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Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641485


The third step of the catabolism of galactose in mammals is catalyzed by the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT), a homodimeric enzyme with two active sites located in the proximity of the intersubunit interface. Mutations of this enzyme are associated to the rare inborn error of metabolism known as classic galactosemia; in particular, the most common mutation, associated with the most severe phenotype, is the one that replaces Gln188 in the active site of the enzyme with Arg (p.Gln188Arg). In the past, and more recently, the structural effects of this mutation were deduced on the static structure of the wild-type human enzyme; however, we feel that a dynamic view of the proteins is necessary to deeply understand their behavior and obtain tips for possible therapeutic interventions. Thus, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of both wild-type and p.Gln188Arg GALT proteins in the absence or in the presence of the substrates in different conditions of temperature. Our results suggest the importance of the intersubunit interactions for a correct activity of this enzyme and can be used as a starting point for the search of drugs able to rescue the activity of this enzyme in galactosemic patients.

Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641605


Classic galactosemia is an inborn error of metabolism associated with mutations that impair the activity and the stability of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT), catalyzing the third step in galactose metabolism. To date, no treatments (including dietary galactose deprivation) are able to prevent or alleviate the long-term complications affecting galactosemic patients. Evidence that arginine is able to improve the activity of the human enzyme expressed in a prokaryotic model of classic galactosemia has induced researchers to suppose that this amino acid could act as a pharmacochaperone, but no effects were detected in four galactosemic patients treated with this amino acid. Given that no molecular characterizations of the possible effects of arginine on GALT have been performed, and given that the samples of patients treated with arginine are extremely limited for drawing definitive conclusions at the clinical level, we performed computational simulations in order to predict the interactions (if any) between this amino acid and the enzyme. Our results do not support the possibility that arginine could function as a pharmacochaperone for GALT, but information obtained by this study could be useful for identifying, in the future, possible pharmacochaperones for this enzyme.

Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4909, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389707


In bacteria, trans-translation is the main rescue system, freeing ribosomes stalled on defective messenger RNAs. This mechanism is driven by small protein B (SmpB) and transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), a hybrid RNA known to have both a tRNA-like and an mRNA-like domain. Here we present four cryo-EM structures of the ribosome during trans-translation at resolutions from 3.0 to 3.4 Å. These include the high-resolution structure of the whole pre-accommodated state, as well as structures of the accommodated state, the translocated state, and a translocation intermediate. Together, they shed light on the movements of the tmRNA-SmpB complex in the ribosome, from its delivery by the elongation factor EF-Tu to its passage through the ribosomal A and P sites after the opening of the B1 bridges. Additionally, we describe the interactions between the tmRNA-SmpB complex and the ribosome. These explain why the process does not interfere with canonical translation.

Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA Bacteriano/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , RNA Bacteriano/química , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/química , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/química , RNA de Transferência/genética , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Ribossomos/ultraestrutura