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1.
J Sport Health Sci ; 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity, sleep, and sedentary behaviors compose 24-h movement behaviors and have been independently associated with depressive symptoms. However, it is not clear whether it is the movement behavior itself or other contextual factors that are related to depressive symptoms. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between self-reported and accelerometer-measured movement behaviors and depressive symptoms in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 610 adolescents (14-18 years old) were used. Adolescents answered questions from the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale and reported time spent watching videos, playing videogames, using social media, time spent in various physical activities, and daytime sleepiness. Wrist-worn accelerometers were used to measure sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sedentary time, and physical activity. Mixed-effects logistic regressions were used. RESULTS: Almost half of the adolescents (48%) were classified as being at high risk for depression (score ≥ 20). No significant associations were found between depressive symptoms and accelerometer-measured movement behaviors, self-reported non-sport physical activity, watching videos, and playing videogames. However, higher levels of self-reported total physical activity (OR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.86-0.98) and volume of sports (OR = 0.88, 95%CI: 0.79-0.97), in minutes, were associated with a lower risk of depression, while using social media for either 2.0-3.9 h/day (OR = 1.77, 95%CI: 1.58-2.70) or ≥ 4 h/day (OR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.10-2.54), as well as higher levels of daytime sleepiness (OR = 1.17, 95%CI: 1.12-1.22), were associated with a higher risk of depression. CONCLUSIONS: What adolescents do when they are active or sedentary may be more important than the time spent in the movement behaviors because it relates to depressive symptoms. Targeting daytime sleepiness, promoting sports, and limiting social media use may benefit adolescents.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14219, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848185

RESUMO

We investigated whether intravenous iron supplementation improves fatigue and general health in non-anemic repeat adult blood donors with iron deficiency (ferritin ≤ 50 µg/L). Of 1,487 potentially eligible participants, 203 were randomly assigned to a single intravenous dose of 800 mg iron-carboxymaltose and 202 to placebo; 393 participants completed the trial. At 6 to 8 weeks after intervention, self-rated mean fatigue scores (numeric rating scale from 1-10, primary outcome) were 3.9 ± 1.8 in the iron supplementation group and 4.0 ± 2.2 in the placebo group, showing no group difference (p = 0.819). Pre-specified subgroup analyses of gender, ferritin < 25 µg/L and fatigue ≥ 4 points, as well as exploratory analyses of lower ferritin cut-offs did not reveal any between-group differences. In terms of secondary outcomes, the mean differences were 114.2 µg/L for ferritin (95% CI 103.1-125.3) and 5.7 g/L for hemoglobin (95% CI 4.3-7.2) with significantly higher values in the iron supplementation group. No group differences were observed for different measures of general well-being and other clinical and safety outcomes. Intravenous iron supplementation compared with placebo resulted in increase of ferritin and hemoglobin levels in repeat blood donors with low iron stores, yet had no effect on fatigue and general well-being.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(14): e015361, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646264

RESUMO

Background Loss to follow-up (LTFU) is common in randomized controlled trials. However, its potential impact on primary outcomes from cardiovascular randomized controlled trials is not known. Methods and Results We conducted a prospective systematic review (PROSPERO: CRD42019121959) for randomized controlled trials published in 8 leading journals over 5 years from January 2014 to December 2018. Extent, reporting, and handling of LTFU data were recorded, and the proportion of a trial's primary outcome results that lose statistical significance was calculated after making plausible assumptions for the intervention and control arms. These assumptions could drive differential treatment effects between the groups considering relative event incidence between LTFU participants and those included in the primary outcome. We identified 117 randomized controlled trials of which 91 (78%) trials reported LTFU, 23 (20%) reported no LTFU, and 3 (3%) trials did not report on whether LTFU occurred. The median percentage of study participants lost to follow-up was 2% (interquartile range, 0.33%-5.3%). Only 10 trials (9%) had a low cluster of risk factors for impairment in trial quality. The percentage of trials losing statistical significance varied from 2% when the relative event incidence for LTFU between the randomized groups was 1 for the intervention arm and 1.5 for the control arm to 16% when the relative event incidence was 3 for the intervention arm and 1 for the control arm. Conclusions Almost 1 in 6 (16%) cardiovascular randomized trials published in leading journals may have a change in the primary outcome if plausible assumptions are made about differential event rates of participants lost to follow up. There is scope for improvement arising from LTFU in randomized trials in cardiovascular medicine. Registration URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero; Unique identifier: CRD42019121959.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 41(27): 2556-2569, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666097

