There were significant sex differences in risk factor associations: hypertension, depression, diabetes, current smoking, and family history of diabetes had stronger associations with AMI in young women, whereas hypercholesterolemia had a stronger association in young men. Risk factor profiles varied by AMI subtype, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors had higher prevalence and stronger ORs for type 1 AMI compared with other AMI subtypes. Conclusions and Relevance: In this case-control study, 7 risk factors, many potentially modifiable, accounted for 85% of the risk of first AMI in young women and men. Significant differences in risk factor profiles and risk factor associations existed by sex and by AMI subtype. These findings suggest the need for sex-specific strategies in risk factor modification and prevention of AMI in young adults. Further research is needed to improve risk assessment of AMI subtypes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipercolesterolemia , Hipertensão , Infarto do Miocárdio , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
2.
Clin Ther ; 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves major adverse cardiac outcomes in patients recovering from myocardial infarction. CR influences outcomes through attenuation of cardiac risk factors, lifestyle changes, and biological effects on endothelial function. The clinical profile and sex-specific outcomes with CR after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is less well defined. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients undergoing elective or urgent CABG was performed between 2014 and 2016 at a single site. Patients requiring concomitant procedures were excluded. Patients received referral to a 12-week, 36-session CR program standardized through the health care system and tracked via electronic health records. Clinical data and complications during hospitalization were abstracted from Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) registry and matched with 12-months outcomes from electronic health records. Primary composite outcomes were mortality and STS-defined complications within 12 months after CABG. Kaplan-Meier plots for mortality were generated from conditional 6-month survival data. FINDINGS: Of 756 patients undergoing CABG, 420 met the eligibility criteria (mean age, 66 years). Women (18%) had a similar cardiac risk profile to men except for a higher hemoglobin A1c level and lower hematocrit before surgery. Women had similar extent of revascularization to men but had higher rates of intraoperative (30% vs 8%; p < 0.001) and postoperative blood transfusions (43% vs 29%; p = 0.014) compared with men. Only 66% of women qualified for direct discharge to home compared with 85% of men (p = 0.0003). Twelve-month mortality was 1.3% and 2%, respectively (p > 0.05). Half of the cohort got referred for CR, and 32% of men and 23% of women underwent CR. Twelve-month composite outcomes did not differ by referral to cardiac rehabilitation (odds ratio = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.36-1.64) or engagement with CR (odds ratio = 0.67; 95% CI -0.05 to 0.086), adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and diabetes. Kaplan-Meier analysis found no significant difference in survival between those who did and did not undergo CR. Men experienced increases in metabolic equivalents (38%, P = 0.014), grip strength (11%, P < 0.0001), and sense of physical well-being (40.9%, P < 0.0001), whereas women experienced increases in aerobic exercise duration (15.5%, P = 0.02) and a trend in improved sense for physical well-being (93.3%, P = 0.06). IMPLICATIONS: Sex differences exist with CR after CABG. Future studies should confirm these findings in larger cohorts and corroborate the effect on endothelial function and other biological markers.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2146591, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35138401

RESUMO

Importance: Self-injury mortality (SIM) combines suicides and the preponderance of drug misuse-related overdose fatalities. Identifying social and environmental factors associated with SIM and suicide may inform etiologic understanding and intervention design. Objective: To identify factors associated with interstate SIM and suicide rate variation and to assess potential for differential suicide misclassification. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used a partial panel time series with underlying cause-of-death data from 50 US states and the District of Columbia for 1999-2000, 2007-2008, 2013-2014 and 2018-2019. Applying data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, SIM includes all suicides and the preponderance of unintentional and undetermined drug intoxication deaths, reflecting self-harm behaviors. Data were analyzed from February to June 2021. Exposures: Exposures included inequity, isolation, demographic characteristics, injury mechanism, health care access, and medicolegal death investigation system type. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome, SIM, was assessed using unstandardized regression coefficients of interstate variation associations, identified by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator; ratios of crude SIM to suicide rates per 100 000 population were assessed for potential differential suicide misclassification. Results: A total of 101 325 SIMs were identified, including 74 506 (73.5%) among males and 26 819 (26.5%) among females. SIM to suicide rate ratios trended upwards, with an accelerating increase in overdose fatalities classified as unintentional or undetermined (SIM to suicide rate ratio, 1999-2000: 1.39; 95% CI, 1.38-1.41; 2018-2019: 2.12; 95% CI, 2.11-2.14). Eight states recorded a SIM to suicide rate ratio less than 1.50 in 2018-2019 vs 39 states in 1999-2000. Northeastern states concentrated in the highest category (range, 2.10-6.00); only the West remained unrepresented. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator identified 8 factors associated with the SIM rate in 2018-2019: centralized medical examiner system (ß = 4.362), labor underutilization rate (ß = 0.728), manufacturing employment (ß = -0.056), homelessness rate (ß = -0.125), percentage nonreligious (ß = 0.041), non-Hispanic White race and ethnicity (ß = 0.087), prescribed opioids for 30 days or more (ß = 0.117), and percentage without health insurance (ß = -0.013) and 5 factors associated with the suicide rate: percentage male (ß = 1.046), military veteran (ß = 0.747), rural (ß = 0.031), firearm ownership (ß = 0.030), and pain reliever misuse (ß = 1.131). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that SIM rates were associated with modifiable, upstream factors. Although embedded in SIM, suicide unexpectedly deviated in proposed social and environmental determinants. Heterogeneity in medicolegal death investigation processes and data assurance needs further characterization, with the goal of providing the highest-quality reports for developing and tracking public health policies and practices.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Características de Residência , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Fatores Sociais , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
4.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 3(1): e12651, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a Brief Negotiation Interview (BNI) performed in the emergency department (ED) can reduce future rates of alcohol use among older adults who are high-risk drinkers. METHODS: Adults aged 65 years and older in a single academic ED were screened for high-risk alcohol use based on the National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism definition of >7 drinks per week or >3 drinks per occasion. Eligible individuals who were high-risk drinkers who passed a cognitive impairment screener and who consented to enrollment were randomly assigned to receive the BNI versus usual care. Outcomes were assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months.  The primary outcome was the rate of high-risk alcohol use at 6 months. RESULTS:  Of 2250 ED patients who were screened, 183 (8%) met the criteria for high-risk alcohol use. Of those, 98 (53%) patients met full criteria and consented to participation. Of the participants, 67% were men and 83% were non-Hispanic White. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome of high-risk alcohol use at 6 months between the BNI at 59.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45.5%-76.8%) and the control at 49.1% (95% CI, 36.9%-65.2%). However, there was a significant time-effect reduction in alcohol consumption and rates of high-risk alcohol use for both groups. CONCLUSION: Among older adults who met the criteria for high-risk alcohol use, the BNI in the ED did not result in a reduction in high-risk alcohol use at 6 months, although both groups showed significant reductions after their ED visit. Further work is needed to determine the optimal setting and time to use the BNI to impact high-risk alcohol use in this population.