RESUMO

AIMS: The difference in the benefit of invasive cardiovascular interventions compared with placebo controls has not been analysed systematically. METHODS AND RESULTS: MEDLINE and Web of Science were searched through 29 March 2020. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of invasive cardiovascular interventions (including catheter-based interventions and pacemaker-like devices) investigating predefined primary outcomes were included. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and odds ratios were calculated for continuous and dichotomous outcomes, respectively. Meta-regression analyses were performed to assess whether estimates of treatment effects were associated with methodological characteristics of trials. Thirty trials, including 4102 patients, were analysed. The overall risk of bias was judged to be low in only 43% of the trials. Ten trials (33%) demonstrated statistically significant superiority of invasive interventions over placebo controls for the respective predefined primary outcomes. In almost half of the 16 trials investigating continuous predefined primary outcomes, the SMD between the active and placebo procedure indicated a small (n = 4) to moderate (n = 3) treatment effect of active treatment over placebo. In contrast, one trial indicated a small treatment effect in favour of the placebo procedure. In the remaining trials, there was no relevant treatment effect of active treatment over placebo. In trials with a protocol-mandated stable and symmetrical use of co-interventions, the superiority of active procedures vs. invasive placebo procedures was significantly larger as compared with trials with frequent or unbalanced changes in co-interventions (P for interaction 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: The additional treatment effect of invasive cardiovascular interventions compared with placebo controls was small in most trials.

5.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639521

RESUMO

Importance: Whether intervention should be performed in patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) remains debated. Objective: To meta-analyze the natural history of asymptomatic severe AS and examine the association of early intervention with survival. Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched from inception to February 1, 2020. Study Selection: Observational studies of adult patients with asymptomatic severe AS. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two investigators independently extracted study and patient characteristics, follow-up time, events, and prognostic indicators of events. Random-effects models were used to derive pooled estimates. Main Outcomes and Measures: The meta-analysis on natural history was performed on the primary end point of all-cause death occurring during a conservative treatment period, with secondary end points consisting of cardiac death, death due to heart failure, sudden death, development of symptoms, development of an indication for aortic valve intervention, and aortic valve intervention. The primary end point for the meta-analysis of early intervention vs a conservative strategy was all-cause death during long-term follow-up. Finally, meta-analysis was performed on the association of prognostic indicators with the composite of death or aortic valve intervention found in multivariable models. Results: A total of 29 studies with 4075 patients with 11 901 years of follow-up were included. Pooled rates per 100 patients per year were 4.8 (95% CI, 3.6-6.4) for all-cause death, 3.0 (95% CI, 2.2-4.1) for cardiac death, 2.0 (95% CI, 1.3-3.1) for death due to heart failure, 1.1 (95% CI, 0.6-2.1) for sudden death, 18.1 (95% CI, 12.8-25.4) for an indication for aortic valve intervention, 18.5 (95% CI, 13.4-25.5) for development of symptoms, and 19.2 (95% CI, 15.5-23.8) for aortic valve intervention. Early intervention was associated with a significant reduction in long-term mortality (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.25-0.58). Factors associated with worse prognosis were severity of AS, low-flow AS, left ventricular damage, and atherosclerotic risk factors. Conclusions and Relevance: Data from observational studies and a recent randomized clinical trial suggest that many patients with asymptomatic severe AS develop an indication for aortic valve intervention, and their deaths are mostly cardiac but not only sudden. Other end points besides sudden death should be considered during the decision to perform early intervention that are associated with improved survival.