5.
Subst Abus ; 43(1): 841-847, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156912

RESUMO

Background: Case identification for many areas of opioid research and surveillance in the emergency department (ED) is challenging as patients are often undifferentiated with nonspecific symptoms and diagnostic codes have proven to be inaccurate. Opioid-related phenotypes based on combinations of electronic health record data are a promising method to address this gap but lack a consensus-based conceptual framework to aid organization and prioritization. Methods: To achieve consensus around opioid-related phenotype topics in the ED, we used a hybrid scheme that employed modified Delphi and conceptual mapping methods. The combined iterative process used three rounds of electronic meetings and questionnaires to generate consensus recommendations and concept mappings based on the opinions and feedback of the 9 member Delphi panel. Mean importance and feasibility scores based on 5-point Likert scales (1 = relatively unimportant (infeasible) to 5 = extremely important (feasible)) for each statement/phenotype were calculated. We used multidimensional scaling to produce a point map of the phenotype concepts and hierarchical cluster analysis to generate concept maps. Results: After the first round, 120 initial phenotype concepts were proposed which were reduced to 73 concepts after normalization by the research team. Opioid overdose (9.54, SD = 0.9) had the highest combined importance and feasibility score. A final labeled 12-cluster solution was determined to be the most parsimonious description of the content by the research team. Three key groups emerged: opioid overdose, other opioid-specific phenotypes (opioid use disorder, opioid misuse, and opioid withdrawal) with significant concept overlap and opioid use-related phenotypes (homelessness, falls, infections, and suicidality). Conclusions: Using an expert consensus driven concept mapping process we identified specific opioid phenotype concepts within an overlapping schema that carry high priority for development and validation to advance emergency care opioid-related research and surveillance.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Overdose de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Fenótipo
6.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1): 5, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although Good Samaritan laws (GSLs) have been widely adopted throughout the United States, their efficacy in individual states is often unknown. This paper offers an approach for assessing the impact of GSLs and insight for policy-makers and public health officials who wish to know whether they should expect to see outcomes from similar policy interventions. METHODS: Utilizing a system dynamics (SD) modeling approach, the research team conducted a policy evaluation to determine the impact of GSLs on opioid use disorder (OUD) in Connecticut and evaluated the GSL based upon the following health outcomes: (1) emergency department (ED) visits for overdose, (2) behavioral changes of bystanders, and (3) overdose deaths. RESULTS: The simulation model suggests that Connecticut's GSL has not yet affected overdose deaths but has resulted in bystander behavioral changes, such as increased 911 calls for overdose. ED visits have increased as the number of opioid users has increased. CONCLUSIONS: The simulation results indicate that the number of opioid-related deaths will continue to increase and that the GSL alone cannot effectively control the crisis. However, the SD approach that was used will allow policymakers to evaluate the effectiveness of the GSL over time using a simulation framework. This SD model demonstrates great potential by producing simulations that allow policymakers to assess multiple strategies for combating the opioid crisis and select optimal public health interventions.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Connecticut , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
7.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262136, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the emergency department (ED) has evolved into the de-facto site of care for a variety of substance use disorder (SUD) presentations, trends in ED utilization are an essential public health surveillance tool. Changes in ED visit patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic may reflect changes in access to outpatient treatment, changes in SUD incidence, or the unintended effects of public policy to mitigate COVID-19. We use a national emergency medicine registry to describe and characterize trends in ED visitation for SUDs since 2019. METHODS: We included all ED visits identified in a national emergency medicine clinical quality registry, which included 174 sites across 33 states with data from January 2019 through June 2021. We defined SUD using ED visit diagnosis codes including: opioid overdose and opioid use disorder (OUD), alcohol use disorders (AUD), and other SUD. To characterize changes in ED utilization, we plotted the 3-week moving average ratio of visit counts in 2020 and 2021 as compared to visit counts in 2019. FINDINGS: While overall ED visits declined in the early pandemic period and had not returned to 2019 baseline by June 2021, ED visit counts for SUD demonstrated smaller declines in March and April of 2020, so that the proportion of overall ED visits that were for SUD increased. Furthermore, in the second half of 2020, ED visits for SUD returned to baseline, and increased above baseline for OUD ever since May 2020. CONCLUSIONS: We observe distinct patterns in ED visitation for SUDs over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly for OUD for which ED visitation barely declined and now exceeds previous baselines. These trends likely demonstrate the essential role of hospital-based EDs in providing 24/7/365 care for people with SUDs and mental health conditions. Allocation of resources must be directed towards the ED as a de-facto safety net for populations in crisis.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/psicologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2144955, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35076700

RESUMO

Importance: Emergency departments (EDs) are increasingly initiating treatment for patients with untreated opioid use disorder (OUD) and linking them to ongoing addiction care. To our knowledge, patient perspectives related to their ED visit have not been characterized and may influence their access to and interest in OUD treatment. Objective: To assess the experiences and perspectives regarding ED-initiated health care and OUD treatment among US patients with untreated OUD seen in the ED. Design, Setting, and Participants: This qualitative study, conducted as part of 2 studies (Project ED Health and ED-CONNECT), included individuals with untreated OUD who were recruited during an ED visit in EDs at 4 urban academic centers, 1 public safety net hospital, and 1 rural critical access hospital in 5 disparate US regions. Focus groups were conducted between June 2018 and January 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Data collection and thematic analysis were grounded in the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) implementation science framework with evidence (perspectives on ED care), context (ED), and facilitation (what is needed to promote change) elements. Results: A total of 31 individuals (mean [SD] age, 43.4 [11.0] years) participated in 6 focus groups. Twenty participants (64.5%) identified as male and most 13 (41.9%) as White; 17 (54.8%) reported being unemployed. Themes related to evidence included patients' experience of stigma and perceived minimization of their pain and medical problems by ED staff. Themes about context included the ED not being seen as a source of OUD treatment initiation and patient readiness to initiate treatment being multifaceted, time sensitive, and related to internal and external patient factors. Themes related to facilitation of improved care of patients with OUD seen in the ED included a need for on-demand treatment and ED staff training. Conclusions and Relevance: In this qualitative study, patients with OUD reported feeling stigmatized and minimized when accessing care in the ED and identified several opportunities to improve care. The findings suggest that strategies to address stigma, acknowledge and treat pain, and provide ED staff training should be implemented to improve ED care for patients with OUD and enhance access to life-saving treatment.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
9.
Ann Emerg Med ; 79(2): 219-220, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065746
10.
J Healthc Qual ; 44(2): 69-77, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570029

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to determine if audit-and-feedback with peer comparison among emergency physicians is associated with improved emergency department (ED) throughput and decreased variation in physician performance. METHODS: We implemented an audit-and-feedback with peer comparison tool at a single urban academic ED from March 1, 2013, to July 1, 2018. In the first study period, physicians received no reports. In the second period, they received daily reports. In the third period, they received daily, quarterly, and annual reports. Outcomes included patients per hour, admission rate, time to admission, and time to discharge. RESULTS: A total of 272,032 patient visits and 36 ED physicians were included. The mean admission rate decreased 6.8%; the mean time to admission decreased 43.8 minutes; and the mean time to discharge decreased 40.6 minutes. Variation among physicians decreased for admission rate, time to admission, and time to discharge. Low-performing outliers showed disproportionately larger improvements in patients per hour, admission rate, time to admission, and time to discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Automated peer comparison reports for academic emergency physicians was associated with lower admission rates, shorter times to admission, and shorter times to discharge at the departmental level, as well as decreased practice variation at the individual level.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Médicos , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Admissão do Paciente , Alta do Paciente
11.
Acad Emerg Med ; 29(2): 241-251, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363718

RESUMO

All academic medical specialties have the obligation to continuously create new knowledge that will improve patient care and outcomes. Emergency medicine (EM) is no exception. Since its origins over 50 years ago, EM has struggled to fulfill its research mission. EM ranks last among clinical specialties in the percentage of medical school faculty who are National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded principal investigators (PIs; 1.7%) and the percentage of medical school departments with NIH-funded PIs (33%). Although there has been a steady increase in the number of NIH-funded projects and total NIH dollars, the slowing growth in the number of NIH-funded PIs and lack of growth in the number of EM departments with NIH-funded PIs is cause for concern. In response, the Association of Academic Chairs of Emergency Medicine (AACEM) Research Task Force proposes a set of 2030 strategic goals for the EM research enterprise that are based on sustaining historic growth rates in NIH funding. These goals have been endorsed by the AACEM Executive Committee and the boards of Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM), American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), and American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM). The 2030 strategic goals include 200 NIH-funded projects led by 150 EM PIs in at least 50 EM departments with over $100M in annual funding resulting in over 3% of EM faculty being NIH-funded PIs. Achieving these goals will require a targeted series of focused strategies to increase the number of EM faculty who are competitive for NIH funding. This requires a coordinated, intentional effort with investments at the national, departmental, and individual levels. These efforts are ideally led by medical school department chairs, who can create the culture and provide the resources needed to be successful. The specialty of EM has the obligation to improve the health of the public and to fulfill its research mission.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Medicina de Emergência , Docentes de Medicina , Objetivos , Humanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Estados Unidos
12.
Ann Emerg Med ; 79(2): 158-167, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119326