6.
J Endod ; 2020 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668310

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of postoperative medications in decreasing pain after nonsurgical endodontic treatment using a network meta-analytic approach. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and Scopus were searched (until July 31, 2019). Two reviewers selected eligible randomized controlled trials and extracted and meta-analyzed data to estimate the treatment effects of pain assessed on a 0-100 scale (mean difference [MD]); 95% credible interval [CrI], and surface under the cumulative ranking curve [SUCRA]) at 6-8, 12, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively after the administration of various interventions. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was applied to eligible trials. The overall quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach obtained from the CINeMA Web application (University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland). RESULTS: Eight interventions among 11 studies were identified: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), NSAIDs + acetaminophen, NSAIDs + benzodiazepines, NSAIDs + opioids, corticosteroids, opioids, acetaminophen, and placebo. Compared with placebo, nonsurgical endodontic treatment pain 6-8 hours postoperatively improved with NSAIDs + acetaminophen (MD = -22; 95% CrI, -38 to -7.2; SUCRA = 73%; moderate confidence) and NSAIDs (MD = -21; 95% CrI, -34 to -7.6; SUCRA = 68%; very low confidence). At 12 and 24 hours, only NSAIDs were effective in decreasing postoperative pain. At 48 hours, no treatment resulted in significant pain reduction. Corticosteroids and opioids did not significantly decrease pain. No major safety concerns were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Very low- to moderate-quality evidence suggests that NSAIDs or NSAIDs + acetaminophen administered after nonsurgical endodontic treatment lead to a clinically relevant decrease in postoperative pain for patients with irreversible pulpitis or pulpal necrosis and are the most effective treatments available. Postoperative corticosteroids or opioids did not significantly decrease postoperative pain.

7.
N Engl J Med ; 383(3): 240-251, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury is common in critically ill patients, many of whom receive renal-replacement therapy. However, the most effective timing for the initiation of such therapy remains uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a multinational, randomized, controlled trial involving critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury. Patients were randomly assigned to receive an accelerated strategy of renal-replacement therapy (in which therapy was initiated within 12 hours after the patient had met eligibility criteria) or a standard strategy (in which renal-replacement therapy was discouraged unless conventional indications developed or acute kidney injury persisted for >72 hours). The primary outcome was death from any cause at 90 days. RESULTS: Of the 3019 patients who had undergone randomization, 2927 (97.0%) were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis (1465 in the accelerated-strategy group and 1462 in the standard-strategy group). Of these patients, renal-replacement therapy was performed in 1418 (96.8%) in the accelerated-strategy group and in 903 (61.8%) in the standard-strategy group. At 90 days, death had occurred in 643 patients (43.9%) in the accelerated-strategy group and in 639 (43.7%) in the standard-strategy group (relative risk, 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93 to 1.09; P = 0.92). Among survivors at 90 days, continued dependence on renal-replacement therapy was confirmed in 85 of 814 patients (10.4%) in the accelerated-strategy group and in 49 of 815 patients (6.0%) in the standard-strategy group (relative risk, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.43). Adverse events occurred in 346 of 1503 patients (23.0%) in the accelerated-strategy group and in 245 of 1489 patients (16.5%) in the standard-strategy group (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among critically ill patients with acute kidney injury, an accelerated renal-replacement strategy was not associated with a lower risk of death at 90 days than a standard strategy. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; STARRT-AKI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02568722.).


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Substituição Renal/efeitos adversos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(12): e014890, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529888

RESUMO

Background A cointervention in a randomized clinical trial (RCT) is medical care given in addition to the tested intervention. If cointerventions are unbalanced between trial arms, the results may be biased. We hypothesized that cointerventions would be more adequately reported in RCTs without full blinding or at risk of bias. Methods and Results To describe the reporting of cointerventions and to evaluate the factors associated with their reporting, we did a systematic search of all RCTs evaluating pharmacological interventions on cardiovascular outcomes published in 5 high-impact journals. The reporting of cointerventions, blinding, and risk of bias were extracted and evaluated independently by 2 reviewers (E.M., L.A.). Cointerventions were inadequately reported in 87 of 123 RCTs (70.7%), with 56 (45.5%) providing no information on cointerventions and 31 (25.2%) providing only partial information. Of the RCTs, 52 (42.3%) had inadequate blinding of participants and/or personnel and 63 (51.2%) of the RCTs were judged at risk of bias. In univariable analysis, the reporting of cointerventions was not associated with blinding of participants and/or personnel (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% CI, 0.47-2.27 for adequately versus inadequately blinded trials) or with risk of bias (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.67-3.21 for at low risk of bias versus trials at risk of bias). In multivariable analysis, only a follow-up of <1 month was associated with the adequate reporting of cointerventions (OR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.21-10.91). Conclusions More than two-thirds of recent major cardiovascular trials did not adequately report cointerventions. The quality of reporting was not better among trials that were not fully blinded or at risk for bias. Registration URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSP​ERO/. Unique identifier: CRD42018106771.