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: People with opioid use disorder are vulnerable to disruptions in access to addiction treatment and social support during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study objective was to understand changes in emergency department (ED) utilization following a nonfatal opioid overdose during COVID-19 compared to historical controls in 6 healthcare systems across the United States. METHODS: Opioid overdoses were retrospectively identified among adult visits to 25 EDs in Alabama, Colorado, Connecticut, North Carolina, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island from January 2018 to December 2020. Overdose visit counts and rates per 100 all-cause ED visits during the COVID-19 pandemic were compared with the levels predicted based on 2018 and 2019 visits using graphical analysis and an epidemiologic outbreak detection cumulative sum algorithm. RESULTS: Overdose visit counts increased by 10.5% (n=3486; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.18% to 17.0%) in 2020 compared with the counts in 2018 and 2019 (n=3020 and n=3285, respectively), despite a 14% decline in all-cause ED visits. Opioid overdose rates increased by 28.5% (95% CI 23.3% to 34.0%) from 0.25 per 100 ED visits in 2018 to 2019 to 0.32 per 100 ED visits in 2020. Although all 6 studied health care systems experienced overdose ED visit rates more than the 95th percentile prediction in 6 or more weeks of 2020 (compared with 2.6 weeks as expected by chance), 2 health care systems experienced sustained outbreaks during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: Despite decreases in ED visits for other medical emergencies, the numbers and rates of opioid overdose-related ED visits in 6 health care systems increased during 2020, suggesting a widespread increase in opioid-related complications during the COVID-19 pandemic. Expanded community- and hospital-based interventions are needed to support people with opioid use disorder and save lives during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Overdose de Opiáceos/terapia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 2(6): e12606, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34877567

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Emergency department-initiated buprenorphine (BUP) for opioid use disorder is an evidence-based practice, but limited data exist on BUP initiation practices in real-world settings. We sought to characterize protocols for BUP initiation among a geographically diverse sample of emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: In December 2020, we reviewed prestudy clinical BUP initiation protocols from all EDs participating in CTN0099 Emergency Department-INitiated bupreNOrphine VAlidaTION (ED-INNOVATION). We abstracted information on processes for identification of treatment-eligible patients, BUP administration, and discharge care. RESULTS: All participating ED-INNOVATION sites across 22 states submitted protocols; 31 protocols were analyzed. Identification of treatment-eligible patients: Most EDs 22 (71%) relied on clinician judgment to determine appropriateness of BUP treatment with only 7 (23%) requiring decision support tools or diagnosis checklists. Before BUP initiation, 27 (87%) protocols required a documented Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) score; 4 (13%) required a clinical diagnosis of withdrawal with optional COWS score. Twenty-seven (87%) recommended a minimum COWS score of 8 for ED-initiated BUP. BUP administration: Initial BUP dose ranged from 2-16 mg (mode = 4). For continued withdrawal symptoms, 27 (87%) protocols recommended an interval of 30-60 minutes between first and second BUP dose. Total BUP dose in the ED ranged from 8 to 32 mg. Discharge care: Twenty-eight (90%) protocols recommended a BUP prescription (mode 16 mg daily) at discharge. Naloxone prescription and/or provision was suggested in 23 (74%) protocols. CONCLUSIONS: In this geographically diverse sample of EDs, protocols for ED-initiated BUP differed between sites. Future work should evaluate the association between this variation and patient outcomes.