9.
JAMA ; 324(1): 57-67, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496521

RESUMO

Importance: Treatment with noninvasive oxygenation strategies such as noninvasive ventilation and high-flow nasal oxygen may be more effective than standard oxygen therapy alone in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Objective: To compare the association of noninvasive oxygenation strategies with mortality and endotracheal intubation in adults with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Data Sources: The following bibliographic databases were searched from inception until April 2020: MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, Web of Science, and LILACS. No limits were applied to language, publication year, sex, or race. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials enrolling adult participants with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure comparing high-flow nasal oxygen, face mask noninvasive ventilation, helmet noninvasive ventilation, or standard oxygen therapy. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two reviewers independently extracted individual study data and evaluated studies for risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Network meta-analyses using a bayesian framework to derive risk ratios (RRs) and risk differences along with 95% credible intervals (CrIs) were conducted. GRADE methodology was used to rate the certainty in findings. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality up to 90 days. A secondary outcome was endotracheal intubation up to 30 days. Results: Twenty-five randomized clinical trials (3804 participants) were included. Compared with standard oxygen, treatment with helmet noninvasive ventilation (RR, 0.40 [95% CrI, 0.24-0.63]; absolute risk difference, -0.19 [95% CrI, -0.37 to -0.09]; low certainty) and face mask noninvasive ventilation (RR, 0.83 [95% CrI, 0.68-0.99]; absolute risk difference, -0.06 [95% CrI, -0.15 to -0.01]; moderate certainty) were associated with a lower risk of mortality (21 studies [3370 patients]). Helmet noninvasive ventilation (RR, 0.26 [95% CrI, 0.14-0.46]; absolute risk difference, -0.32 [95% CrI, -0.60 to -0.16]; low certainty), face mask noninvasive ventilation (RR, 0.76 [95% CrI, 0.62-0.90]; absolute risk difference, -0.12 [95% CrI, -0.25 to -0.05]; moderate certainty) and high-flow nasal oxygen (RR, 0.76 [95% CrI, 0.55-0.99]; absolute risk difference, -0.11 [95% CrI, -0.27 to -0.01]; moderate certainty) were associated with lower risk of endotracheal intubation (25 studies [3804 patients]). The risk of bias due to lack of blinding for intubation was deemed high. Conclusions and Relevance: In this network meta-analysis of trials of adult patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, treatment with noninvasive oxygenation strategies compared with standard oxygen therapy was associated with lower risk of death. Further research is needed to better understand the relative benefits of each strategy.

10.
CMAJ ; 192(21): E566-E573, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether seasonal changes, school closures or other public health interventions will result in a slowdown of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We aimed to determine whether epidemic growth is globally associated with climate or public health interventions intended to reduce transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of all 144 geopolitical areas worldwide (375 609 cases) with at least 10 COVID-19 cases and local transmission by Mar. 20, 2020, excluding China, South Korea, Iran and Italy. Using weighted random-effects regression, we determined the association between epidemic growth (expressed as ratios of rate ratios [RRR] comparing cumulative counts of COVID-19 cases on Mar. 27, 2020, with cumulative counts on Mar. 20, 2020) and latitude, temperature, humidity, school closures, restrictions of mass gatherings, and measures of social distancing during an exposure period 14 days previously (Mar. 7 to 13, 2020). RESULTS: In univariate analyses, there were no associations of epidemic growth with latitude and temperature, but weak negative associations with relative humidity (RRR per 10% 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-0.96) and absolute humidity (RRR per 5 g/m3 0.92, 95% CI 0.85-0.99). Strong associations were found for restrictions of mass gatherings (RRR 0.65, 95% CI 0.53-0.79), school closures (RRR 0.63, 95% CI 0.52-0.78) and measures of social distancing (RRR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45-0.85). In a multivariable model, there was a strong association with the number of implemented public health interventions (p for trend = 0.001), whereas the association with absolute humidity was no longer significant. INTERPRETATION: Epidemic growth of COVID-19 was not associated with latitude and temperature, but may be associated weakly with relative or absolute humidity. Conversely, public health interventions were strongly associated with reduced epidemic growth.

11.
JAMA ; 323(18): 1802-1812, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396180

RESUMO

Importance: Individually calibrated biomechanical footwear therapy may improve pain and physical function in people with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, but the benefits of this therapy are unclear. Objective: To assess the effect of a biomechanical footwear therapy vs control footwear over 24 weeks of follow-up. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial conducted at a Swiss university hospital. Participants (N = 220) with symptomatic, radiologically confirmed knee osteoarthritis were recruited between April 20, 2015, and January 10, 2017. The last participant visit occurred on August 15, 2017. Interventions: Participants were randomized to biomechanical footwear involving shoes with individually adjustable external convex pods attached to the outsole (n = 111) or to control footwear (n = 109) that had visible outsole pods that were not adjustable and did not create a convex walking surface. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was knee pain at 24 weeks of follow-up assessed with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscore standardized to range from 0 (no symptoms) to 10 (extreme symptoms). The secondary outcomes included WOMAC physical function and stiffness subscores and the WOMAC global score, all ranging from 0 (no symptoms) to 10 (extreme symptoms) at 24 weeks of follow-up, and serious adverse events. Results: Among the 220 randomized participants (mean age, 65.2 years [SD, 9.3 years]; 104 women [47.3%]), 219 received the allocated treatment and 213 (96.8%) completed follow-up. At 24 weeks of follow-up, the mean standardized WOMAC pain subscore improved from 4.3 to 1.3 in the biomechanical footwear group and from 4.0 to 2.6 in the control footwear group (between-group difference in scores at 24 weeks of follow-up, -1.3 [95% CI, -1.8 to -0.9]; P < .001). The results were consistent for WOMAC physical function subscore (between-group difference, -1.1 [95% CI, -1.5 to -0.7]), WOMAC stiffness subscore (between-group difference, -1.4 [95% CI, -1.9 to -0.9]), and WOMAC global score (between-group difference, -1.2 [95% CI, -1.6 to -0.8]) at 24 weeks of follow-up. Three serious adverse events occurred in the biomechanical footwear group compared with 9 in the control footwear group (2.7% vs 8.3%, respectively); none were related to treatment. Conclusions and Relevance: Among participants with knee pain from osteoarthritis, use of biomechanical footwear compared with control footwear resulted in an improvement in pain at 24 weeks of follow-up that was statistically significant but of uncertain clinical importance. Further research would be needed to assess long-term efficacy and safety, as well as replication, before reaching conclusions about the clinical value of this device. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02363712.


Assuntos
Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Manejo da Dor/instrumentação , Sapatos , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Engenharia Biomédica , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/complicações , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Dor/etiologia , Medição da Dor , Qualidade de Vida , Sapatos/efeitos adversos
12.
CMAJ ; 192(21): E566-E573, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether seasonal changes, school closures or other public health interventions will result in a slowdown of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We aimed to determine whether epidemic growth is globally associated with climate or public health interventions intended to reduce transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of all 144 geopolitical areas worldwide (375 609 cases) with at least 10 COVID-19 cases and local transmission by Mar. 20, 2020, excluding China, South Korea, Iran and Italy. Using weighted random-effects regression, we determined the association between epidemic growth (expressed as ratios of rate ratios [RRR] comparing cumulative counts of COVID-19 cases on Mar. 27, 2020, with cumulative counts on Mar. 20, 2020) and latitude, temperature, humidity, school closures, restrictions of mass gatherings, and measures of social distancing during an exposure period 14 days previously (Mar. 7 to 13, 2020). RESULTS: In univariate analyses, there were no associations of epidemic growth with latitude and temperature, but weak negative associations with relative humidity (RRR per 10% 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-0.96) and absolute humidity (RRR per 5 g/m3 0.92, 95% CI 0.85-0.99). Strong associations were found for restrictions of mass gatherings (RRR 0.65, 95% CI 0.53-0.79), school closures (RRR 0.63, 95% CI 0.52-0.78) and measures of social distancing (RRR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45-0.85). In a multivariable model, there was a strong association with the number of implemented public health interventions (p for trend = 0.001), whereas the association with absolute humidity was no longer significant. INTERPRETATION: Epidemic growth of COVID-19 was not associated with latitude and temperature, but may be associated weakly with relative or absolute humidity. Conversely, public health interventions were strongly associated with reduced epidemic growth.