14.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 16(1): 66, 2021 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergency department (ED) offers an important opportunity to identify patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) and initiate treatment. However, post-ED follow-up is challenging, and novel approaches to enhance care transitions are urgently needed. Outcomes following ED visits have traditionally focused on overdose, treatment engagement, and mortality with an absence of patient reported outcomes (PROs), for example patient ability to schedule follow-up OUD treatment appointments or pick up a prescription medication, that may better inform evaluation of treatment pathways and near-term outcomes after acute events. In the context of increasing novel secure mobile health (mHealth) platforms, we explored the feasibility and acceptability of electronically collecting PROs from ED patients with non-medical opioid use to enhance care in the ED and transitions of care. METHODS: ED patients with non-medical opioid use or opioid overdose who endorsed willingness and ability to complete electronic surveys after discharge were enrolled from a tertiary, urban academic ED. Participants were enrolled in an mHealth platform, shared electronic health records with researchers, and completed electronic surveys of PROs at baseline, three- and thirty-days post discharge from the hospital, including questions about ability to schedule a follow-up appointment, pick up a prescription medication and overdose risk behaviors. Primary outcomes were measures of feasibility and acceptability of electronic PRO collection among ED patients with non-medical opioid use. RESULTS: Among 1,808 patients assessed for eligibility between June-December 2019, 101 of 130 (78%) eligible adult patients consented to participate. Ninety-six (95%) of 101 patients completed registration in the mHealth platform, and 77/96 (80%) were successful in sharing their electronic health data. Completion rates for the baseline, three-day and thirty-day surveys were 97% (93/96), 49% (47/96) and 42% (40/96). Implementation challenges included short engagement window during ED visit, limited access to smartphones/computers, insufficient battery life of participant phone to access email and password, forgotten emails and passwords, multi-step verification processes for account set-up, and complaints about hospital care, most of which were effectively addressed by study personnel. CONCLUSIONS: ED patients with OUD were willing to share electronic health information and PROs, although implementation challenges were common, and more than half of participants were lost-to-follow-up after hospital discharge at 30 days. Efforts to streamline communication and remove barriers to engagement are needed to improve the collection of PROs and pathways of care in ED patients with OUD. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03985163). Date of Registration: June 10, 2019, Retrospectively registered (First enrollment June 8, 2019). https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT03985163.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Telemedicina , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Eletrônica , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2128182, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668947

RESUMO

Importance: Quality of care of young adults with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may depend on health care systems in addition to individual-level factors such as biological sex and social determinants of health (SDOH). Objective: To examine whether the quality of in-hospital and postacute care among young adults with AMI differs between the US and Canada and whether female sex and adverse SDOH are associated with a low quality of care. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort analysis used data from 2 large cohorts of young adults (aged ≤55 years) receiving in-hospital and outpatient care for AMI at 127 centers in the US and Canada. Data were collected from August 21, 2008, to April 30, 2013, and analyzed from July 12, 2019, to March 10, 2021. Exposures: Sex, SDOH, and health care system. Main Outcomes and Measures: Opportunity-based quality-of-care score (QCS), determined by dividing the total number of quality indicators of care received by the total number for which the patient was eligible, with low quality of care defined as the lowest tertile of the QCS. Results: A total of 4048 adults with AMI (2345 women [57.9%]; median age, 49 [interquartile range, 44-52] years; 3004 [74.2%] in the US) were included in the analysis. Of 3416 patients with in-hospital QCS available, 1061 (31.1%) received a low QCS, including more women compared with men (725 of 2007 [36.1%] vs 336 of 1409 [23.8%]; P < .001) and more patients treated in the US vs Canada (962 of 2646 [36.4%] vs 99 of 770 [12.9%]; P < .001). Conversely, low quality of post-AMI care (748 of 2938 [25.5%]) was similarly observed for both sexes, with a higher prevalence in the US (678 of 2346 [28.9%] vs 70 of 592 [11.8%]). In adjusted analyses, female sex was not associated with low QCS for in-hospital (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% CI, 0.87-1.28) and post-AMI (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.88-1.30) care. Conversely, being treated in the US was associated with low in-hospital (OR, 2.93; 95% CI, 2.16-3.99) and post-AMI (OR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.97-3.63) QCS, regardless of sex. Of all SDOH, only employment was associated with higher quality of in-hospital care (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.59-0.88). Finally, only in the US, low quality of in-hospital care was associated with a higher 1-year cardiac readmissions rate (234 of 962 [24.3%]). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that beyond sex, health care systems and SDOH that depict social vulnerability are associated with quality of AMI care. Taking into account SDOH among young adults with AMI may improve quality of care and reduce readmissions, especially in the US.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/psicologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Fatores Sexuais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/normas , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(18): e021047, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514837