Assuntos
Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Saúde Global , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 95, 2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure is one of the leading causes of intensive care unit admission and is associated with high mortality. Noninvasive oxygenation strategies such as high-flow nasal cannula, standard oxygen therapy, and noninvasive ventilation (delivered by either face mask or helmet interface) are widely available interventions applied in these patients. It remains unclear which of these interventions are more effective in decreasing rates of invasive mechanical ventilation and mortality. The primary objective of this network meta-analysis is to summarize the evidence and compare the effect of noninvasive oxygenation strategies on mortality and need for invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. METHODS: We will search key databases for randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of noninvasive oxygenation strategies in adult patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. We will exclude studies in which the primary focus is either acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. The primary outcome will be all-cause mortality (longest available up to 90 days). The secondary outcomes will be receipt of invasive mechanical ventilation (longest available up to 30 days). We will assess the risk of bias for each of the outcomes using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Bayesian network meta-analyses will be conducted to obtain pooled estimates of head-to-head comparisons. We will report pairwise and network meta-analysis treatment effect estimates as risk ratios and 95% credible intervals. Subgroup analyses will be conducted examining key populations including immunocompromised hosts. Sensitivity analyses will be conducted by excluding those studies with high risk of bias and different etiologies of acute respiratory failure. We will assess certainty in effect estimates using GRADE methodology. DISCUSSION: This study will help to guide clinical decision-making when caring for adult patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and improve our understanding of the limitations of the available literature assessing noninvasive oxygenation strategies in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019121755.

14.
BMJ ; 369: m696, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative effectiveness of dietary macronutrient patterns and popular named diet programmes for weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor improvement among adults who are overweight or obese. DESIGN: Systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised trials. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, and CENTRAL from database inception until September 2018, reference lists of eligible trials, and related reviews. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised trials that enrolled adults (≥18 years) who were overweight (body mass index 25-29) or obese (≥30) to a popular named diet or an alternative diet. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Change in body weight, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and C reactive protein at the six and 12 month follow-up. REVIEW METHODS: Two reviewers independently extracted data on study participants, interventions, and outcomes and assessed risk of bias, and the certainty of evidence using the GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation) approach. A bayesian framework informed a series of random effects network meta-analyses to estimate the relative effectiveness of the diets. RESULTS: 121 eligible trials with 21 942 patients were included and reported on 14 named diets and three control diets. Compared with usual diet, low carbohydrate and low fat diets had a similar effect at six months on weight loss (4.63 v 4.37 kg, both moderate certainty) and reduction in systolic blood pressure (5.14 mm Hg, moderate certainty v 5.05 mm Hg, low certainty) and diastolic blood pressure (3.21 v 2.85 mm Hg, both low certainty). Moderate macronutrient diets resulted in slightly less weight loss and blood pressure reductions. Low carbohydrate diets had less effect than low fat diets and moderate macronutrient diets on reduction in LDL cholesterol (1.01 mg/dL, low certainty v 7.08 mg/dL, moderate certainty v 5.22 mg/dL, moderate certainty, respectively) but an increase in HDL cholesterol (2.31 mg/dL, low certainty), whereas low fat (-1.88 mg/dL, moderate certainty) and moderate macronutrient (-0.89 mg/dL, moderate certainty) did not. Among popular named diets, those with the largest effect on weight reduction and blood pressure in comparison with usual diet were Atkins (weight 5.5 kg, systolic blood pressure 5.1 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure 3.3 mm Hg), DASH (3.6 kg, 4.7 mm Hg, 2.9 mm Hg, respectively), and Zone (4.1 kg, 3.5 mm Hg, 2.3 mm Hg, respectively) at six months (all moderate certainty). No diets significantly improved levels of HDL cholesterol or C reactive protein at six months. Overall, weight loss diminished at 12 months among all macronutrient patterns and popular named diets, while the benefits for cardiovascular risk factors of all interventions, except the Mediterranean diet, essentially disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate certainty evidence shows that most macronutrient diets, over six months, result in modest weight loss and substantial improvements in cardiovascular risk factors, particularly blood pressure. At 12 months the effects on weight reduction and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors largely disappear. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42015027929.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Mediterrânea , Nutrientes , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Perda de Peso
15.
J Mol Biol ; 432(10): 3353-3359, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222384

RESUMO

Here, we describe the crystal structures of two distinct isoforms of ligand-free human karyopherin RanBP5 and investigate its global propensity to interact with influenza A virus polymerase. Our results confirm the general architecture and mechanism of the IMB3 karyopherin-ß subfamily whilst also highlighting differences with the yeast orthologue Kap121p. Moreover, our results provide insight into the structural flexibility of ß-importins in the unbound state. Based on docking of a nuclear localisation sequence, point mutations were designed, which suppress influenza PA-PB1 subcomplex binding to RanBP5 in a binary protein complementation assay.

16.
Am J Med ; 133(7): 848-856.e5, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with heart failure, but only small trials assessed whether treatment with levothyroxine has an impact on cardiac function. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, trial nested within the TRUST trial, Swiss participants ages ≥65 years with subclinical hypothyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] 4.60-19.99 mIU/L; free thyroxine level within reference range) were randomized to levothyroxine (starting dose of 50 µg daily) to achieve TSH normalization or placebo. The primary outcomes were the left ventricular ejection fraction for systolic function and the ratio between mitral peak velocity of early filling to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/e' ratio) for diastolic function. Secondary outcomes included e' lateral/septal, left atrial volume index, and systolic pulmonary artery pressure. RESULTS: A total of 185 participants (mean age 74.1 years, 47% women) underwent echocardiography at the end of the trial. After a median treatment duration of 18.4 months, the mean TSH decreased from 6.35 mIU/L to 3.55 mIU/L with levothyroxine (n = 96), and it remained elevated at 5.29 mIU/L with placebo (n = 89). The adjusted between-group difference was not significant for the mean left ventricular ejection fraction (62.7% vs 62.5%, difference = 0.4%, 95% confidence interval -1.8% to 2.5%, P = 0.72) and the E/e' ratio (10.6 vs 10.1, difference 0.4, 95% confidence interval -0.7 to 1.4, P = 0.47). No differences were found for the secondary diastolic function parameters or for interaction according to sex, baseline TSH, preexisting heart failure, and treatment duration (P value >0.05). CONCLUSION: Systolic and diastolic heart function did not differ after treatment with levothyroxine compared with placebo in older adults with mild subclinical hypothyroidism.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Tiroxina/administração & dosagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Diástole , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Sístole , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
17.
Biotechnol Lett ; 42(4): 571-582, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Major lignocellulosic inhibitory compounds found in sugarcane-based industrial hydrolysate samples were tested in laboratory and industrial yeast strains, as well as in lactic acid bacteria, in order to verify their effects on important physiological parameters. RESULTS: Saccharomyces cereviaise SA-1, an industrial strain, stood out as compared to the remaining strains for virtually all inhibitors investigated. This strain presented the highest growth rate and the lowest lag-phase in the presence of acetic acid, levulinic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and HMF, when compared to the other strains. In sugarcane-based hydrolysate fermentations, both SA-1 and CEN.PK113-7D presented similar fermentation performances. Industrial isolates of contaminating lactic acid bacteria were evaluated in the presence of an inhibitory cocktail, containing a mixture of 76.6 mM acetic acid, 1.3 mM HMF, 7.1 mM furfural, and 1.9 mM p-coumaric acid. Whilst all yeast strains were unable to grow under such conditions, bacteria had an average inhibition of roughly 50% on their growth rates. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, industrial strain SA-1 might be a promising microbial chassis for second generation ethanol production and for future metabolic and evolutionary engineering strategies, and for strain robustness understanding.