RESUMO

Background Readmission over the first year following hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is common among younger adults (≤55 years). Our aim was to develop/validate a risk prediction model that considered a broad range of factors for readmission within 1 year. Methods and Results We used data from the VIRGO (Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients) study, which enrolled young adults aged 18 to 55 years hospitalized with AMI across 103 US hospitals (N=2979). The primary outcome was ≥1 all-cause readmissions within 1 year of hospital discharge. Bayesian model averaging was used to select the risk model. The mean age of participants was 47.1 years, 67.4% were women, and 23.2% were Black. Within 1 year of discharge for AMI, 905 (30.4%) of participants were readmitted and were more likely to be female, Black, and nonmarried. The final risk model consisted of 10 predictors: depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05), better physical health (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99), in-hospital complication of heart failure (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.99-2.08), chronic obstructive pulmomary disease (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.96-1.74), diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.00-1.52), female sex (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.05-1.65), low income (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.89-1.42), prior AMI (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.15-1.87), in-hospital length of stay (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.23), and being employed (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.69-1.12). The model had excellent calibration and modest discrimination (C statistic=0.67 in development/validation cohorts). Conclusions Women and those with a prior AMI, increased depressive symptoms, longer inpatient length of stay and diabetes may be more likely to be readmitted. Notably, several predictors of readmission were psychosocial characteristics rather than markers of AMI severity. This finding may inform the development of interventions to reduce readmissions in young patients with AMI.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Infarto do Miocárdio , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Readmissão do Paciente , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(17): e021408, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431311

RESUMO

Background The extent to which race influences in-hospital quality of care for young adults (≤55 years) with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is largely unknown. We examined racial disparities in in-hospital quality of AMI care and their impact on 1-year cardiac readmission. Methods and Results We used data from the VIRGO (Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients) study enrolling young Black and White US adults with AMI (2008-2012). An in-hospital quality of care score (QCS) was computed (standard AMI quality indicators divided by the total a patient is eligible for). Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with the lowest QCS tertile, including interactions between race and social determinants of health. Among 2846 young adults with AMI (median 48 years [interquartile range 44-52], 67.4% women, 18.8% Black race), Black individuals, especially women, exhibited a higher prevalence of cardiac risk factors and social determinants of health and were more likely to experience a non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction than White individuals. Black individuals were more likely in the lowest QCS tertile than White individuals (40.8% versus 34.7%; P=0.003). The association between Black race and low QCS (odds ratio [OR], 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.54) was attenuated by adjustment for confounders. Employment was independently associated with better QCS, especially among Black participants (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62-0.92; P-interaction=0.02). Black individuals experienced a higher rate of 1-year cardiac readmission (29.9% versus 20.0%; P<0.0001). Conclusions Black individuals with AMI received lower in-hospital quality of care and exhibited a higher rate of cardiac readmissions than White individuals. Black individuals had a lower quality of care if unemployed, highlighting the intersection of race and social determinants of health.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etnologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
AMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc ; 2021: 248-256, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457139

RESUMO

Identifying patient risk factors leading to adverse opioid-related events (AOEs) may enable targeted risk-based interventions, uncover potential causal mechanisms, and enhance prognosis. In this article, we aim to discover patient diagnosis, procedure, and medication event trajectories associated with AOEs using large-scale data mining methods. The individual temporally preceding factors associated with the highest relative risk (RR) for AOEs were opioid withdrawal therapy agents, toxic encephalopathy, problems related to housing and economic circumstances, and unspecified viral hepatitis, with RR of 33.4, 26.1, 19.9, and 18.7, respectively. Patient cohorts with a socioeconomic or mental health code had a larger RR for over 75% of all identified trajectories compared to the average population. By analyzing health trajectories leading to AOEs, we discover novel, temporally-connected combinations of diagnoses and health service events that significantly increase risk of AOEs, including natural histories marked by socioeconomic and mental health diagnoses.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Humanos
19.
Ann Emerg Med ; 78(6): 752-758, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353648

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Despite evidence supporting naltrexone as an effective treatment for alcohol use disorder, its use in emergency department (ED) patients has not been described. We implemented a protocol that combined substance use navigation with either oral naltrexone or extended-release intramuscular naltrexone for patients with alcohol use disorder as a strategy to improve follow-up in addiction treatment after ED discharge. METHODS: In this descriptive study, we analyzed the results from adult patients discharged from the ED with moderate to severe alcohol use disorder who received either oral naltrexone or extended-release intramuscular naltrexone between May 1, 2020, and October 31, 2020, and assessed their engagement in formal addiction treatment within 30 days after discharge from the ED. RESULTS: Among 59 patients with moderate to severe alcohol use disorder who accepted naltrexone treatment, 41 received oral naltrexone and 18 received extended-release intramuscular naltrexone. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 45.2 (13.4) years; 22 patients (37.3%) were Latinx, 18 (30.5%) were Black, and 16 (27.1%) were White. Among all patients, 9 (15.3%) attended follow-up formal addiction treatment within 30 days after discharge; 5 patients (27.8%) who received extended-release intramuscular naltrexone and 4 patients (9.8%) who received oral naltrexone attended follow-up treatment within 30 days. CONCLUSION: We implemented a clinical protocol for ED patients with moderate to severe alcohol use disorder using oral naltrexone and extended-release intramuscular naltrexone together with substance use navigation. Identification of alcohol use disorder, a brief intervention, and initiation of naltrexone resulted in a 15% follow-up rate in formal addiction treatment. Future work should prospectively examine the effectiveness of naltrexone as well as the effect of substance use navigation for ED patients with alcohol use disorder.


Assuntos
Dissuasores de Álcool/uso terapêutico , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , California , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Tratamento de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naltrexona/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2117128, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264326

RESUMO

Importance: Emergency departments (EDs) sporadically use a high-dose buprenorphine induction strategy for the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) in response to the increasing potency of the illicit opioid drug supply and commonly encountered delays in access to follow-up care. Objective: To examine the safety and tolerability of high-dose (>12 mg) buprenorphine induction for patients with OUD presenting to an ED. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case series of ED encounters, data were manually abstracted from electronic health records for all ED patients with OUD treated with buprenorphine at a single, urban, safety-net hospital in Oakland, California, for the calendar year 2018. Data analysis was performed from April 2020 to March 2021. Interventions: ED physicians and advanced practice practitioners were trained on a high-dose sublingual buprenorphine induction protocol, which was then clinically implemented. Main Outcomes and Measures: Vital signs; use of supplemental oxygen; the presence of precipitated withdrawal, sedation, and respiratory depression; adverse events; length of stay; and hospitalization during and 24 hours after the ED visit were reported according to total sublingual buprenorphine dose (range, 2 to >28 mg). Results: Among a total of 391 unique patients (median [interquartile range] age, 36 [29-48] years), representing 579 encounters, 267 (68.3%) were male and 170 were (43.5%) Black. Homelessness (88 patients [22.5%]) and psychiatric disorders (161 patients [41.2%]) were common. A high dose of sublingual buprenorphine (>12 mg) was administered by 54 unique clinicians during 366 (63.2%) encounters, including 138 doses (23.8%) greater than or equal to 28 mg. No cases of respiratory depression or sedation were reported. All 5 (0.8%) cases of precipitated withdrawal had no association with dose; 4 cases occurred after doses of 8 mg of buprenorphine. Three serious adverse events unrelated to buprenorphine were identified. Nausea or vomiting was rare (2%-6% of cases). The median (interquartile range) length of stay was 2.4 (1.6-3.75) hours. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that high-dose buprenorphine induction, adopted by multiple clinicians in a single-site urban ED, was safe and well tolerated in patients with untreated OUD. Further prospective investigations conducted in multiple sites would enhance these findings.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Buprenorfina/administração & dosagem , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , California , Feminino , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Provedores de Redes de Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento
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