18.
J Sci Med Sport ; 23(5): 487-492, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the association of clusters of screen time (ST) behaviours with waist circumference (WC) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 574 adolescents (53% girls, 13 years), conducted in 2017. METHODS: Waist circumference was measured, a shuttle run was performed to assess CRF, and a questionnaire was applied. Sex, age, socioeconomic status was reported, and daily duration of ST indicators for television viewing, computer use, videogame playing, and cellphone use, in weekdays and weekend days. Latent class analysis was performed to identify typologies of ST behaviours. Mixed-effects linear regressions were used to test the association of ST clusters with WC and CRF. RESULTS: Participants' WC was 66.9±8cm and CRF was 39.5±4mlO2/kg/min. Four clusters were identified: "Low ST" (25%); "High ST" (20%); "Gamers" (17%); and "High cellphone" (39%). No significant associations were found between ST clusters and WC. Maximum oxygen uptake was higher in those in the "Low ST" cluster compared to the other clusters. No significant interactions for sex were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Typologies of ST behaviours do not seem to be related to WC; however, those in the Low ST cluster had higher CRF compared to their peers in the other clusters, suggesting that total ST may be more important for CRF than specific indicators.

19.
Pediatr Exerc Sci ; 32(1): 30-35, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584870

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sedentary behavior (SB) has been shown to be associated with unhealthy outcomes in children, and it is not clear whether children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) engage in different patterns of SB compared with healthy children. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare patterns of SB between children living with HIV and a healthy control group. METHODS: A group of children with HIV and a paired control group wore accelerometers for 1 week and answered a questionnaire with items related to television viewing habits and computer usage. Accelerometer-derived and self-reported SB were compared between children living with HIV and controls and between treatment-based and viral load subgroups. RESULTS: A total of 130 children (of which 53% are girls with a mean age of 12.1 y) participated in the study with 65 in each group. Children in the control group exhibited significantly more objectively measured SB daily when compared with the HIV group (515 vs 490 min/d, respectively), but no differences were found between the treatment-based and viral load subgroups. Children with HIV watched more television on weekdays, compared with the control group (P < .05). No other differences were found in comparisons of self-reported SB between the control and HIV and the treatment-based or viral load subgroups. CONCLUSION: Children living with HIV spend less time being sedentary than those in the healthy control group. Future studies are important for clarifying the causes and consequences of these differences.

20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(2): 266-279, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of children in North America consume cow-milk daily. Children aged >2 y are recommended to consume reduced-fat (0.1-2%) cow-milk to lower the risk of obesity. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relation between cow-milk fat consumption and adiposity in children aged 1-18 y. METHODS: Embase (Excerpta Medica Database), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to August 2019 were used. The search included observational and interventional studies of healthy children aged 1-18 y that described the association between cow-milk fat consumption and adiposity. Two reviewers extracted data, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess risk of bias. Meta-analysis was conducted using random effects to evaluate the relation between cow-milk fat and risk of overweight or obesity. Adiposity was assessed using BMI z-score (zBMI). RESULTS: Of 5862 reports identified by the search, 28 met the inclusion criteria: 20 were cross-sectional and 8 were prospective cohort. No clinical trials were identified. In 18 studies, higher cow-milk fat consumption was associated with lower child adiposity, and 10 studies did not identify an association. Meta-analysis included 14 of the 28 studies (n = 20,897) that measured the proportion of children who consumed whole milk compared with reduced-fat milk and direct measures of overweight or obesity. Among children who consumed whole (3.25% fat) compared with reduced-fat (0.1-2%) milk, the OR of overweight or obesity was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.52, 0.72; P < 0.0001), but heterogeneity between studies was high (I2 = 73.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Observational research suggests that higher cow-milk fat intake is associated with lower childhood adiposity. International guidelines that recommend reduced-fat milk for children might not lower the risk of childhood obesity. Randomized trials are needed to determine which cow-milk fat minimizes risk of excess adiposity. This systematic review and meta-analysis was registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42018085075).


Assuntos
Dieta , Leite/química , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Humanos
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